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Full text of "Topography of Great Britain or, British traveller's pocket directory : being an accurate and comprehensive topographical and statistical description of all the counties in England, Scotland and Wales, with the adjacent islands : illustrated with maps of the counties, which form a complete British atlas"

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iHteat Mvitai% 




















Printed, by Assignment from the Executors of the late C. Cooke, 









Containing an Account of its 












Natural History 



Civil and Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, &c. 

To which are prefixed. 

The Direct and Principal Cross Roads^ Distaticc ofStaffes, 

InnSy and Nohleraen and Gentlemen s Seats: 



And an Index Table, 

Exhibiting, at one View, the Distances of all the Towns from 
London, and of Towns from each other: 

The whole forming 



Illusti^ted with 

Maps of the respective Ridings , and Eight Picturesque 


Printed, by Assignment from the Executors of the late C. Cooke, 




li. M'Millan, Printer. 
Bow-Street, Covent-Gavdcn. 

A Ti 




S2!le3t KiDittg of pork$i}ire; 

Their Distance from London, Markets, Houses, and Inhabitants r=^ 
with the Time of the Arrival and Departure of the Post. 













Huddersfield . . . 



Leeds ... ., 




Sedbergh .., 



Sheffield .. 
Sherburn .. 



Tadcaster .. 


TickhiU .. 
Wakefield . 











Tu. Sat. 





Tu. Sat. 




















12| m. 
4f aft. 

7 m. 
llf m. 


6 aft. 

41 m. 
84 ra. 

7 m. 

9 aft. 

7 m. 

10 aft. 

6 m. 

9 m. 

9l aft. 

2 aft. 

6 m. 
9 m. 

10 aft. 

7 m. 

2 m. 
Hi aft 

12 ni. 

The rate uf p05tay,e for 

single letter, varies trom yd. 
out this Riding. 

to lid. through 




Botth ann Ca^t lRmn0 of porfeg^ice ; 

Their Distance from London, Markets, Houses, and Inhabitants ; 
with the Time of the Arrival and Departure of the Post. 





















7 m. 
4i m. 

5 aft. 



Bridlington ... 





9 m. 


Cave, South .. 





7 m. 

4 aft. 

Driffield, Great 





8 m. 

2 aft. 

Easingwold . . . 







Gisborough ... 





9 m. 

1 aft. 













3 aft. 











8 m. 

3 aft. 




Tu. Fr. 





6 m. 

3^ aft. 


Kirk by-moor-side 

Ley burn 






Market Weighton 





3 m. 







Middleham . . . 





New Malton ... 





3| m. 
4|; m. 

6| aft. 

North Allerton 





6 aft. 












5i aft. 

Pocklington . . . 





7 m. 

5 aft. 







7 m. 


4 aft. 

Scarborough ... 


Tu. Sat. 



7^ m. 

2i aft. 






9 m, 

2^ aft. 






6 aft. 


11 m. 






7i m. 

3i aft. 

The price of postage for a single letter, varies from lOd. to lid. through- 
out these Ridings. 

( 5 ) 


In the West Riding of YorMiire. 

The Names of the respective Towns are on the top and side, and 
the square where both meet, gives the distance. 

rt<0'0-JDJ>-(Nf^C5i— 'NfO'2^-1?' 

'O QC re CO r-H S t^ -O «- 

; yr c t^ O 00 -^ O 

fci. : '^ 

5 „ t£ V "O -r- X c: X -* i?: --£ -"I" 

'^ o_Ci X-rC£>-^Xf^i-'i-*iN — 

c c. ■?» « ^ I 

' ^ 0» « --i T» 

X p c >-H (M fo i?< -^ fO '-' ' 


; tC ' 

- X f^ ?» ^ 

: — — cr. -r -N rt 
-?» ^^ ro c: r^i— 

&" 2 ;2 S o o» lo t^ rr cJ c; o >c cc -r r; o -r — •-•; '_£ 
: ^ e ^ Q 'O ^ fTT c^ c< o T <ri 1^ »^ X c .-7 .-: c. o q I-- 

^; t^ cr. ?i X -n" ■^ o T. 

c^ e< ?> (N 

o t^ »>• 'C c^ 

123 t^ « X T c; ■ 















25^5 2 



















« O ; ;^ ; 

S. : 

B S 

( 6 ) 


O 5 

fa o 



Corn and cattle of all 

Coal in abundance. 

Woollen, cotton, and iron 





"Sf 3 






p. B 







10 Members, 
2 for Aldborougb. 
2 for Boroughbridge. 
2 for Knaresborough, 
2 for Pontefract. 
2 for Ripon. 


24.50 square miles. 

1,568,000 statute 

653,315 inhabi- 

9 wapentakes, or 

28 market-towns. 


In length, from 
north-west to 
south-east, 95 

In breadth 48 





To the north, by the North 
Riding, the river Ouse, mak- 
ing part of the division. 

To the east, by the Ainsty 
Liberty, and by the East Ricf- 
ing; the rivers Wharfe and 
Ouse being the limits;— and 
also by the counties of Lin- 
coln and Nottingham. 

To tlie south, by Derby- 
shire and Cheshire. 

To the west, by Lancashire 
and Westmoreland. 

7 ) 

In the North and East Ridings of Yorkshire. 
The Names of the respective Towns are on the top and side, and 

the square where both meet, give the distance. 

09 • 
'■9 '. 

i r; w >- C i TT t^ O '.C t>- 

I r^ <-- TT t^ v.-: u ■^ t^ o 

X c: sc X — c -- ■ 

^^ TTi— r<; :i ,- O ' 

• • _ 1^ ^ ■§ 5 c. u~ c C ■;:• X c. X S-. 


: : : :^^^ 


; ; ;.S5s;cj-Trr^©>^'jrx^2o;;so^c5L'>o-;js2;;;c;>-': 
■ J s! ;; Lf c ci c- -! X . ■ " ■ 

— Z ^ <X, Q* i^ -rr -rr '-O ■ 

^^ c; cj 'J -^ -q- (^ >- -^ ?< y; g) tc >- X f. cs i-t 'O t^ 
•r :£ cr, cc r-. t^ C C O C — <- X t^ t^ t^ X 'O L-; X c» cc (N C 
r; ^ ',C M t^ cc (?* T? X CJ >-'^ t- C< vT' ~; c — --o rt — 'C rt 

c c5 X -c- -c c ■<? t^ a 


t- <?} jz c^. -^-j^ j:. ' 

t^ L- '-C C^ -N O X 

. il. fee. 

•^='•11 ill? I slll-fl^^lJIJI^ i 



o c 

Lead, coals, 
and alum. 

The coarse 
linen manu- 

The manu. 
factory of car- 
pets, and cot- 






16 Members, 


2 for Beverley. 
2 Headon. 
2 Hull. 
2 Malton 
2 Nortli Allerton. 
2 Richmond. 
2 Scarborough. 
2 Tliirsk. 





The North Rid- 
ing is divided into 
12 wapentakes, or 
hundreds; the East 
Riding into four; 
and contain toge- 
ther 34 market- 






The North Riding extends 
83 miles from east to west, and 
contains 1,311,187 acres, of 
which 442,565 are unculti- 

The East Riding compre- 
hends the whole south-east 
portion of lire county, having 
a sea-coast extending 150 
miles, from the Humber to 
the North Riding. Its length, 
on a medium, extends 40, and 
its breadth 32 miles. It con- 
tains 819,200 acres. 


The North Riding is bound- 
ed on the north by Durham, 
and on the northeast by the 
German Sea; on the south-east 

Iby the East Riding ; on the 
south-west by the West Rid- 
ing and the Ainsty or Liberty 
of the City of York, and on the 
west by Westmoreland. 
The East Riding is bounded 
on the north-west and nortli 
by the North Riding ; on tiie 
north-east and east by the 
German Sea ; on the south by 
the river Humber, and on the 
west by the West Riding. 










Aboford — First Mond. in April, in May, and in 
Oct. and after St. Luke's, and after Ail Soul'b. Cat- 
tle, sheep, and pedlary. 

Adwalton — Feb. 6, March 9, Thursday in Easter 
week, Thursday fortnight after Euster, Thursday 
month after Easter, Whit.-Thursday, and every 
Thursday fortnight after till Michaelmas, horses, 
sheep, pedlary, and tin-ware. 

Barnsley — Wednesday before 28 Feb., horned cattle 
and swine; May 12, ditto; Oct. 10, ditto, horses 
and cheese. 

Bawtry — Whit.-Thursday, Old Martinmas Nov. 22, 
cattle and horses. 

Bingley — January 25, horned cattle; Aug. 25, 26, 
and 27, horned cattle, sheep, and linen. 

Black Burton — Whit.-Mond., horned cattle. 

Bradfield — June 17, Dec. 9, chiefly for swine. 

Bradford — March 3 and 4, horned cattle, and house- 
. hold furniture; June 17, 13, 19, ditto, sheep and 
ditto; Dec. 9, 10, 11, hogs -and pedlary. 

Borougkbridge — April 27, horned cattie, and sheep; 
June 22, do. horses and do. hardware; Oct. 2'5, 
horned cattle and sheep. 

Cazcood — May 12, cattle and wooden ware. 

Clapham — St. Matthew, Sept. 21, sheep. 

Dezcsbury — Wednesday before May 12, Wednesday 

before Oct. 10, horned cattle and sheep. 
Doncastcr—A^xW 5, Aug. 5, Nov. 20, and Monday 


before Old Candienius day, Feb. 13, horses, cattle, 
sheep, and pedlary. 

Gargrave — Dec. 1 1 and 29, horned cattle, and toys. 

Grassington — March 4, horned cattle; April 24, June 
29, sheep; Sept. 26, horned cattle. 

Gisburn — Easter Monday, Monday fortnight after 
Easter, Saturday after Monday month from Easter, 
horned cattle; Monday five weeks after Easter, 
pedlary; Sept. 18 and 19, horned cattle and pedlary. 

Halifax— 3 nne 24, horses. 

Harewood — Last Saturday in April, and second Mon- 
day in Oct. 

Haworth — July 22, pedlary; Oct. 14, horned cattle, 
and pedlary. 

llolmsfirth — Oct. 30, horned cattle. 

Huddersfield— March 31, May 14, Oct. 4, lean horned 
cattle, and horses. 

Ingleton — Nov. 17, leather and oatmeal. 

Keighlei/'— May 8, horned cattle, brass, and pewter; 
Nov. 8, horned cattle, brass, pewter, and pedlary. 

Knaresborough — Wednesday after Jan. 13, Thursday, 
sheep ; Wednesday after March 12, next day, 
sheep; May 6 and 7, sheep; Wednesday after 
August 12, Tuesday and Wednesday after Oct. 10, 
and Wednesday after Nov. 22, statute; Wednesday 
and Thursday after Dec. 10, every Wednesday fort- 
night, cattle. 

Leyburn — Second Friday in Feb., second Friday in 
May, second Friday in Oct., second Friday in Dec, 
honied cattle and sheep., 

Long Prest07i — Leap Year, March 1, or Feb. 28, 
Sept. 29, cattle. 

Malham — June 25, Oct. 4, sheep. 

Northourum — ^Sept. 21, cattle. 

Otley — Wednesday in Easter week, every fortnight 

LI51' OF I AIRS. 11 

till Whil-Siinday, and then every three weeks. 
horned cattle, household goods; Friday before Nov. 
22, statute. 

Penniston — Thursday before Feb. 28, last Thursday 
in March, Thursday before old May-day, May 12, 
Thursday after Old Michaelmas day, Oct. 10, sheep, 
horned cattle, and horses. 

Pontefract — St. Andrew's fair on the first Saturday in 
Dec; Twenty days fair the first Saturday after the 
20th day from Christmas; Candlemas fair, the first 
Saturday after Feb. 13; St. Giles's fair, the first 
Saturday after Sept. 12, April 8, and May 4, cat- 
tle and sheep, &c.; all tlie other moveable fairs, 
viz. Palm-Sunday, Low Sunday, May 4, and Trinity 
Sunday, to be held on the Saturday before eacli of 
those days respectively. The fortnight fairs will 
always be held on the Saturday next after York 
fortnight fairs as usual. The sliow for horses, for- 
merly called Palm-Sunday show, will always for the 
future begin on the 5th Feb. cattle, sheep, &c. 

Bipley — Easter Monday, horned cattle, and hoi-ses; 
Easter Tuesday, sheep; August 25, 26, 27, sheep, 
horned cattle and linen. 

Ripon — Thursday after Jan. 13, horses, horned cattle 
and leather; May 12, 13, horses, and sheep: first 
Thursday in June, horned cattle, horses, leather, 
and sheep; first Thursday after August 22, Novem- 
ber 22, horses and sheep; every other Thursday, 
cattle, and sheep. 

Rotherham — Whit.-Monda^, horned cattle, and sheep; 
Dec. 1, cattle and horses; every Monday, cattle, 
and sheep. 

Sedbergh—M^rch 10, Oct. 29, horned cattle. 
.Se%— Easter Tuesday, June 29, Oct. 10, cattle, 
wool, linen, tin, and copper-ware. 

Se/Z/e— Tuesday before Palm-Sunday, Thursday be- 
fore Good-Friday, and every other Friday till 
Whit-Sunday, horned cattle; April 26, sheep; 

12 LIST OF FA]1{<». 

June 2, and every Monday fortnight, cattle, and 
sheep; August 13 to 21, first Tuesday after Oct. 
27, horned cattle, leather, wool, sheep, iambs, &c. 

Sheffield — Tuesday after Trinity Sunday, Nov. 28, 

cattle and horses. 
Sherburn — Oct. 6, Flax and horses. 

Skipton—^l^vch 25, horned cattle and sheep; Palm- 
Sunday Eve, horses; Easter-Eve, cattle and sheep; 
first and third Tuesday after Easter, horned cattle ; 
Whitsun-Eve, linen cloth, and mercery; August 5, 
horses, and cloth; November- 20, horned cattle; 
November 22, horses, broad-cloth, and pedlary. 

Slaidbur?i—¥eh. 14, April 15, Aug. l,Oct. 20, cattle. 

Snaith — Last Thursday in April, August 10, cattle, 
horses, and pedlary; first Friday in Sept. cattle. 

Stamford Bridge — Dec. 1, horses, horned cattle, 
sheep, brass, pewter, hard-ware, and woollen-cloth. 

Tadcaster — Last Wednesday in April, May, and Oct. 
sheep and cattle. 

Thome — First Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, 
after June 11, and also the said days after Octo- 
ber 11, horned cattle, horses, and pedlary. 

Wakefield — July 4, and 5, horses, and hardware; 
November 11, 12. If either of these days fall on 
a Sunday, the fair is held the Saturday before, 
horses, and horned cattle; Note, July 5 and Nov. 
12, are pleasure fairs, for toys, &c. 

Wetherhy — Holy Thursday, August 5, Oct. 10, Thurs- 
day before Nov. 22, statute, and horses, sheep, 
and hogs. 

Whitgift—i\i\sj 22, pedlary. 

ForA:— Whit.-Monday, July 10, August 12, Nov. 22, 
and principal markets, every other Thursday in the 
year, sheep; the half yciir show for horses; the 
summer show on 3Ionday in York race week; the 
winter show on Monday Dec. 17, the first whole 
week before Christmas, horses. 




Adwalton — Feb. 6, March 9; Thursday in Easter 
week; Thursday fortnight after Easter; Thursday 
month after Easter; Whit-Thursday and every 
Thursday fortnight after, till Michaehiias; horses, 
sheep, pedlary, and tin-ware. 

Aldborough — Sept. 4. 

Appletreickk^Oct. 25 and 27, cattle, and horses. 

Askrigg — May 10, horned cattle; May 17, and first 
Thursday in June, woollen cloth, pewter, brass, 
and milliner's goods; Oct. 28, horned cattle; Oct. 
29, woollen, &c. 

Astwick — Thursday before Whit.-Sunday, horned cat- 
Barns Burton — May 14, horses, sheep, and beasts. 

Bedale — Easter-Tuesday, Whit.-Tuesday, July 5 and 6, 
horned castle, horses, leather, pewter, brass, tin, 
millinery, and sheep; Oct. 10, 11, horned cattle, 
sheep, hogs, and leather; Tuesday se'nnight before 
Christmas, do. cattle and sheep» 

Bentham — June 24, cattle. 

Beverley — Thursday before old Valentine, Feb. 25, 
April 5, Wednesday before May 12, Holy Thurs- 
day, July 5, Sept. 14, Nov. 5, and Wednesday after 
Dec. 25, beasts, horses, and sheep. 

Bolton — June 28, cattle and pedlary. 

Brandesburton — May 14. 

Brawby — First Monday after July 11, cattlf, toys, 



Bridlington — Monday before Whitsuntide, Oct. 21, 

linen-clotli and toys. 
Brumpton — Nov. 12, swine, and a few horses. 
CoxzLoId — August 25, horned cattle, sheep, hnen and 

woollen cloth, pewter, and hardware. 
Easingwold — July 5, Sept. 25, horned cattle, horses, 

sheep, linen, and woollen cloth. 
Eg ton — Tuesday before Feb. 15, Tuesday before 

May 11, Sept. 4, Tuesday before Nov. 22, horned 

cattle, boots and shoes. 

Frodlingham — July 10, Oct. 2, toys and pedlary. 

Gisborough — Third Monday and Tuesday after /ipril 
11, linen cloth and horned cattle; Tuesday in Whit- 
sun-week, horned cattle, and linen; August 26, 
linen, and cattle; August 27, Sept. 19, oq^ and 
first Monday after Nov. 11, horned cattle. 

Grinton — Good Friday, St. Thomas's Day, Dec. 21, 
cloth, brass, pewter, tin, and millinery. 

Howes — Whit.-Tucsday, woollen, &:c.; Sept. 28, ditto 
horned cattle, horses, &c. 

Headon — Every fortnight from Shrove Monday to 
Midsummer, Feb. 11, August 2, Sept. 22, Nov. 17, 
Dec. 6, pewter, tin, leather wares, and milhnery 

Helinsle^ Blackmoor — May 19, July 16, Oct. 2, 
Nov. 6, horned cattle, sheep, horses, linen and 
woollen cloth. 

Harnsej/ — August 13, Dec. 17, liorses and beasts, 

Hozcden — Second Tuesday after Jan. 11, April 5, 
Saturday before Holy Thursday, second Tuesday 
after July 11. Oct. 2, horses, cattle, and linen. 

Hull— Ji\]y 10, Oct. 10, and Dec. 10, the first and 
last for six days each, for horses and toys. 

Hunmanhy — May 6, Oct. 29, toys. 

Ket I lezLell-- July 6, Sept. 2, sheep. 


Kilham — August 21, Nov. 12, horses and beasts. 
Kirkhy-Moor-side — Whit.-Wednesday, horned cattle, 

and horses; Sept. 18, for sheep, linen, and woollen 

Kirkham — Trinity Monday, sheep, brass, pewter, 

hardware, pots, and small ware. 

Lee — August 24, Sept. 17, horses, and cheese. 

Leeds — July 10, horses, and hardware; Oct. 8, and 
every Monday fortnight, cattle, &c.; Nov. 8, 
horned cattle, horses, and hardware. 

Leighton — Midsummer Day, June 24, pedlary. 

Little Driffield— Easter-Monday, Whit.-Monday, Au- 
gust 26, Sept. 19, horses and leather. 

Malton — Monday before Palm-Sunday, horses and 
horned cattle; day before Whit-Sunday, sheep, 
brass, and pewter; Oct. 10, hardware, pots, and 
small ware; Oct. 11, sheep. 

Masham — Sept. 17 and 18, horned cattle, sheep, and 

Middleham — Easter-Monday, Whit.-Monday, Nov. 5, 

sheep ; Nov. 6, horned cattle. 

Moor-Kirk — June 24, leather ware. 

North Allerton—Yeh. 14, May 2, Sept. 5, Oct. 3, se- 
cond Wednesday in Oct , horned cattle, horses, and 

Putrington — March 28, July 18, Dec. 6, toys. 

Pickering — Monday before Old Candlemas day, Mon- 
day before Old Midsummer day, Sept. 25, cattle 
and sheep; Monday before Old Michaelmas-day, 
cattle, &c. 

Pocklington— March 7, (if leap-year, March 6), May 
6, August 5, Nov. 28, horses, cattle, sheep, and 
leather ware; Dec. 7, 18, show of horses; seven 
days before St. Matthias, February 24, show of 
horses; seven days before Christmas Day, show of 
horses. c 2 


Tieeth — Friday before Palm-Sunday, Friday se'nnight 
before Old' May-Day, May 12, Friday' before St. 
Bartholomew, August 24, Friday se'nnight before 
Old Martinmas, Nov. 22, pewter, brass, hawkers, 
and pedlary. 

Jikhmond — Saturday after New Candjeraas, sheep, 
horses, and swine; Saturday before Palm Sunday, 
first Saturday in July, Sept. 25, horned cattle, 
horses, and sheep. 

Scarborough — Holy Thursday, Nov. 22, toys. 

Seamer — July 15, boots, shoes, and horses. 

South Cave — Trinity-Monday, horses, and sheep. 

Stokely — Saturday before Trinity-Sunday, horned cat- 
tle, horses, and linen cloth. 

Thirsk — Shrove-Monday, April 5, leather; August 
3, 4, 5, do. ; Oct. 28 and 29, Dec. 14, horned cattle, 
horses, sheep, and leather. 

Tollertoyi — August 15, horned cattle, horses, sheep, 
and cheese. 

Topcliff—3\i\y 17, 18, sheep, horned cattle, horses, 

Weighton — May 14, Sept. 25, horses and slieep. 

Yurum — Thursday before April 5, Holy Thursday, 

August 2, October 19, horned cattle,' liorses, and 









N. B. The first Column contains the Names of Places 
passed through^ and the Inns; the Figures thatfolloiv^ shew 
the Distances from Place to Place., Town to Town., and 
Stages; and in the last Column are the Names of Gentle- 
men^s Seats and Inns. The right and left of the Roads are 
distinguished hy the letters R. and L. 


Kingsland • • • • 
On L. a T. R. 

to Highgatc, 

Stoke Nevvington 

Stamford-hill • • 
On L. a T. R. 

to Enfield. 

Tottenham Cross 

Tottenham • • • • 

Upper Edmon- 

Lower Edmon- 

On L. a T. R. 

to Enfield. 

Ponder's End • ■ 

Entield Highway 
Enfield Wash • • 
Waltham Cross 



















Beyond, 4 miles on L. 
Grove-house, — Chat- 
teris, esq. 

Bruce-castle, J. Ede, esq. 

Inns : Angel, and Bell. 

Between 7 and 8tk mile- 
stone on L. see on Forty* 
hill, J. Meyer, esq. 

Through on R. see Dm- 
ranfs Arbour. 

[nn: The Rose and Croze n. 

See on L. Theobalds, q 
large red house, J, M. 

c 5 



On R. a T. R. 

to Waltham Ab- 

Turner's Hill •• 

Wormley • • • • 
Cross the New 
Broxbourne • • • • 


Through on L. 
a T.R. to Hert- 

A T. R. to 

Cross the New 
R. and the Lea. 

On R. a T. R. 
to Stevenage. 
Ci^oss the Rib R. 
Wade's-Mill • • 

High Cross • ■ 
Collier's End 













Raikes, esq, — Inns : 
Falcon, and Four Swans, 

Wormley'Bury, Sir Abror 
ham Hume, bart, 

Wormley Lodge, Mrs, 
Ayres, L. 

A White Gothic House, 
Admiral Williums, R. — 
Inns: the Black Lion 
and Bull. 

Amwell Bury, C, Browne, 

Ware Park, T. Hope Byde, 
esq. — Inns: Bull, and 
Saracen^s Head. 

Sacomb-park, Geo. Cas- 
zvall, esq. L.; at a dis- 
C. M. Campbell, esq.; 
At Wade's Mill, on R., 
is Youngsbury,!). Giles, 
esq.; and Thundridge' 
bury, P. Hollingsworth, 
esq. — Inn: the Fea- 

Beyond on L., St. Ed- 
yvwid's College, erected 
for the education qfCa^ 

Near 1 mile beyond on L., 


Through on R., 
a T.R. to Cam- 
bridge. Cross the 
Rib R. 

Chipping • • • • 
Buckland • • • • 


On R. a T. R 

to Cambridge, on 
L. to Baldock. 


Cross the ReaR. 
Arrington • • • • 



If milebeyoyid. 
a T. R. on R. to 
Cambridge ; onL 
to St. Iseofs. 
Papvvorth St. 

Everard • • • • 

1 mile on R, i 
T. R. to St, Ives ; 
on L. to Pot ton. 













HameVs-park, Miss MeU 
lish.— Inn: The Bell 

Aspenden-hall, Rev. Mr. 
Pr est 071, L. ; Hormead- 
bury, Col. Staples, R. ; 
1 mile on R., Corney" 
bury, — Butts, esq. ; be- 
yond which, is Widdial" 
hall. Gen. Gzvynne. — 
Inns: Bell, and George, 

Near is Cockenhatch, Sir 
Fras. Willes. — Inns: 
Bull, Crozvn, and Red 

neesworth-hall. Sir C. E. 
Nightingale, bart. 

Beyond on R., Nuneham 
Wimpole, Earl of Hard- 
zoicke. — Inn: Hard- 
wicke Arms. 

Between and Caxton on L., 
Stow-hall, Dr. Thomp- 

ins: The Cro^n, and 



On R. a 7'. R. 

to Cambridge and 
St. Ives; 071 L. to 
St. Neot's. Cross 
the Ouse. 

On R. a T. R. 
to Ramsey ; on L. 
to St. Neot^s and 
Great Stukeley 
Little Stukeley 

OnR. a T.R 
to London, thro 
Sawtry St. An- 


Norman's Cross 

OnR. a T.R 
to Feterboro\ 
Kate's Cabin • • 

On R.a T.R 
to Peterhoro ; on 
L. to Oundle. 
Cross the Nen R 
Wandsford • • • • 


On R. a T. R 
to Feterhord; on 
L. to Uppingham 
Wittering • • • ■ 

Withiti I a ynile 
ofStatnfordon L., 
a T.R, to Ketter- 











Hinchinbrook'hous€f Earl 
of Sandwich, and the 
Views, G. Sharpe, esq, 
— Inns: Crown, Foun- 
tain, arid George, 

C. Newton, esq. L. 
Inn : The Wheat Sheaf. 

See on R. Conington-castle. 
Inns: The Angel, and Bell. 
1 mile on L., Long Or ton, 
Earl «f Aboyne. 

Inn: The Haycock, 




Cross the Wel- 
land, enter Lin- 
colnshire. On R. 
a T.R. to Mar- 
ket-Deeping and 
Bourne; on L. to 
Uppingham, thrd 
the town; on L, 
to Oakham. 1 
mile from Stam- 
ford, cross the 
Guash R. and 
enter Rutlandsh, 
Great Casterton 


Greetham • • 

Within 1 mile 
of the Black Bull 
Inn on L., a T. R 

to Oakham. 
Witham Cora- 



Coltersworlh • • 

OnR.a T.R 
to Corbr/. 

Great Ponton 
Near Grantham 







Within i mile on R. is Bur- 
leigh-house, the magni- 
ficent seat of the Mar- 
quis of Exeter: the 
paintings are reckoned 
the most valuable collec* 
tion in the kingdom. — 
Worthop, on L. is a 
scat in ruins, belonging 
also to the Marquis of 
Exeter. — Inns: The. 
George, and Angel, the 
George, and New Ho- 

l| mile on R. lale- 
Thorpe, Col. Denshirej 
and Stocken-hall, Gen. 

Exton-park, Sir Gerard 
N. Noel, bart. The 
New Inn* 

Inn: The Bull. 

On L. at Woolsthorpe, the 
house in which Sir Isaac 
Newton zcas born, E, 
Tumor, esq. ; 2 miles on 
L. Buchninster-parkf 
Sir W. Manners, bart. ; 
If mile beyond Colters- 
worth on R. is Easton, 
Sir M. Cholmeley, barf. 

Sproxton-hall, — Perce- 
val, €!^q. L. ; 1 niile he.- 



on L. a T. R. ta 


Grantham •• •• 
Through on L., 
a T. R. to Not- 
tin sha7n. 



Long Bennington 

Balderton • • • • 


On R. a T. R. 

to S leaf or d and 
Lincoln; on L. 
to Nottingham. 
Cross the Dean 
R.; on L. a T. R 
to Southwell. 
Mamfield, and 
Worksop. About 
1 mile from Nezv- 
arkj cross the 
Trent R. 
Cromwell . • 
Carlton • . • • 
Sutton • 
















7/ond Great Ponton^ see 
on R., at Little Ponton^ 
Sir Charles Kent, bart. 

Beyond on 11., Belton* 
house. Earl Bi\izvnlow ; 
a little further, on a 
hill, Syston-park, Sir 
John Thorold, bart. — 
Inns: The Angelf and 
the George. 

A fine prospect from the 
hill'. Lincoln Minster y 
R.; Belvoir-castlCfDuke 
of Rutland, L. 

Staunton-hallj Rev* Dr. 

Inns : Kingston's Arms, 
Ratn, and Saracen^s 

Inn: The Bell. 
Ossington-hull, J. Denni' 

son, esq. 2 miles on L. 
[nn : The Blue Lion. 
Fnn : Red Lion. 
[nns : The Angel, Crown, 

and White Hart. 



BaWTPvY • • • • 


Worksop and Ra- 
ther ham. Cross 
the Don R. One 
mile beyond, 
L., a T. R. 
Red House • 

On L. a T. 
to Wakefield. 
Robin Hood's 

Well .... 

Cross the Went 


Darrington • • 
2 1 miles beyond 

■on R., a T. R 

to Snuith ; on L. 

to Pontefract. 

jFerry-bridge . • 
On L. a T. R. 

to Pontefract; on 

R. to York. Cross 

the Aire R. 

Brotherton • • . ♦ 

On L. a T. R. 

.to Wet her by ; on 

R. to Selby; and 

on L. to Leeds. 

South Milford • • 








144 r.ui: The Blue Belt. 

149|: Viscount Galaay, L. — 
Inn: the Crown. 

158 1 1 mile on L., at Cusworlh, 
W. Wright son, esq.; 
1 mile fur ther, Wood- 
lands-hall — Inns: An' 
gel, and Red Lion. 







Broaduorth-hous^e, Chas. 
2'helluson, esq. L. 

Between Went-bridge and 
Darrington, Stapleton- 
park, Hon. — Petre; 
1 mile from, on R,, 
Grove-hall, W. Lee, esq. 

Inns : Angel, Greyhound, 
Rein Deer, and Swan, 

Bryam, Sir J. Ramsden, 
hart. — Inn : The Old 


Inn : The Swan. 

Scurthingucll-hull Si' park, 
Lord Hawke, R, 

Tow ton 


Tadcaster • • • • 
On L. a T. R 

to Leeds and 
Harewood. Cross 
the Wharf R. 

Strt-et-IIouses • 


Near York on 
L. a T. R. to We- 
therhf and Bo- 
Cross the Ouse R. 






Beyond, on L. see Huile- 
wood-hall, Lady Vava- 
sour ; 1 mile beyond, on 
R. Grimston-house, Sir 
John Craddock. 

Mount Pleasant, W. J. 
C lough, esq, R. Thro\ 
on L., Healavgh Manor, 
— Brooksbank, esq. ; 
bey07id uhich, Wigh ill- 
park, Hon. Sir Staple- 
ton Chetwynd, bari., and 
Belton-hall—inns: Rose 

and C} 

and White 



Between and Dring-houses 
I on R. Bishopsthorpe Pa- 
luce, Archbishop oJ'York; 
and Middlethorpe, S. F. 
Barlow, esq.; Askham, 
JohnCarr, esq. L. — Inn : 
the Pack-horse. 
Inn : J'he Cross Keys. 

Inns: The Black Swan, 
Ettidge's,Falcon, George, 
Red Lion, White Horse, 
and York Tavern. 





Ingleton to 

At Claphamy J. Farrer, esq 




Ijong Preston 

Hellifield Cochins 
Cold Conniston 








Keighlly . • . 
Hainworth Shaw 










Aaticick, Columbus Taglebi/, 
esq, uiid Thomaii Ingleby, 

Lazckland-hally John Ingle- 
by, esq. R. 

The ebbing and flowing uell. 

Belle-hill, Anty. Lister, esq. 

Beck-hall, Mrs. Backhouse. 

LangsclUf'e'place, E. Clay- 
ton, esq. L. 

Stack-house, IV. Clapham, 
esq. L. 

Betneen the bridge aud town, 

Marshjield, Mrs. Parker, R. 

Inn : May-pole. 

Halton-place, ThomasYorke, 

Feel, Jas. Hammerton, esq. R. 

fnn : Bay-horse. 

Seat of John Coulhurst, esq. L. 

Eshton-hall, Josh. Crompton, 

Flashby-hallfRevJ. Presto?!, 

Inns: Black Horse, New Inn, 
TheCastkf EarlqfThanet. 

Car-head, W. Wainham, esq. 

At Steeton, Thos. Garforth, 

Inns: Devonshire Anns, Nca 



Hainworth river 

Culling worth • • 
IlUngworth • • 
Halifax •••• 
Salter Hebble- 
bridge • • • • 
Cross theCalder 


Cross the Calne 

Aldmonbury • • 

Bretton • 


Barnsley • 
Bank-top Inn 

Worsbo rough 
Wentworth • • 
Cortvvorth • • • • 
Nether Hough 









New-house, J. Mitchell, esq. 

Inns: Talbot, and White 

Fixbyhall, T.Thomhill,esq. 
[nns : George, and Swan. 

Woodshall-hall, Earl ofDart- 

Whitley-hall, Henry Beau- 
mont, esq. L. 

The Grange, Sir J. L. Kaye, 
hart. L. 

Bretton-park, T. B,. Beau- 
mont, esq. R. 

Hague-hall, Mrs. Cotton, R. 

Canywn-hall, Walter Spencer 
Stanhope, esq. R. 

Brethwaite-hall, Mark Shel- 
ton, esq. R. 

Inn: White Bear. 

Wentzcorth'castle, Went' 
worth Vernon, esq. 

At Worsborough, Francis 
Bdmunds, esq. R. 

Wentivorth-house and park, 
Earl TitzwiUiam. 

3 miles west of Botherham, 
is Grange-hall, Baron 
Hoaurd of Effing ha7n. 






i Aldwarkj S. Walker, esq. L. 
Carr-house^.T. Fenton, esq. L, 

At Rotherham are the ex- 
tensive iron and steel 
uorks of Messrs. Walker, 
— Inns: Croun, and Red 



Sheffield to 

2 ^AttercUffe-hallyS.Staniforth 

AtterclifFe • • 
Car Brook • . 
Tinsley • • • • 


Hooton Roberts 
Conisbrough • • • 

WarmswortI) • • • 

Balby . . 

Street Thorpe 
Park-lane • • • 
Hadfield • • . 

Tud worth 

2|-i esq. Richard Szva How, esq. 

3|! L. 

6|Inns: Crown, and Red Lion. 

Ql Clifton, — Walker, esq. R. 

7^ Eastwood, Mrs. Walker, L. 

e^Aldwark, S. Walker, esq. L. 

UfUf Thriburgh, — Fullerton, 

esq. L. ; Ravensfield-park, 

13 Rev. Mr. Bosville, R. 

15 Crookhill-hall, J. Woodyear 

esq. R. 
\7\ Overley-grange, B. Cooke, 

esq. L. 
19 At Balby, is a seat of Col, 
20| Sowerby. 
22| Wheatley, Sir G. Cook, hart. 


24^ At Street Thorpe, George 
27 Cook, esq. 
29| At Hadfield, W. Gossip, esq. 
Edward Dealtry, esq. and 
31i E. Cartwright, esq. 
32| Inn: Red Lion. 

D Q 




Burnley to 



Brown's Bilks, 


Todmerdon • - • • 
Brig Royd • • • • 

Hebden-bridge, Y. 
May Royd • • • • 

King's-cross • • • 
Halifax • • • • 
Hipperholm • • • 


High Town • • 
Mill-bridge • • 
Batly Car • • • • 







A mile from Burnley ^ is Fid- 
lidge, John Brookhurstf 
esq. R. ; fa tnile further, 
Hollings, G. Hamiliorij 
esq.'L.; Q, miles from Burn- 
ley-hall, P, Towneley, esq. 

At Holme, Rev. Dr. Whita- 

About 3 miles from Todmer- 
don, is Vnderhank, Christ, 
Rawdon, esq. 

Mitholm, J. King, esq. L. 

Beticeen Hehden-bridge and 
Halifax, Warley-houst, J. 
Cook, esq. L.; near which 
is Cliff-hill, J. Milnes, esq. 
L.; Willozt-hall, D. Dy- 
son, esq. R. 

Near King's-cross, Willozi> 
edge, T. Dyson, esq. L. 

Near Lightcliff, Cliff-hill, J. 
Walker, esq. R.; Crozc- 
nest, J. Walker, esq.; 
Fixhy-hall, T. Thornhill, 
esq. R. 

Kirklees-hall, Sir George 
Aj-mituge, bart. R.; Hea- 
ton-lodge, Maj.-Gen. Bar- 

At Mill-bridge, the late Sir 
Jo%. Rndcliff, bart. 



New Inn • • 

Dewsbury Ip'H Croic-yicst, John Hnj/t, esq. 

R.; Sfancliffc-house, S. 
Thompson, esq. L. 

Street 2 :34| About 4 ?nilesfrom Dewsbury 

is Lup set-hull J D.Gaskellf 

2 36| esq. 

1 -37^ Near Wakefield, Silcoats, 
T. Lamb, esq.; Thornes- 
house, the seat of D, Gas- 
kelL esq. \l. 



Manchester to 

Duckingfield-todge, W. i?. 

line, Lancashire 

Stayley-bridge • • 



Mottram in Long- 




Further Wood- 

Salter's Brook- 

Thurlston ...... 

Penistone •••• 

Cross the river 
Iloyland Swaine 


Field Head 



































Hay, esq. 

Bull-house-hall, Jas. Banks 

esq. L. 
Inn : Rose and CroKu. 

Gunthzvaite-hall, — Har- 
grave, esq. 

Cannon-half, W. S. Stan- 
hope, esq.; Bank's-hall, 
Samuel Thorpe, esq. L. 

Wejiiuorth-casile. W. Ver" 
D 3 






Cross the Dearn 










lion, esq. R. At Dodworth 
are seats of Wm. Parker, 
esq., William Gar lick, 
esq., and Richard Perkins, 

Birk-house, B. Taylor, esq. ; 
Park-house, T. Taylor, 
esq. R. 

Two miles south of Ardsley, 
is Woodrhall, J. Garland, 

At Ardsley is Ardsley-house, 
Richard Micketthzvaite, 

Middlezcood'hall, Mrs. Wal- 
ker, L. 

Thurnscoe, C. Palmer, esq.L. 

Bamborough Grange, Mrs. 
Farrer, Hickleton'hall,G. 
Wentworth, esq. R.; Hut- 
ton Pagnal, St. A. Ward, 
esq ; Belvedere, from which 
are seen York and Lincoln 
Cathedrals, and 120 pa- 
rish churches ; Bilham- 
house, C. Thelluson, esq. 

Broadsworth, late C. Thellu- 
son, esq. L. 

About 2 miles from Doncas- 
ter, Cusworth, William 
Wrighton, esq, R. 

Inns: Angel, Red Lion, and 
Rein Deer. 





Halifax to 
Booth's Town • • 
Clayton Heights 
Old Dolphin Inn, 
Great Horton • • 

Bradford . ' • • 


Apperley Bridge 

Cross the river 

Nether Yeadon • 
Upper Yeadon • 



Cross the Wharf 
rivery and further 
in the Washburn' 

West End • • 
Beck Bottom 
Beck with Shaw 
Killenhall .... 

Cross the riz 











At Boiling, West Bierlet/, 
Mrs. Richardson, R. 

At Little Horton, C. S. B. 
Sharpe, esq. and Mrs. 
Hodsden. — Inns: Sun, and 

At Eccleshill, Mrs. Scott. 

Woodhouse Grove, F. Clap^ 
ham, esq.; a seat of Abra, 
Rhodes, esq.; beyond Ap- 
perley Bridge, at Apperley 
Lane Head, L. Hind, esq. 

Esholt'hall, Mrs. Rookes. 

Inns: Black Horse, White 

Farnley-hall, W. Faukes, 


Ripky-hall, Sir W. Ingilby, 
hart. — Inn : Star. 



Leeds to 
HakonDial, r.G. 

Halton • • • ' 

West Garforth 

Peckfield Com- 

Monk Fryston • 
Ilambleton • • • 
Thorpe Willaby 
Selby •• 













Temple Kezcsam, Marquis 
of Hertford, R.; Aus- 
thorpe-kall, Miss Scot, L. 

At Kippaxy T. Medhursi 
esq. R.; Kippax-park, J. 
Bland, esq. 

Ledston-lodge, W. Smithson, 
esq.; and Ledston-hall, C. 
Wilson, esq. 

21 201 Inn : George. 



Halifax to 
Ilayley Hill, T. G. 
Booth's Town - 
Catherine Stack 
Clayton Heights 
Great liorton • 

Calverley Moor 
Calverlev Moor, 


Stanningley • • • 

Broad Lane • • 
Kirkstall Bridge 

Cross the river 



























21 Inn : Coach and Horses. 

Inn : Old Dolphin. 

At Boiling, West Bierley, 

Mrs. Richardson, R. 
Inns: Sun, and Talbot. 

Inn : George. 

Horsforth, W. S. Stanhope, 
esq. L. 

Wither, S. Todd, esq.; Arm- 
ley Rigg, Mrs. Rhodes. 




Halton, T,G. • • 


Kidhall Inn • • • • 

Tadcaster . • • • 

Cross the Wharf 


Cross the river 
York •••• 




















Inns: Golden Lion, Hotel, 
King's Arms, Rose and 
Crown, J'albot. 

Killingheck-hall , — Hanson, 
esq, L. 

At Seucrojt, J. Farren, L. 

Morrick-house, Gray, 

esq. R. 

Bramhayn-park, W. Fox, esq. 
L. ; Becca-house, Mrs. 
Markham, R. 

Nerc-house, Sir H. Tempest, 

Hazlewood-hall, Lady Vava- 

Tulston- lodge, T. Duncomhe, 
esq. L. 

Inns: Hos^e and Crown, 
White Horse. 

Healaugh Manor, William 
Brooksbnnk, esq.L.; Wig- 
hill, Sir Stapleton Chet- 
wynd, hart. L. ; Bilton- 
hall, late — Plumer, esq. 

Bishopthorpe, Archbishop of 
York, R.; Middlethorpe, 
S. F. Barlow, esq. R. ; Ask- 
hcm, John Carr. esq. L. 

Inns: Black Swan, Falcon, 
George, Red Lion, Ring- 
rose" s Tavern, White Horse ^ 



Leen-hall. N. J. Lyoii, etq. L. 



Manchester to 
Newton Heath • 
Failsworth • • • 
HoUin wood • • • 


Green Acres Moor 
Austerlands • • 


Gate Head • • 
Marsden • • • • 

Cross the river 

Badger Gate • • 
Bradley Brook • • 
Black Moor Foot 

Cross the river 


Mold Green 

Highgate Lane • 

Over Shittlington 

Middle Shittling- 

Nether Shittling- 

Cross the river 


Horbury • • • • 










































36 ( 

Mills Brieve, the late Joseph 

Radclijffe, esq. 
Inns: George^ and Sevan. 

WoodshulUall, Earlof Dart- 
mouthy R. 

Whitley-hall, R. H. Beau- 
mont, esq. 

Grange-hall, Sir John Lister 
KayCf hart. L. 

36 \Carr-lodge, J. Carr, e^q. 



Wakefield • •• • 

Cross the river 
Street House • 

Purston Jackling 

Swine Lane • • • 




1 37 Lupset-fiall, D. Gaskell, esq ' 
Thorn*S'housef James Mills, 
1| 38| Inns : Strafford Arms, and 
White Hart. 
At Heath f J. T. Smyth, esq., 
late — Fauquire, esq. 
H. Vavasour, esq. Mrs, 
4i 42|: At Snydal, — Terre, esq. 
Aketon-house, Sir Edw. 
Wynne, L. Nostel-hall, 
— Williamson, esq., R. 
Ackzcorth-park, Countess 
Dowager of Mexhorough ; 
and a seat of Captain 
fnns : Red Lion, and Star. 
Carleton-hall, James Lee, 
esq. Grove-hall, W. Lee, 

Darington, — Oliver, esq. 
Womersley, Lord Hawke. 
Stourton-house, luOrdStour- 
Q\ ton. 

61 Inns: Bell and Crown, 
Blue Bell. 
Carleton-hall, T. Stapleton, 



Cross the river 
Mold Green 

Snaith • • . 

Aldraonbury • • 
Finnay Rowley 









Woodshall-hall, Earl of 


High Burton . • • • 
Over Shepiey • • 
Ingbirchworth • • 

Cross the rive?- 
Penistoke . • • • 

Cross the Don 

Thurgoland • • • • 


Storr's-JiallfMrs.Horsfall, L. 

Gunthicaite-hally — Har- 
grare, esq. R. 


Cross the Don 
Wadsley Bridge 


114 5 






Inn : IRose and Crown. 

Warndiff-parkj Hon. Jus. 
Stewart Worthy. 

[nns : Angel, and Tontine. 



Ingleton to 
Clapham • • 

Gigglesvvick • 


Long Preston 












At Claphaifi, J. Farrer, esq. 

Astzcick, Columbus Ingleby, 
esq., and Thomas Ingleby, 

Lau'kland-hall, John Ingle- 
by, esq. R. 

The ebbing and fiozcing well. 

Belle Hill, Anty. Lister, esq. 

Beck-hall, Mrs. Backhouse. 

TMng^cliffe-place, E. Clay- 
ton, esq., L. 

Stackhouse, W. Clapham, 
exq., L. 

Between the bridge and town, 
Murshfield, Mrs. Parker, 

Inn : May -Pole. 

Halton-place, Thos. Yorke, 


Hellifield Cochins 2^ 

Cold Conniston 


Addingha,m • 





Arthington • 
Weardley • • • 
Harewood • • • 
CoUinghani • 
Clifford Moor 
Tadcaster • 

Cross the Wharf 













Peel James Hummerton, esq, 

Inn: Bai/ Horse. 
Seat of John Coulthurst, esq. 

Eshton-hall, Jos. Crompton, 

Flashby-hallj Rev, J. Preston. 

fnns: Black Horse, Kewlnn. 
The Castle, Earl ofThanet. 

Middleton-lodge, W. Mid- 

die ton, esq. 
Farnley-hall, Walt. Fazekes, 

esq. L. 
Arthington-hall, Thus, Ast-- 

ley, esq. 
At Harewood, Earl of Hare- 


Tims : Rose and Crown, 
White Horse. 

Wighill, Sir S. Chetzvynd, 
hart, and Bilton-hall, late 
— Plumer, esq. 

Askham, John Carr, esq., L. 

Middlethorpe, S. F. Barlow, 
esq. R. 

Bishopsthorpe, Archbishop of 

Inns : Black Sican, Falcon, 
George, Red Lion, Ring- 
rose's, White Horse, York 





Boroughbridge to 

Walshford • • • • 
Cross the Nidd 


Wether BY •• 
Cross the WharJ 


Bramham • • • • 




Cross the river Aire 

Ferrybridge • • 

Darrington • • 
Cross the Went 

Went Bridge 



5 Thornville, or Allerton-park, 
Lord Stourton, L. 

8^ RibstoU'hall, Sir Henry 
Goodricke, hart, R. 

12^ilnns : Angel, Swan,Talbot. — 
Wetherby Grange, B. 
Thompson, esq. L. 
16| Bramhani'park, W. Fox, esq. 
Bramham Biggin, Lord 
Headley, R 
Parlington,R. 0. Gascoigne, 

esq. R. 
Inn : Swayi. 





Tedston'-haU, and park, {an 
ancient seat of the Earl of 
Huntingdon)C. Wilson,esq. 

WaterFryston, R. Miln€s,esq. 

By ram, Sir John Rainsden, 
bart. L. — Inn : Old Fox. 

Inn : Angel. 

Grove-hall, William Lee, 
esq. L. 

At Darrington, R. OlHtr, 
esq. R. 

Campsal, Bacon Franks, esq. 

L.; Campsmount,Mrs.Yar- 

borough, L. 
Summer 'house, B. Franks, 

esq. R. Shelbrook-park, 

Ret. — Cafor. 



Red House • • • - 
Cross the Don 
DONCASTER • • • ■ 

Cross the Torne 

Roffingtou Bridge, 
T.G, . . 















Skellow'grange, G. Higgim, 

esq., L. 
Broadszvorth, Chas. Thellui' 

son, esq. L. 

Fniis : Angel f Sf Red Lion. — 
Wheatlei/, Sir George Cooke, 

bart. L.; Cusworth, W* 

Wrightson, esq. R. 
At Cantley, L. Childers, 

esq. L. 
Fingingley-parkf J. Hervei/f 

esq. L. 
At Shooter' s-hill, J. Hilton ^ 

esq. R. 
At Bawtry, Visct. Galzcay,'Rt 
[nn : Crown. 



RiPON to 


the Skell 

South Stanley 


Cross the Nidd 


Low Harrovvgate 
Harrovvgate • • • 
Dun Keswick • 






Studley-royal, Miss Lazo- 
rence, and Hackfall, a ro- 
mantic valley belonging to 
the same person; and 
Grant ley-pu7'k,Ld.Grant- 

Inn : Red Lion. 

Seats of R. Wood, esq. L. J, 
Messinger, esq. R. 

Inn: Star, — At Ripley, 
Ripley-hall, Sir W. Ingil- 
by, bart. R. Nidd-hall, F. 
M. Traps, esq. L. 

Inn : Obelisk. 

Inn : Harewood Anns. — 
At Harewood, Harewood- 
house, Earl of Harewood,'^. 

E 2 



Moor Town • • • 
Chapel AUerton 
Potter Newton • 

Cross the Aire 

Huntfleet, T. G. 


Cross the Calder 










Inn: King's Arms. 

fnn: Black Bull. 

At Chapel Allerton, GUd- 

howCy J. Dixon, esq. L. 
Inns: Golden Lion, Hotel, 

King's Arms, Rose and 

Crown, Talbot. 
Temple- New sham, Marquis 

of Hertford. 

Middleton-lodge, C. Brand- 
ling, esq. R.; Ledskam, 
W. SmitJison, esq.; Kip' 
pax'park, J. Bland, esq.; 
Methley, Earl of Mex* 
borough, L. ; Thorpe, Miss 
Procter, R. 


Thorn* S'house, B. Gaskill, 
esq. R.; Nethcrton, T.R. 
Beamnont, esq. R.; The 
Grange, Sir J. L. Kaye, 
bart. R.; atHeath.JohnT. 
Smythe, esq., andW. Sinith- 
aon, esq. L.; Sharleston, 
Earl of Westmoreland; 
Hatfield-hull, J. Hatfield 
Kaye, esq. ; Newland, Sir 
Edward Smythe, bart. L. 

Between Wakefield and San- 
dall, Major Hewitson, L.; 
Lupset-hall, D. Gaskell, 

At Sandall, H. Zouch, esq. 

Betzveen Sandall and New 
Miller Dam, are Plead- 
zeick-hall, J. Boberts. esq.; 



New Miller Dani| 
Stain-cross • • • • 
Cross the river 

Old Mill Inn •• 

Bank-top Inn • • 

Worsborough • • 


Chapel Town • • 
Pitsmore •••••• 

Cross the Don 
Sheffield • • • • 














Kettlethorpey John Armi- 
tage, esq.; and Wood- 
thorpe, J. Wood, esq. 

Chevet-hall, Sir Thomas 

Bretton-park, T. R. Beau- 
mont, esq. : Woolley- 
hall, Godfrey Went- 
worth, esq. ; Cannon- 
hall, W. S. Stanhope, 
esq. R. ; New Lodge, 
J.Clarke, esq. R. ; Went- 
Vernon, esq. ; Ouzle- 
thwaite, Wm. Ehns- 
hurst, esq. R. — Inn : 
White Bear. 

Darnley-hall, — Newman, 
esq. L. 

At Worsborough, J. F. 
Edmunds, esq. R. 

Marmontel, — Parkin, 

Page-hall, G. B. Greaves, 

esq. ; Brush-house, T. 
Booth, esq.; &• Grange- 
hall, Baron Howard of 
Effingham. — Inns: An- 
gel, and Tontine, 









Brougu to 
Spittle Inn • • • 


Greta-bridge < 
Small ways • • < 

Three Tuns 

Cross the river 

Catterick • • • • 


Londonderry • < 
Royal-Oak Inn 
York-gate • • • < 
Kirkby-hill •••< 






























Inn : Unicorn. 

Rokebj/'park, J. Bacon 

Sazvrey Morrit, esq. L. 

Sedbun/-Iiouse, — Thorn' 

ton, esq. R. 
Aske-hallj Lord Dundas; 
Gilling-hally Lady Whar- 
ton, R. 

Brougk-hall, Sir Henry 

LawsoUy bart. R. 
Hornby-castle f Duke of 

LeedSy R. 
Leases-hall, Mrs, Ardent, 


New Inn. 
Inn: Bell. 

Inns : Crcwn, and Three 





At Askriggy in Bishops-' 
dele arid Aysgarth, near 
Caperhy are so7ne re- 
markable falls of water. 

Suainthzcaite-hall, Mrs, 

Bolton-hall and castle^ the 
Hon. Orde Pozolett, 

At Leyburn, John Yarker, 
esq. R. 

Burton-hall, Rev. C. Wy 
vill, L. At Spenni/' 
thorne, W. Claytor, esq. 
and Col. Strawbenzer. 

Earl of Egremont. 

Sioindon-park, W. Danbi/y 
esq. — Inn: King'sHead. 

Askrigg to 

Caperby • • • < 
Redmire • • • « 

Wensley • • • • 

Leyburn • • • • 
Harnby • • • • 

Cross the river 
UJshaw-bridge • 

Cross the river 

Cover-bridge • • 
East VVhitton • • 
Jervoise Abbey 



Cross the rive? 

Nosterfield • • • • 
York-gate • • • • 
Kirkby-hill •-. 

Cross the river 

BoROUGHBRiDGE 1 iO^ Inns : Crown, and Three 



Wood-end, S. Crompton, 
esq.; Brawith-hally War^ 
cop Confett, esq. 

Inn : Three Tuns. 

































North Allerton to 

Thornton in the 








Stockwell-green, Thirkkby, tir Thomas 

T.G. ...... 2^ 11 Frankland, bart. L. 

Thormanby . • • • S^ 141: Newbrough-hall, 'l.H.W. 
Belai/se, esq. L. 
Sessay-hall, Rev. William 
Dazcner/y R. 

F.O. .... 


York « 



26 J Inn : Horse and Groom. 
Benningborough, Giles 

Earl, esq. R. 
Nun Mo7ickton, — Jo- 
liffhf esq. R. 


Inns: Black Swauy Fal- 
coHf George, Red Lioriy 
Ring-rose SyWhite Horse 
and York Tavern. 



Whitby to 

Ruswarp « • 

Cross the river 


Saltersgate Inn 
Pickering ••• 









Airy-hill, R. Modsom, esq. 
At Ruszcarp, — Ward, esq. 
Inn : Admiral Rodney. 

Carr-hall, Mrs. Preston. 

The Woodlands, Mrs. Yeo- 

At Sleights, Esk-hall, J. 
Campion Coutes, esq. R. ; 
Sleights-hall, Mrs. Bate- 
man,L. — Inn: Red Lion. 

Kingthorp, — Fothergill, 

Inns: Black Swan, White 

Thornton, Rev, Mr, Gilby, 



Cross the river 
Old Malton • . . 

New Malton 

Whitwell Inn • • 

Spittle-bridge Imi 
Lobster Inn • • • • 






At Malton Abbey, W. W. 

Watson, esq. 
Inns: White Horse, Talbot. 
Hutton-lodge, J. Parkhurst, 

esq. L. 
Castle Howard y Earl of Car- 

lisle, R. 
On the right of Whitwell, 

Wm. Slee, esq. 
Howsham, Mrs. Cholmley, L. 
Sand Hut ton. Rev. Mr. 

At Stockton, B. Agar, esq. L. 
[nns: Black Sxcdn, Falcon, 

George, Red Lion, Ring^ 

rose's, White Horse, and 

York Tavern. 



Gisborough to 
Pinchinthorp • • • • 



Stokesley • • • • 
Cross the river 



Borrow by 


North Kilvington 
South Kilvington 



T,Cr. ...... 

























At Ai/ton, — Wilson, esf . 

Kear Arncliffe, Mrs. Mau- 

lever, L. 
Brawithrhall, Warcop Con" 

sett, esq. R. 

Inn : Three Tuns. 
Thirkleby, Sir Thos. Frank- 
land, bart. L. 














Nezvbrough'hall, T. H. W. 

Belai/se, esq. L. 
Sessay-ballj Rev. William 

Dazcney, R. 
[nns: Rose and Crown, New 

Inn: Horse and Groom. 
Benningborough, Giles Earl, 

esq. R. 
Nun Monckton, — Joliffe, 

esq. R. 

[nns: Black Swan, Falcon, 
George, Red Lion, Ring- 
rose^s. White Horse, and 
York Tavern. 



Scarborough to 

Falsgrave • 



East Ayton, 




Cross the 



— — 


Hutton-bushel, the seat of 
Mrs. Osbaldeston. 

Wvl-f.Kam . 



At Wi/keharn, Wykeham- 

wyKenaiu • 

abbey, R. Langley, esq. L. 

Brorapton • 



At Brompton, Sir G. Cay- 

Sk f-Q 1 r» frrvn • 



ley, bart. 

Cross the 


zvent river. 






XIHl • • • 




Scampston, William St. Quin- 
tin, esq. R. 

— — 


Knapton, Thomas Hodson, 
esq. R. 

-_ _ 


Heslerton, J. W. Foulis, esq. 



Rilllngton • • • 

r. G. 


Cross the Der- 
went river. 

New Malton • • 

Spittle-bridge Inn 
Lobster Inn • • • • 









Setteringtoyi, Sir Mark Mas- 
terman Stakes, hart. R. 

Langston, T. D. Norcliffr, 
esq. L. 

Sutton-gjuinge. Geo. Parker^ 
esq, L. 

Welham, Rob. Bower, esq. L. 
Inns: White Horse, Talbot. 
On the R., Whitwell, W. She, 

Howsham, Mrs. Cholmley, L. 
Sand Hutton, Rev. Mr. 

At Stockton, B. Agar, esq. L. 
Inns: Black Swan, Falcon, 

George, Red Lion, Ring- 

rose's. White Horse, and 

York Tavern. 



York to 

Grimston, T. G. 



Kexby-bridge • • 



Cross the Der- 

went river. 

Wilberfoss .... 



Inn: Anchor. 





Pocklington New 







At Hayton, Rev. B. Rud- 

Skipton . • 



Londesbrough-par k, Duke of 

48 itixekary of the tvoads in 

Market Weigh- 

to n 

Bishop Burton • • 

T. G. 

Beverley • • • • 








2 391 

[nns: Griffin Inn, Brig's 

Houghton, P. Langdale, esq. 

Hotham, Hull, L. 

South Cave, the seat and ex- 
tensive plantations of H. 
B. Barnard, esq. 

Roioley, Rev. Rob. Croft. 

Inn: Horse. — Near Bishop 
Burton, seat of Richard 
Watts, esq. 

Inns; Beverley Arms, Ty- 
gcr. — Pennyman-house, B. 
Blades, esq.; and seats of 
Rev, J. Courtney, Wil- 
liam Beverley, esq., and 
Henry Ellison, esq. 

Hull Bank, Gen. Barton, 

Inns: Cross Keys, Neptune, 
iSaraccn's Head, 



Hull to 
Cross the 


Southcoates • • 


Preston • • • • 

Hedon ....... 

Thorn Gutnbold 














Burton Constable, seat of F. 
Constable, esq. 

At Thorn Gumbold, Lady 
Standidge; and Boreas- 
hilt, Mrs. Sfoi'in. " 



Pattrington •• 



At Winestead, U. MaisterSf 
esq.; Wines teud- hall, — 
Thornton, esq. 



Bridlington to 

Burton Agnes, Sir Francis 
Boynton, bart. L. ; Bes- 
singby, Har-rington Hudg- 
son, esq. L. ; Boynton^ 
Sir Wm. Strickland, bart. 


Great Drif- 
field • — 

Beswick • • • • 

Leacon field 
Duncehill • • • 
Newlands • • • 





Inn : Red Lion. 

Sunder landccick, Simon Hor- 
ner, esq. 

Neszcick, John Grirmtonf 

Inn : Hare and Hounds. 

Watton-uhbey, Mrs. Bethellf 

Kilnwick, Thomas GriTmton, 
esq. R. 

Etton, Lady Legard, and H. 
Grimston, esq. 

Inn; Roebuck. 

Inns : Beverley Arms, Tiger. 

Hull Bank, Gen. Barton. 
Inns: Neptune, Cross Keys, 
and Saracen's Head, 





Hawes to 
Bainbridge • • • • 

Cross the Ure 


Wood Hall ...• 



Halfpenny House 

Cross the Swale 
Richmond •• 


Melsonby • • • 


Pierce Bridge 

























BoUon-hulL Lord Bolton. 

Inns: King\ Arms, King's 
Head. At Richmond, Rich' 
mond Green, J. Yorkc, esq. 

Aske-hall, Lord Dundas. 

Scdbury-house, — Thornton^ 
esq. L.; Hartfoi'th-huUy 
Sheldon Craddock, esq. R. 

Stanwick, DukeqfNorthum- 

Carlton-hall, M,Pullei/n,esq, 

Inn : George.^ Cliff-hall, H. 
Witham, esq. 

through south cave. 

How DEN to 

Belby • 

East Linton 
Scalby • • • • 
Cross the canal to 
New Villafre 
North Cave 













Hof^ ham-hall. 


South Cave 

Kirk Ella • • 












Inn: Ha/f Moon. — Cave- 
castle, H.B.Bamardjesq. 

West Ella. Joseph St/kes, esq. 

Hesleuood-hallj J. R. PeasCf 

esq. R. 
AtAnluby a seat of J. Sykes^ 

Inns: Neptune, Cross Keys^ 

Saracen's Head, SfC, 


North Allerton to 


Great Langton 

Kipling • • • 
Bolton • • • 

Citadella • 
Three Tuns 

Smallways • • • • 

Bowes • • • 
Spittle Inn 
Brough ' 























Langton-lodge, Mrs. Cholm* 
ley, L. ; Kirkhy Fleethum, 
Miss Lawrence, L. 

Kipling-hallf Rob. CrotvCf 
esq. L. 

Aske-hall, Lord Dundas. 
Gilling'hall, Lady Whar^ 

Sedbury-house, — Thornton, 

Inn: Spread Eagle. 

Rokeby-park, J. Bacon SatC' 

rey Morrit, esq.R. 
Inn : Unicorn. 

Inns: New Inn, Swan. 



Whitby to 
Flask Inn 







Hacknes$-hall, Sir J. Vanden 

Burniston • • • 


Hunmanby • 


Grindall • • • 

16|| Bempcie Johnstone, bartM. 
20|: Inns : Blacksmith's Arms, 



Blue Bell, George, Old 
Globe, Pyed Bull, Red 
Lien, and Talbot. 
If 30|: Hunmanhy-hall, Hump, Os* 
I baldest on, esq. 

38|: Inn : Scarborough Cattle. 


York to 
Gate Helmesley 
Stamford Bridge 
Cross the Der- 

zcenf river. 
Garraby Street 


Sledmere • • • • 
Rudston • • • • 
Boynton • • • • 


















A ear Stamford'hridgCf on 
R. — Darleyj €iq. 

At Sledmere, Sir M. Af. 

Sykes, bart. 
At^ Boynton, Sir Wm. 

Strickland, bart. 
Inn: Scarborough Castle. 


( 53) 



Name and Place. 


Oq whom they draw 
in London. 


Beckett, Birks, and 

Haynea and Cook. 

Yarborough & Co. 
Leatham, Jackson, 

and Co. 
Rawson, J. W. and 

R. Briggs & Sons. 
Dobson and Sons. 
Wentworth & Co. 
J. and W. Rawson. 
Buckley, Roberts, 

and Co. 
Harrison and Co. 
Field and Co. 
Beckett, Blavds, 

and Co. 
Perfect, Hardcas- 

tle, and Co. 
Union Bank. 

Brown and Co. 
Leatham and Co. 
Britains and Co. 
Harrison and Co. 

Coates and Co. 

Walkers and Co. 
Parker and Co. 
Chippendale 5c Co. 


Glyn and Co. 
Smith, Payn*, and 

Goshngs and Co. 

Denison and Co. 




Knareiborough ... 

Barclay and Co. 
Jones, Lloyd, & Co. 
Masterman & Co. 
Wentworth & Co. 
Jones, Lloyd, & Co. 


Willis and Co. 


Glyn and Co. 
Lubbock and Co. 
Nicholson and Co. 


Glyn and Co. 
Willis and Co. 

Esdaile and Co. 

Everett and Co. 
Morlands and Co. 

Ripon and Nid-\ 

derdale / 



Skipton ., 

Masterman & Co. 

F 5 



Name and Place. 



Messrs. Raper , Swann, Clough, Bland, 
and Raper 

Messrs. Godfrey,Wentworth,Went 
worth, Rushvvorth, and Co, 


On whom they draw 
in London. 

f Sir R. C. Glyn, 
j Mills, HaUfax 
C and Co. 

Wentworth & Co. 


Richmond ... 


Malton-bank , 

Hutton, Other, and 

Lister, Moorsom, 

and Co. 
Woodall and Co. 
Bower and Co. 
Pease, Dunn, & Co 
Sampson and Co. 
J. and J. Sanders. 
Richardson & Co. 

Pole, Thornton, 
and Co. 

Bond and Co. 
Thornton and Co. 
Curries and Co. 
Lubbock and Co. 
Barclay and Co. 
Masterman & Co. 
Curtis and Co. 



Bridlington ... 
Hull Old Bank 

Machell and Co. 
Harding &Holtby 
Pease and Liddle. 
Pease, Harrison, 

and Co. 
R. Raikes & Co. 
Smith & Thomson. 

Glyn and Co. 
Lubbock and Co. 
Jones, Lloyd, & Co. 

Marryatt and Co. 
Curries and Co. 

( 55 ) 

The city of York is an archbishopric, and gives the 
title of Duke to the second son of the King. The 
Mayor of York has the title of Lord, the same as that 
of Loudon. Craven, gives the titles of Earl and Baron 
to the Boyle family. Richmond, gives the title of 
Duke to the Lennox family. Mulgrave, gives the same 
title to the Phipps family. Skipton, that of Lord of 
the Honour of Skipton to the Tuftons. Danby, the 
title of Earl to the Osbornes. Yarm, the title of 
Baron to the Belasyse family. Aske, gives the same 
title to the Dundas family; and Loft us the same to 
the Tottenhams. Bolton Castle, gives the same title 
to the Orde Powlett family. All the above, except 
Craven, are in the North-Riding. — Beverley, gives the 
title of Earl to the Percy family. Sittington, gives the 
title of Baron to the Lenox family : the above are in 
the East-Riding. — Leeds gives the title of Duke to the 
Osbornes: — Doncaster that of Earl to the Scott family. 
Pomfret, gives the title of Earl to the Fermor family : 
Sheffield that of Baron to the Baker Holroyd family. 
Wentworth, gives the titles of Viscount and Baron to 
the Noel family ; Kiveton the same to the Osborne 
family. Rawdon, gives the same title to the Rawdon 
family; and Hastings Towton the same to the Hawkes. 
Wortley gives the title of Baron to the Stuarts ; and 
Markenfield the same to the Nortons. Harewood, 
gives the same title to the Lascelles family : Setting- 
ham the same to that of the Cowers. Furnival, gives 
the same title to the Howard and Talbot families: 
and Gisburne Park, the same to the Lister family. 


At York City. — Jan. 14, April 14, July 14, 
October 20. St. Peter's Liberty, Jan. 15, July 15, 
October 21. 

East Riding. — Beverley, Jan, 11, April 11, July 
11, Octoberl?. 

West Riding. — Wetherby, Jan. 11; Wakefield, 
Jan, 13; Doncaster, Jan. 15; Pontefract, April 10 ; 


Skipton, July 10; Rotherham, July 10; Bradford, 
July 14 ; Knaresborough, Leeds, and Sheffield, during 
the first whole week after October 11. 

North Riding. — Northallertonj Jan. 11, April 11, 
July 11, October 17. 

Archbishop's quarter sessions for the liberty 
or Cawood, Wistow, and Otley. — Otley, Jan. 12, 
April 12, July 12, Oct. 18 ; Cawood, May 17, and first 
whole week after Oct. 11. 


This article is so rich and extensive, that scarcely 
any thing more than the mere names of some of these 
celebrated characters can be given in this work. John 
de Wickhfte, styled the Morning Star of the Reforma- 
tion, was born in the parish of Wickliffe. Dr. John 
Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born at 
Sowerby, in 1630, and died in 1694. Roger Ascham, 
a learned miscellaneous writer, was bom at Kirkby 
Whiske, in 1515; died 1568. Dr. Richard Bentley, 
an eminent critic and divine, born at Wakefield, 1662; 
died in 1742. Captain James Cooke, the celebrated 
navigator, born at Tvlarton in Cleveland, 1728; was 
killed in the South Sea Islands in 1779. Thomas 
Lord Fairfax, general of the army under Cromwell; 
died in 1671, having obtained the good opinion of 
Charles IL John IJarrison, inventor of the time- 
keeper to ascertain the longitude at sen, was born at 
Foulby, near Pontefract, in 1693; he died in the year 
1776, having received a reward of 20,000/. for his dis- 
covery. William Mason, an ingenious poet and divine; 
died 1797. The long-lived Henry Jenkins, was born 
at Bolton in this county- Dr. John Potter, a learned 
prelate and antiquary of considerable celebrity, was 
born at Wakefield in 1674; died 1747. Dr. Joseph 
Priestley, one of the greatest philosophers the country 
ever produced, was born at Field-Head, in the parish 
of Birstall, in 1733, and died in America 1804. Dr. 
Beilby Porteus, late Bishop of London, was a native 
of this county. He was born in 1731, and died in 
May 1809. Dr. Samuel Garth, a celebrated poet 


and pliyeiciati, v%us born in this county, and died in 
1719. To all these have been added the name of 
CoNSTANTiNK THE Great, bom at Yorlc about the 
year 274; died in 337. 

The nevvspapei-s printed in the county are the York 
Courant; the Chronicle; the Herald ; the Gazette, all 
at York — At Leeds, the Intelligencer; the Mercury; 
the Independent — At Sheffield, the Iris and the Mer- 
cury — at Wakefield, the V/akefield Journal — at Don- 
caster, the Doncaster Gazette— at Hull, the Hull 
Packet; the Hull Advertiser; and the Rockingham. 


Yorkshire is divided into twenty-eight wapentakes, 
besides the Ainsty of the city of York. The whole 
county contains one city and fifty-nine market-towns, 
of which thirteen are boroughs, and it sends thirty 
members to parliament. 


This, according to the statement made in 1811, was 
as follows: 188,381 inhabited houses; males, 477,728; 
females, 495,380 ; total, 973,123 persons. 


Yorkshire is by much the largest county in England, 
and one of the most interesting, wliether we consider 
its mercantile opulence, or its historical importance. 
It is in form a long square, containing more than three 
millions of acres, and divided into three distinct 
ridings, and is bounded on the north by Durham and 
Westmoreland ; on the east by the German Ocean ; on 
the west by Westmoreland and Lancashire ; and on the 
south by Cheshire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and 
Lincolnshire; extending itself in length 180 miles east 
to west, and 90 miles in breadth north to south; its 
circumference is 460 miles, and contains 6013 square 


The name of the county is derived from its city, 
•which, according to Camden, was named by the Bri- 
lonH; Ci^r'Kffr'OCf by the Saxons Evor-icks by ^Senni' 


US, Car-r Ebruuc, derived from tlie first founder King 
Ebraucus. Camden, however, more correctly suggests 
that the word Eboracum comes from the river Ure, 
(now the Ouse), implying its situation on that river. 
Thus the Eburovices, in France, were seated upon the 
river Ure, near Eureaux in Nonnandy; the EburoneSf 
in the Netherlands, near the river Ourt, in the dio- 
cese of Liege, &c. Hence Eborac or Euorwic, be- 
came Yore or York. 

Yorkshire was included by the Romans in their di- 
vision of the island, called MAXIMA CiESARlEN- 
SIS, and was inhabited by the Brigantes, who ob- 
tained this appellation from their being inhabitants of 
the upper region. Brig signifying, in the British, a 
summit, or upper situation. 

After the departure of the Romans, Yorkshire 
formed part of the Saxon kingdom of the Northum- 
bers, and continued so until the end of the Heptarchy, 
when all the states were united under Egbert. 

All this part of the island suffered much from the 
Danes; and after the Conquest it was divided among 
some of the great Norman barons, who were sworn 
to prevent the incursions of the Scots ; but the Enghsh 
not relishing the Norman government, fled in great 
numbers to Scotland, and assisted King Malcolm Can- 
more to invade the northern borders. News of this 
invasion being brought to the Conqueror, he swore 
that he would extirpate them; but found it impossi- 
ble, and was obliged to conclude a peace with the 

Yorkshire continued to make a considerable figure 
during the civil wars between the houses of York and 
Lancaster; and in the reign of Edward IV. a formi- 
dable rebellion broke out in this county, which was 
not suppressed but with the loss of many lives. 

The last insurrection we shall mention, in which 
this county in general was concerned, was that which 
happened in the reign of Henry VIII. in consequence 
of the dissolution of the monasteries, the loss of which 
was sensibly felt by the poorer sort of people. 


These convents had lands left for theil- support, 
which were let out in small farms, and the rent taken 
in corn, and such other necessaries as the land pro- 
duced. By this method industry was encouraiied, 
agriculture flourished, all sorts of provisions were in 
great plenty, and the people, by finding employment 
in the country, were not driven by distress to the ca- 
pital, as in the present age. 

But when these convents were dissolved, their lands 
were given to court favourites, who being under the 
necessity of supporting their extravagancies, let eight, 
ten, and sometimes twenty of these farms to one 
person, by which many families were involved in ruin. 

Driven by oppression to a state of madness, above 
40,000 of them took up arms, and marched to Don- 
caster, committing great devastations in their way, and 
insisting that the convents should be restored. They 
called themselves the Holy and Blessed Pilgrims; on 
one side of their banner was the figure of Christ cru- 
cified, and on the other side were the figures of a cha- 
lice and a host. 

This formidable mob was met by the Earl of Shrews- 
bury and the Duke of Norfolk; but the river Don 
having overflowed its banks, they were prevented from 
coming to a general engagement. In the mean time 
a pardon was published for all such as would disperse, 
which having in general been accepted, the greatest 
part of them returned home : but those who refused 
were taken and executed. 

In 1639 Charles T. made his first visit to Hull, and 
mel with a loyal reception : the following year his 
governor was received, but resigned soon after. In 
1642, the acquisition of Hull engaged the attention 
of the king and parliament. It was esteemed of great 
consequence, and it was the opinion of many, that if 
Charles had secured it (as he had the Tower of London 
and garrison of Portsmouth), being then in possession 
of the keys of the kingdom, and the principal maga- 
zines, he would never have been subdued; but Hotham 
being soon after received a? governor from the parlia- 


jueiit, the king abandoned all hopes of it; aud on St. 
George's day, the same year, the gates were closed 
against him. 

After- a variety of letters, memorials, and mes- 
sages, between the kiag and parliament, it was block- 
aded by the former; at the same time the sluices were 
pulled up, and the country flooded, to annoy the 
royal army, by which immense damage was done to 
the inhabitants and the suburbs: various attempts to 
gain the place by negotiation were made by the royal- 
ists without success. On Saturday, Sept. 2, 1643, 
the royal anny, under the command of William Ca- 
vendisii, Duke of Newcastle, (then marquis), set down 
before Hull, and invested it, and the siege was car- 
ried on with various success, till the 12th of October 
following (five weeks and four days), when it was 
raised, after being defended with great bravery by Lord 
Fairfax. In 1645, the Book of Common Prayer was 
burnt in the market-place; soon after which the plague 
again appeared. A perpetual garrison was now forced 
upon the town, in spite of their necessities and griev- 
ances, their petitions being disregarded. Andrew 
Marvell, the -patriotic representati\e of this town, 
lived during the reign of Charles II. A vain attempt 
was made at the Revolution to secure the town for 
King James II. 




This is bounded on the east by the Ainsly, and 
the river Ouse; on the north by the North Riding; 
on the west by Lancashire, and on tlie south by 
Clieshire, Derbyshire, and Nottinghamshire. The 
face of the country is very irregular, but may be di- 
vided into three large districts, gradually varying from 
a level and marshy to a rocky and mountainous region. 

The flat and marshy part of the riding lies on the 
eastern side, along the banks of the Ouse, and extends 
to the westward generally within three or four miles 
of an imaginary line, drawn from Doncaster to Sher- 

The middle part, as far to the westward as Shef- 
field, Bradford, and Otley, rises gradually into hills, 
and is beautifully variegated. Further to the west, 
the surface becomes rugged and mountainous. Be- 
yond Sheffield scarcely any thing is seen but black 
moors, which running north-west, unite with the lofty 
hills of Blackstone Edge, on the borders of Lanca- 
shire. The western part of Craven presents a con- 
fused heap of rocks and mountains, as Pennygant, 
Wharnside, Ingleborough, &c. Amidst the hilly and 
mountainous tracts of this riding, are many romantic 
valleys, presenting the most beautiful scenery; as 
Netlierdale, watered by the Nid; Wharfdale, and the 
vale of the Aire. Many valleys of less extent vie 
with these in picturesque beauty, and the greater part 
being enclosed, well wooded, and thickly spread with 
almost continuous villages, when viewed from the 
rteighbouring eminences, present the resemblance of 
happiness and improvement combined. 


The climate ut" the West Riding is generaiiy mode- 

62 nivEKS. 

rate; but the eastern part being subject to fogs and 
damps, is not esteemed so healthy. The liarvest ge- 
nerally commences in the middle of August, and, ex- 
cepting in backward seasons, is got in by the end of 
September. In the western parts, that are upland and 
hilly, the harvest is nearly a fortnight later than about 
Pontefract and Doncaster ; and here is more rain than 
in the eastern parts of the riding. 

In the West Riding there are pasture-lands, where 
grass is the chief object, and where cultivation by the 
plough is considered only in a secondary light. Upon 
the higher grounds there are immense tracts of waste, 
generally common among the contiguous possessors, 
and pastured by them with cattle and sheep, some 
stinted, and some open. Adjoining manufacturing 
towns, the manufacturer has his enclosures where he 
keeps cows, and horses for carrying his goods to mar- 
ket. From Ripley southward by Leeds, Wakefield, 
and Barnsley to Rotherham, to the banks of the 
Ouse, the soil is principally employed in raising corn. 
The common fields are most numerous to the east- 
ward of the great north road from Doncaster to Bo- 
roughbridge. The moors, with some exceptions, lie 
in the south-west parts of the riding, above Peniston 
and Sheffield. Sheep are principally bred on them, 
and a great part is common. 


To remedy the bad roads in the West Riding, paved 
foot-paths have been made upon the sides of most of 
them in the manufacturing parts of the country; but 
these foot-paths have been too frequently made " bri- 
dle-roads," a practice only to be excused by the pecu- 
liar badness of the main road, 


The West Riding is eminent for the nun\ber of its 
great and navigable rivers. The Ouse, which takes 
this name at York, being formerly called the Ure, 
rises near the borders of Westmoreland, and collect- 
ing many tributary streams during its course through 
the beautiful dale of Wcnsley, flows for many miles 


with a very rapid current within the North Riding; 
but about three miles below, it becomes the boundary 
of this Riding, dividing it from the West Riding till it 
arrives nt Ripon. From Ripon it takes a circuit of a 
few miles into the west, but again becomes the divi- 
sion between the two, and so continues as long as it 
retains its name; this it loses about six miles below 
Boroughbridge, at the influx of an insignificant stream 
that gives to the great river Ure its own name of Ouse, 
which, at last, in its turn, is lost in that of the Hum- 
ber. The Ouse continues to be the boundary of the 
North Riding, dividing it from the West Riding, and 
tlie Ainsty of the city of York, till its arrival at York, 
where it entirely quits the North Riding. The Ouse 
is navigable for vessels of 120 tons as far as York, 
where the spring tides rise about 20 inches, but are 
spent about six miles above. The Ure is navigable 
for vessels of 30 tons as far as Ripon; where, on ac- 
count of the rapidity of the stream, all prospect of 
navigation ceases. 

The Don, or Dune, supposed to be a variation of 
the British word Dun, a deep channel, rises near 
Barnsley on the borders of Cheshire, passes by Shef- 
field, Rotherham, Doncaster, Thorne, and falls into 
the Aire at Snaitli. Tt is navigable nearly to Sheffield. 

The Calder rises in Lancashire, and running east- 
wardly, passes by Wakefield, and five miles below falls 
into the Aire. 

The Aire, or Air, a large river, issuing from the 
mountain Pennygant, passes by Leeds, Pontefract, and 
Snaith. By the aid of canals this river is navigable to 
Leeds, Bradford, and Skipton. It pursues a long 
course quite across the Riding, and at length falls into 
the Don, near Snaith. 

The Wharfe rises at the foot of the Craven-Hills, 
and after a course of more than fifty miles across the 
riding, keeping a great way at an equal distance of 
ten miles from the Aire, discharges itself into the 

The Nidd, or Nydd, rises in Maderdale Forest, 
G 2 

d4 canals. 

near the source of the Aire, and passing Ripley, and 

Knaresborough, joins the Ouse, a few miles above 


The Ribble rises among the mountains near Skip- 
ton, and running south by Settle and Gisburn, passes 
into Lancashire. 

Besides these principal ones there are several rivers 
of less importance, 


Leeds and Liverpool Canal. 
This canal begins out of the river Mersey, at low 
water, just at the lower extremity of the town of Liver- 
pool, by Bank-hall, and goes over the river Alt to 
Mill-house, it then takes a large half-circle round the 
town of Orraskirk, and crosses Toadbrook, nearNevr- 
borough, whence it proceeds by the Douglas .Naviga- 
tion to Wigan; from thence, in a circular course, 
through Red Moss, by Black-rod, north for some way 
parallel witli the Lancaster Canal, near Chorley, and 
by Heapy to Blackburn; from whence, with a bend 
round Church, it passes Burnley and Coin to Foul- 
bridge, where a bridge is cut to supply the Canal, of 
which it is the head. The canal here begins to fall to 
Leeds, and goes from Foulbridge, by Salterford, East 
Morton, and cross the river Aire, near Gargrave, by 
Thorlby, Sturton, and the town of Skipton, by Bradley, 
Kildwick, Silsden, near the town of Keighley, and by 
Bingley ; a little below which it crosses the river Aire 
again, passes Shipley, and takes a semi-circular course 
round the Idle, near Apperton-bridge, Ilorsforth, 
Kirkstall Abbey, by Burley and Holbeck, to the town 
of Leeds, making in the whole, a course of 130 miles, 
with 838 feet fall, viz. from the summit near Colne 
to Leeds, forty-five miles, fall 409 feet. From the 
summit there to Wigan, 50 miles, with 399 feet fall. 
From thence to Liverpool, 35 miles, fall 30 feet. 
There is also a collateral cut from near Shipley to 
Bradford. ' 

The Barnshy Ccncl joins the river Calder, below 
the town of Wakefield, and pa>ses Crofton, Felkirk, 

CANALS. (3.> 

RoystOH, and arrives at Barnsley, whence it make* tx 
bend to Barnby-bridge, near the town of Cnwthorn, 
the length about 14 miles. There are several rail- 
ways to the canal from Barnbley, and others from 
Barnby-bridge. The fall from the junction with the 
Dearne and Dove Canal, is 120 feet to the river 

The Dearne and Dove Canal^ commences from tlie 
cut which has been made for the accommodation of 
the river Dun navigation, between Swinton and -\Iex- 
brough, and proceeds by Wath, Wombwell, and Ard- 
sley, to near Barnsley, there to form a junction with 
the Barnsley Canal, which joins the river Calder. 
There are two small branches, one parallel with Knol- 
beck-brook, to the iron work at Cob-car-Ing, the 
other along the head stream of the river Dove, to 
Worsbrough-bridge ; with a proposed extension of this 
branch near one mile and a half farther, to Rockliffe- 
hridge, adjoining the grounds of Earl Stratford, at 
Went worth-castle. 

The whole length of this canal, from the junction 
of the river Dun to Barnsley, is nine miles and a 
quarter, with 125 feet rise, from the river Duu to 
Barnsley. The branch to Cob-car-Ing is one n>ile 
and three quarters, and is level, by n>eans of some 
deep cutting at the extremity. The branch to Wors- 
brough-bridge is one mile five furlongs in length. 

The Stainforth and Keadby CunaL comniences at 
the river Dun, about a mile to the west of Fishlake, 
and runs parallel with the river opposite to Thorn ; 
whence, in a line nearly i\\ii^ east, it passes Crowle 
and Keadby, where it joins the river Trent. There is 
a branch about a mile across Thorn's Common to- a 
place called Hangman-hill, which joins the river Dun. 
The total length of this canal is between fourteen and 
fifteen miles, and running through a part of the fenny 
country, has little elevation, and no lockage, except 
out of the rivers at the extremities. 

The Huddersfield Canal joins Sir John RarasHen's 
Canal on the south side of Huddersfield, a»ul taking 
c S 


a westerly course, runs parallel with the river Colne, 
which it crosses twice, passing Longwood, Slaithwaite, 
and Marsden : from Marsden, under Pule-moss and 
Brunn Top, there is a tunnel of near three miles and 
a half l^ig, which brings the canal to Rasp-mill, on 
the Digglewater, and within about two miles of Dub- 
cross; passing which, it takes the route of the river 
Tame, the windings of which it frequently intersects, 
and passes within one mile of Lydgate, by Mossley, 
Stayley-bridge, and joins the Ashton and Oldham 
Canal on the south side of Ashton, being a course of 
nineteen miles and five furlongs, with 770 feet lockage. 


This has been stated, according to the returns of 
1811, thus: 155,264 inhabited houses ; males, 321,837; 
females, 331,473; total 653,315 persons, being an in- 
crease of 89,000 since the year 1801. 


The former are in most cases very inconveniently 
situated, by being crowded into villages or townships, 
and not placed on the lands the farmer has to culti- 
vate; besides, the farm-house and offices should be 
? laced as nearly as possible in the centre of the farm, 
'he farm offices erected by Lord Hawke have been 
referred to as an elegant pattern. The farm-houses 
lately erected are in general good, and conveniently 


There having been a great want of dwelling-houses 
for husbandmen and labourers, many have boarded in 
the farm-houses, particularly the unmarried men, 
whilst the day-labourers have resided in the villages ; 
although it is generally admitted that building cottages 
contiguous to the farm-offices, would be a great con- 
venience to the farmer, and of greater advantage to 
the community. 


A considerable part of the West Riding is possessed 
by small proprietors, a respectable class of men, who 
generally farm their own lands. There are likewise a 


great number of large proprietors, such as the Duke 
of Norfolk, Earl Fitzwilliam, &c. Few of the latter 
reside upon their estates for a considerable part of the 
year. The greatest part of the riding is freehold pro- 
perty; the number of copyholders, or those who hold 
by a copy of court-roll, is also considerable. Much 
hkewise belongs to the archbishop, colleges, deans, 
prebends, &c.; and the inferior clergy, in consequence 
of enclosure bills, are coiistantly accumulating landed 

The greatest part of the land is let without lease, 
or what is the same thing, the occupiers are re- 
moveable at six months' warning. The real leases 
are of different durations : from three to twenty-one 
years; but three-fourths of the riding having been 
possessed from year to year, has been thought de- 
structive of all good farming. 


The majority of farms are comparatively small, 
there being few in the West Riding that would be 
considered as large ones in any other part of the 
kingdom. As to the rent of land, it is difficult to fix 
its average, as in many places the sums payable by 
the farmer to the church, the public, and the poor, 
are nearly as great as the nominal rent paid to the 

A considerable part of the landed property of the 
West Riding is in the hands of small freeholders; but 
there is likewise a great number of large proprietors. 
A great majority of farms are comparatively small, 
varying in size so much, however, that it would be 
difficult to fix an average. Upon the arable lamis 
few exceed 300 acres. In the grass division they are 
smaller still, and the occupier of 100 acres has been 
called a great farmer. 


Alniost all this riding is enclosed, except the com- 
mon fields and moors ; and too much praise cannot 
be given on account of the perfect state in which the 
fences are kept. 

1>8 <:AriL£. 


The quantity of waste land in this riding has been 
some years t^radually diminishing, yet much btiil re- 
mains to be done. All waste lands ought to be di- 
vided as soon as possible, so that every proprietor 
might have an opportunity of improving his share in 
one way or other : great part of which, according to n 
very judicious writer, *' call loudly for improvement 
by the plough and the spade; may the call be obeyed, 
lest we fight and weave and hammer till we have not 
bread to eat." From Ripley to Paitley, there is still 
a great deal of waste land. There is a fine valley 
called Nidderdale, watered by the Nid,but the higher 
ground has been left in a state of waste; and on this 
side of Grassington, a great part of the land is com- 
mon, or waste. 


There are not many horses bred, except in the 
eastern part of the riding. The size of those in the 
western part is generally small; but hardy and capable 
of great fatigue. In other parts of the riding they are 
large, and those used in waggons are strong and well 

The stock of cattle may be classed under four dif- 
ferent heads. There is the short-horned kind, which 
principally prevail on the east side of the riding, and 
are distinguished by the names of the Durham, Hol- 
derness, or Dutch breeds. There is the long-horned, 
or Craven breed, which are both bred and fed in the 
western parts, and also brought from the neighbouring 
county of Lancashire ; these are a hardy sort of cattle, 
and constitutionally disposed to undergo the vicissi- 
tudes of a wet and precarious climate. 1 here is 
another breed, which appears to be a cross from the 
two already mentioned, and esteemed the best of all. 
A great number of milk cows of this sort are kept in 
Nidderdale and the adjacent country, which are both 
useful and handsome. They are perhaps not altoge- 
ther such good milkers as tlif liolderness cow?, but 

SHEEP. 69 

they are much hardier, and easier maintained. They 
are at the same time sooner made ready for the but- 
cher, and are generally in good order and' condition, 
even when milked. Besides these, there are immense 
numbers of Scotch cattle brought into the country, 
which after being fed for one year, and sometimes 
two, are sold to the butcher. Beef of this kind always 
sells higher in the market, than that of the native 
breed; and from the extent of population there is a 
constant demand for all that can be fed. 


There are so many kinds of sheep, both bred and 
fed, and they have been so often crossed, that it is 
not easy to describe them. The sheep bred upon the 
moors in the western part of the riding, .ind which we 
presume are the native breed, are horned, light in the 
fore-quarter, and well made for exploring a hilly 
country, where there is little to feed them but heath 
and ling; these are generally called the Peniston 
breed, from the name of the market-town where they 
are sold. When fat they will weigh 14lb. or 151b. 
per quarter. They are a hardy kind of sheep, and 
good thrivers. When brought down, at a proper age, 
to the pastures in the low parts of the country, they 
feed as well, and are as rich mutton as need be. 

There are great quantities of Scotch sheep from Te- 
viotdale, &:c. fed in the country; numbers of ewes 
are also brought annually from Northumberland, 
which, after taking their lambs, are fed for that season, 
for the butcher. Many two years old of this kind are 
also fed upon turnips: and in the southern parts there 
are a good many of the flat-ribbed Lincolnshire sheep, 
which are ugly beyond description. 

Upon the waste commons scattered up and down 
the riding, the kind of sheep bred are the most mise- 
rable that can be imagined. i\s they generally be- 
long to poor people, and are mostly in small lots, 
they never can be improved. This will apply to the 
whole of the sheep kept upon the commons, that ure 
not stinted; the number diat are put om, bej^ar and 


Starve the whole stock. In many parts of Ihe riding 
particular attention has lately been paid to this useful 
animal, by selecting rams of the best properties and 

Hogs of various breeds are kept in this riding, and 
they have of late years received much improvement. 

There are not many rabbit-warrens in this district, 
nor indeed much soil proper for that animal. It is 
only upon soft waste lands that they ought to be suf^ 
fered to remain, as upon cultivated land they are a 
perfect nuisance. 


Nearly one-sixth part of the West Riding is waste 
land and moor; the quantity, however, is lessening 
every day. There are many parts of these wastes ca- 
pable of great improvement, if divided and enclosed; 
but the far greater part would not repay the expence 
of enclosing. 


Some time past the farmers in the West Riding were 
very deficient in the construction and management of 
their ploughsand wheel-carriages; and the same plough, 
with a few trifling alterations, was used all over the 
whole district; but it seems the improvements pro- 
posed since that period have not been wholly disre- 
garded, notwithstanding the force of custom. 


The carts, in general, are badly proportioned, being 
too long in the body, and strait. They are drawn by 
two, three, or four horses, and are very unhandy 
about a farm. The waggons are upon both broad and 
narrow wheels, and have been deemed extremely de- 
structive to the roads. Very few oxen are wrought 
in the West Riding, and those only upon the farms of 
landed proprietors. 


Pontefract has long been famous for the cultivation 
of liquorice, to the extent of 100 acres, in tlje vicinity 
of the town. It is a very precarious plant, often 
rotting by wetness, and hurt by sharp frosts in the 


spring, or by dry weather afterwards. Rhubarb of 
good quality has been cultivated to advantage in the 
same neighbourhood, Jind promoted by the Society 
for the Encouragement of Arts and Manufactures. 


Coals are found in great abundance in most pai-ts 
of this riding; and excellent stone for building, and 
various other purposes, is every where at hand, in the 
hilly parts, and in the neighbourhood of Bradford 

In the parish of Leeds there is fine pipe clay, and 
several quarries of an argillaceous schist, which supply 
the neighbourhood, and the country down the river, 
with slates and flag-stones for paving. On the north- 
east border of the parish begins a bed of imperfect 
granite, or moor-stone of the same kind as that on the 
East Moor in Derbyshire, which runs to the Chevin, 
near Otley, and constitutes the whole ridge of Ro- 
mald's Moor as far as Skipton, where limestone com- 
mences. On each side towards the level of the rivers 
Aire and Wharfe, the argillaceous schist occurs, which 
is evidently a stratum covering the granite. The 
stone on the south of the Aire is entirely argillaceous 
schist, as is generally the case where coal is found. 

In the neighbourhood of Nidderdale there are some 
considerable lead mines. 

Copper, ^-c. ore of— Copper pyrites, copper, com- 
bined with iron and sulphur. 

Martial pyrites. Sulphur combined with iron, with 
baroselenite foliated and crystallized, found in a mine, 
at Beggarmans, to the north-west of Buckden. 

Lead, ores of- — Galena, lead combined with sulphur, 
the common blue lead oar. Lead mineralized by 
oxygen, and carbonic acid, the white lead ore, crystal- 
lized and compact. 

There are many mines in this part of Yorkshire 
which produce the above varieties of lead ore, in con- 
siderable quantities, the liberties of Buckden, Star- 
bottom, Kettlewell, Coniston, Grassington, Hebden, 
&c. &c. ; but the white lead ore has been raised ui 


greatest quantities in the liberties of Buckden and 

Green lead ore, phosphorated lead ores, have been 
discovered in very small quantity on Grassington 

Zi7ic, ores o/^— Calamine, Lapis Calaminaris, zinc 
mineralized by oxygen, with or without carbonic acid, 
compact and stalactitical, raised in considerable quan- 
tities in the liberties of Arnclifte, Kettlewell, and 
several others in that neighbourhood ; and at Malham, 
Lord Ribblesdale's liberty. There is also found. at or 
near Malham, an oxyd of zinc, in form of a white 
powder, some of it is rich; this has not been met with 
in any other p;irt of England. 

Coal — A thin bed of coal is found on Grassington 
Moor, and the places in that neighbourhood. 

The above-mentioned ores are accompanied in the 
v^ia with baroselenite, (cank of some) calcareous 
spar, or carbonate of lime and quartz, &c. 

Wickersley, a village upon the turnpike road be- 
tween Sheffield and Bawtry, is noted for supplying the 
manufactory of Sheffield with grind-stones for all the 
finer articles of cutlery. 

There are fieveral mineral waters in tliis riding, of 
which the most famous is the sulphurous water of 
llarrowgate. There is also a chalybeate spring at the 
same place, and another at Thorpe-Arch. These we 
shall notice more fully i'.i the topographical part of our 

At Knaresborough is a remarkable petrifying spring, 
called the Dropping Well ; and near Settle is a very 
curious ebbing and flowing well, both of which we 
shall more particularly describe in the course of our 


This riding k mostly divided into wapentakes, and 
some detached districts. Among the foraier are, 
Aybrigg, Barkston Ash, Ciaro, Ewecross, Morley, 
Osgoldness, Shyrac, Staincliff, Staincross, Strattlbrth, 
and Tickhill, Liberty of Cuwood, Wistow and Otley, 


Ripon, Doncaster Soke, and Leeds Borough. — Within 
these limits are twenty-nine market-towns, and five 
parh'amentary boroughs, viz. Aldborough, Borough- 
bridge, Knaresborough, Pontefract and Ripon. Eccle- 
siastically, this riding is within the province and dio- 
cese of York, and forms the Archdeaconry called 
Archdeaconry of York, or West Riding, divided 
into the following Deaneries : Craven, city of York 
and Ainsty, Pontefract. Ripon, within the Archdea- 
conry of Cleveland, is a peculiar jurisdiction. 




The North Riding is bounded by the county of 
Durham on the norlh; the German Ocean on the north- 
east; the East Hiding on the south-east; the Aihsty 
of York and the West Riding on the south; and the 
county of Westmoreland on the west. The extent of 
the riding from east to west is eighty-three miles, and 
the breadth from north to south, forty-seven, con- 
taining 1,311,187 acres. 


The climate of the coast, from its situation, is cold 
and bleak; but in the vales sheltered from the wes- 
terly winds and the sea air, the grain ripens well. 
Cleveland is subject to a chilly and severe climate, 
but the dry soil here generally liastens the harvest. 
The Vale of York, or Mowbray, near the moors, is 
cold; but in other parts mild and temperate. The 
climate of the Howardian hills, especially at the wes- 
tern end, is cold, and the corn late in ripening, but 
that of the eastern end is milder. Rydale, and the 
east and west marshes, have a mild climate. The 
great altitude of the eastern moorlands renders the 
air cold and bleak; iience crops are often in the 
field when it is covered with snow. The western 
moorlands are much more liable to rain, and not be- 
ing exposed to the sea air, the snow lies much longer 
on them ; but the general character of the climate of 
the North Riding, resembling all the counties border- 
ing on the German Ocean, is that of dryness througli- 
out the year, and of peculiar coldness during the first 
half of it. Frosts sometimes occur in this riding, even 


in June, and vegetation generally lingers in its pro- 
gress till that month has advanced. The soils of the 
coast are various. 

The level land near the Tees, consists of a rich gra- 
velly loam upon the high ground; on the west side of 
the road from Catterick to Piersebridge, it is for the 
most part strong, and generally fertile; but in some 
places cold and spongy; some fine hazel loam is also 
to be met with. Other soils are gravelly and of clayey 
loam. The dales that intersect the western moorlands 
are very rich and fertile, as is likewise Rydale, but 
Wensley-dale may be ranked among the first both in 
extent and fertility. The same may be said of the 
productiveness of the smaller dales, which are very 

The district described by the term coast, compre- 
hends the cultivated lands lying between the eastern 
moors and the ocean. It is hilly and bold, and frona 
its situation cold and bleak; but in some of the vales, 
which are sheltered both from the westerly winds and 
the sea air, corn ripens well. The cliff of the coast 
is generally from 50 to 150 feet high ; the foot of 
which is in some parts always washed by the sea, and 
in all parts at high tides; from this cliff the country 
rises very rapidly, in the space of from half a mile to 
a mile, to the height of 300 or 400 feet. 


The North Riding, considering its magnitude, has 
no great extent of navigable waters, though the rivers 
and streams (provincially called becks) are very nu- 
merous. The principal of the first is the Ure, rising 
near the bordersof Westmoreland, and running through 
Wensley-dale, collects many tributary streams in its 
way, and runs with a rapid current many miles. 
About three miles below Masham it becomes a boun- 
dary between this and the West Riding, till it arrives 
at Ripon. It loses its name about six miles below 
Boroughbridge, and is now called the Ouse: the lat- 
ter runs to York, where it entirely quits the North 
Riding. The Ouse is naviiiable for vessels of ISO tons 
H 2 


as far as York, where the spring tides would rise about 
twenty inches, if not obstructed by the locks about 
four miles below, and would be spent about six miles 
above. The Ure, with the aid of a short canal, is 
navigable for vessels of about 30 tons as far as Ripon. 
The Tees divides this riding from the county of Dur- 
liam during its whole extent, and is navigable for 
vessels of 80 tons from the ocean to Yarm, where the 
spring tide rises seven feet. 

The Derwent rises in the eastern moorlands, and 
takes a southerly direction, parallel to the coast, till 
it comes to the foot of the Wolds, when it alters its 
direction more than once to Malton, to which it is 
navigable from the Humber, for vessels of twenty-five 
tons. It is the boundary between the North and East 
Riding, till it arrives near Stamford-bridge. The Foss, 
a small stream rising near the western end of the How- 
ardian hills, unites with the Ouse at York. The na- 
vigable cut from York to Stillington will be the only 
one of the kind that penetrates the North Riding. — 
The Swale, the Esk, and the Rye, rise and flow for 
their whole course within the North Riding; but, like 
all other streams having their sources in mountainous 
countries, they are sliallow, rapid, and liable to sud- 
den and frequent floods, the "Wiske alone excepted. 
The Cover, the Greta, the Leven, the Rical, the 
Dove, the Seven, the Costa, and several other streams 
in this riding, only serve the purpose of turning a 
few mills. The Rye, the Rical, the Hodge-beck, the 
Dove, the Seven, and the Pickering-beck, are all in- 
gulphed during their passage through the narrow range 
of limestone hills that skirt the southern side of the 
eastern moorlands, and again emerge at their foot on 
the northern margin of Rydale, after having been 
lost for the space of nearly a mile and a half. 

Nature, in fine, has afforded the North Riding na- 
vigable water on half of its circumference at least: 
the Derwent and Ouse, from Malton, by York, to 
Ripon, on the south; the Tees to Yarm, on the north; 
and on the sea to the east. Navigation has in one 

ROADS. 77 

instance been assisted by art, in the canal made from 
York to Stillington, a distance of about 14 miles. An- 
other canal lias been proposed to pass down the \'^ale 
of York, and join the Tees and Ouse, as a work of 
great utility. 


Much has lately been done to the roads, particu- 
larly on that from York to Malton, by lowering tlie 
hills, straightening, and widening, and building bridges. 
The pains taken in scraping the roads, causing them 
to dry more quickly, not only renders them more plea- 
sant to travellers, but also lessens the draught of the 
carriages. The roads in this riding are ahnost wholly 
repaired by statute duty. 


Perhaps in no district in the kingdom, of equal ex- 
tent, are the bridges, commonly called county bridges, 
more numerous, or better attended to. They were 
upwards of twenty years under the care of John Carr, 
esq. the celebrated architect of York. The number 
of these bridges is about 130, many of them of large 
extent, and erected in dangerous situations, and they 
are generally marked with the initials of the riding, 


As the greater proportion of this riding is possessed 
either by noblemen or gentlemen of upwards of 500/. 
per annum, there is of course a considerable number 
of elegant mansions belonging to both classes. The 
houses of those in Cleveland, on the borders of Leemiiig- 
lane, and thence to the Swale, are better than in many 
parts of the riding; as in other parts, a farm-house from 
100/. to 200/. a-year, consists only of a parlour, which 
has a bed in it, a room called a house, (which is 
the living room), and a back kitchen on the ground 
floor, and some very ordinary chambers open to the 
roof, that is generally thatched with rye or wheat straw. 
The farm-houses, those in the dales of the moorlands 
excepted, are too often situated in villages; but in 
these dales they are generally constructed of stone, 
u 3 


and situated upon the farms. The western dales are 
remarkable for their hay barns, placed in the centre 
of every third or fourth field ; those barns have always 
a cow-house at one end, and often at both, where 
their cattle are wintered ; by this means the hay and 
manure are not carried any great distance; a matter 
of importance in these hilly countries. The barn too 
is of particular use during hay harvest, in a country 
where the weather is attended with sudden, frequent, 
and violent showers. — The farm-houses of a recent 
date are great improvements of the old ones, though 
the tenant usually stands to all common repairs. 


The cottages of the labourers are generally small 
and low, consisting for the most part of only one room 
or two, both levef with the ground. In this riding 
the farmer is by no means well accommodated; but the 
labourer is much worse. Several dwellings have of 
late been built in different parts of the riding, with 
every proper convenience, which having small gardens 
and the enclosures provinciidly called gaths, have con- 
tributed much to the comfort and health of the fami- 
lies occupying them. 


An instance of the rents being paid in any other 
manner tljan money only, occurs on some large estates, 
where loon days are performed by the tenants, which 
are usually for the purpose of carrying coals and other 
articles to the mansion of their landlord: these are 
generally proportioned to the size of the farms, and do 
not amount to more than the use of a team for one or 
two days in a year. The average rent of farms of 
pretty good soil, is from 15 to 21 shillings per acre. 
Near large towns small parcels of land have been let 
at 3/. or 4/. per acre. 


The tenure of the country is freehold, with some 
few instances of copyhold property, and some of lease- 
hold for 1000, or other long term of years; and some 
instances of leases for three lives, renewable at the 


fall of every life: the latter, chieily held under the 
church or other corporate bodies, are scldojn occu- 
pied by the lessee, who generally leases the whole es- 
tate at the place, but are farmed out again by him to 


The greatest part of this riding is subject to tithes 
in kind, both rectorial and vicarial, but in many pa- 
rishes they are compounded for^ especially the latter; 
this mode of provision, fortunately for the clergy and. 
public, is annually declining by means of the enclo- 
sure acts; wliile tithes in lay hands are becoming gra- 
dually extinct, by purchases made of the lay impro- 
priator by the owner of the soil. To the credit of 
the tithe owiiers of this riding in general, a rigid mode 
of exacting them has not been the subject of com- 


In the best parts of the North Riding few open or 
common fields now remain, the moors and moun- 
tainous parts excepted. White-thorn, proviocially 
called quick-wood, constitutes the most common 
fence, and is planted when about three years old; in 
low wet situations crab makes the best fence ; but 
the modes of hedging and ditching are various. The 
gates in most general use, are those of five bars. In 
the low grounds adjoining the river Derwent, where 
drains are wanted, two ditches, each eight feet wide 
and sixteen . feet asunder, are made, and the soil 
thrown on the intermediate space, which is planted 
with bitter willow on each side, and alder and birch 
in the middle. In the dales of both the moorlands, 
stone walls without mortar are the prevaihng fence. 
In the neighbourhood of York hollies have been ob- 
served planted in a rechning position along the line 
of the hedge, with their tops just above the ground. 


The plough commonly called the Rotherham, or 
Dutch plough (their constructions being nearly the 
same), is generally used, and is allowed to be the best 


plough in use for all land; for though it is of the most 
simple construction, yet it effectually performs its 
work. Proud's trenching or double plough is used by 
some, and answers well. The first share pares up the 
sod, and the other turns over the mould upon it. 
This plough is likely to be very serviceable if used 
with judgment. The depth and quality of the soil 
forms the criterion of using it. This plough may be 
set to difterent depths. It is requisite to plough up 
fresh earth, but the skill of the ploughman depends 
on his not ploughing too deep. The drill is very 
little used, nor does chat use increase. Proud's drill 
is the most in use for sowing turnips; it delivers the 
seed regularly, and may be fixed to any plough. 
Almost every sort of harrow or roller is to be found 
here, the lighter ones generally on the Wolds. 

The waggons in the greatest part of the district are 
drawn by two or four horses. They are generally 
heavy, with low fore wheels that lock under the body. 

The breast-spade, used in draining, is found very 
useful ; it is driven forward by a man in the same 
manner as the paring spade, and is not much unlike 
a common hay spade, turned up on both sides ; it 
takes out an entire sod, and is very useful in cleaning 
out furrows, and cutting small grips or top-drains in 
flat lands. 

A considerable number of oxen are used, mostly in 
yokes, and for carriages, in the farms ; very few for 
the plough, as they are deemed too slow for that pur- 
pose, and in warm weather cannot stand, with suffi- 
cient ease to themselves, that continued labour for so 
long a time which the plough requires. 

Threshing-mills and vvinnowing-machines have long 
been introduced. The Dutch plough is generally used, 
as are also the turn-wrist plough, with a few gripping 
ploughs for gripping the furrows of grass land; but 
the breast gripping-spade is much preferable to the 
last instrument. Drills are not general, though 
several are used in the northern part of the Vale of 
York; and here a drag on an excellent principle, called 


the " quick ing drag," has been adopted ; as is also a 
stubble-rake di-awn by a horse. In several parts a 
hay-sweep is used for readily collecting the hay to- 
gether when raked into rows and intended to be 
stacked in the field. This is used with two horses, 
and the hay is thus got together in much less time 
than with a carriage. 


The breed of cattle throughout the Noith Riding 
is the short-horned, except towards its western ex- 
tremity, where some small long-horned cattle are to 
be met with, and also a mixed breed between the 

The short-horned cattle of the northern part of the 
Vale of York, and of Cleveland, where also consider- 
able numbers are bred, are known by the name of the 
Tees-water breed; and in the south of England by 
that of the Holderuess cattle, from the district of that 
name in the East Riding where this breed was either 
originally established, or first so improved as to bring 
it into notice, and where, within the district now 
under sur\'ey, the best of the breed are still to be met 
with. This district is supposed to produce the largest 
cattle in the kingdom ; and several proprietors of 
stocks have of late years, at considerable expence, 
attentively improved them, encouraged thereto by the 
great prices given for cattle of this breed. 

The cattle of the improved breed are very large and 
handsome; their colour hght red, or black blotches, 
distinctly marked on a white ground ; their backs 
level; throats clean; necks fine; carcass full and 
round ; quarters long ; hips and rumps even and wide; 
they stand rather high on their legs; handle very 
kindly; are light in the bone in proportion to their 
size, and hare a very fine coat and thin hide. 

Very few oxen in the northern part of the vale, 
and Cleveland, are used for the purposes of the 

In the southern part of the Vale of York, breeding 
of cattle is not so much attended to as it is in the 


northern part, the object of cattle tl^ere being for the 

The cattle of the western moorlands are small ; in 
the lower parts of the dales they are generally of the 
short-horned kind ; but in the higher situations near 
the moors, and on the borders of the West Hiding and 
Westmoreland, the long-horned breed prevails. 

In the eastern moorlands, and the coast, a great 
number of very good cattle are bred. They are not 
quite so large as those near Tees, but are clean and 
fine in the bone, and very free feeders. Great num- 
bers of the oxen are worked until six or seven years 
old, and then they are sold chiefly to the graziers of 
the south of Yorkshire and of Lincolnshire, by whom 
they are preferred to every other breed. 

In Rydale, with the Marishes, and the Howardian 
liills, many cattle are bred, and a considerable atten- 
tion is- paid to their improvement by several spirited 
individuals; and here, next after the banks of the 
Tees, the best of the short-horned cattle bred in the 
riding are to be met with ; the breed formerly was 
crossed with bulls from Holderness, but since the 
Tees-water bulls have taken the lead, they have been 
chiefly resorted to for improvement. 

The breed of Rydale is generally very large, with 
great bone, as it does not feed quite so quick as the 
Tees-water, to remedy which the Sussex breed has 
been used for a cross by two farmers of the dale, 


The sheep of the old stock of the northern part of 
the Vale of York, and of Cleveland, are very large, 
coarse boned, slow feeders, and the wool dry and 
harsh; they feed to from 30 to 40 pounds per quarter, 
at three years old ; and a few have been fed above 
that weight, and produce 10 or 11 pounds of wool 
each ; but of late years the stocks of very many of the 
breeders have undergone a great change, and been 
much improved by the use of rams of the Dishley 

This improvement in the breed of sheep, extends 

SHEEP. 83 

betwixt the Swale and western moorlands, as far south 
as the West Rid ing; but it is not yet so general in 
the southern part of the vale as the northern. 

The sheep of Rydale, the Marishef, and the How- 
ardian hills, possess much of the Lincolnshire blood; 
the original breed of the dale having been improved 
by that cross. These sheep have been much improved 
by the introduction of the Dishley blood. 

The improved breed is about the same size, but 
produces rather more wool than that of the Vale of 

The sheep which are bred upon the moors of the 
western moorlands are horned, have grey faces and 
legs, and many of them a black spot on the back of 
the neck, and vvool rather coarse and open. 


Yorkshire has long been famous for its breed of 
horses, and particularly this riding, in almost every 
part of which considerable numbers are still bred ; 
the prevailing species are those adapted to the coach 
and saddle. 

In the northern part of the Vale of York the breed 
has got too light in bone for the use of fiirmers, by the 
introduction of too much of the racing blood ; but the 
most valuable horses for the saddle, and some coach 
horses, are there bred. 

In Cleveland, the horses are fuller of bone than 
those last described ; they are clean, well made, very 
strong and active, and are extremely well adapted to 
the coach and the plough. 

In the southern part of the Vale of York, the 
Howardian hills, Rydale, and the Marshes, a greater 
mixture prevails, both of the black and the racing 
blood, than in Cleveland; nevertheless, those districts 
produce a very considerable number of both coach 
and saddle horses; but want of attention or judgment, 
or both, in the owners of mares, in not suiting them 
with proper stallions, evidently injures the breed. 

The dales of the eastern moorlands, and the coast, 
^rear many^ horses, which are rather of a smaller breed 


than those before described ; but are a hardy useful 
race, thougli generally too low for the coach. 

Horses constitute a great part of the stock of the 
high parts of the western moorlands; the farmers 
there generally keep a few Scotch Galloways, which 
they put to stallions of the country, and produce an 
hardy and very strong race, in proportion to their 

Exclusive of the above, the North Riding produces 
a considerable quantity of timber in the hedge-rows, 
particularly in the Vale of York, the Howardian hills, 
and Rydale ; though in them, as well as the wood- 
lands, not so much as formerly. The spontaneous 
production of the woodlands is principally oak, ash, 
or the broad-leaved or witch elm ; the produce of the 
mountains, birch and alder ; and of the hedge-rows 
and cultivated places various other trees, tlie conse- 
quence of improvement and art. 


The coast and Cleveland, abound in all their hills 
with inexhaustible beds of alum strata. The eastern 
moorlands also produce alum, and some seams of coal 
are worked in different parts of these moors, but they 
are of an ordinary quality. Several of the dales con- 
tain great quantities of the iron stone; but Ayton is 
the only place where any iron is now forged. The 
coal in the Vale of York is found very useful in making 
of lime. Veins of copper are supposed to be scattered 
about in several parts of the western moorlands and 
their vicinity ; here are also several lead-mines. Free- 
stone or gritstone is found in several parts of the 
riding near Richmond ; at Renton, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Whitby; nor is limestone less abundant. 
Various kinds of slate are also found, with divers kinds 
of marble, with blocks of light red granite. Marl 
also is met with in several parts, and gypsum on each 
side of the river Swale, about Thornton bridge. 


In the North Riding there is a considerable variety, 
%vhich also vary from those in adjoining districts; in 


the northern part of the North Riding, the customary 
bushel exceeds that of Winchester by two quarts; that 
of some individuals is still larger, about ten per cent, 
more than the statute requires. A stone of wool ia 
York market is sixteen pounds, and four ounces in 
each stone are allowed for the draught of each fleece. 
At Ripon market, a stone of wool is sixteen pounds 
twelve ounces. A stone of wool in the western moor- 
lands is seventeen pounds and a half; at Darlington, 
it is eighteen pounds. In the eastern moorlands, the 
weights used by individuals vary up to nineteen 
pounds in the stone, and the pound of butter in the 
riding varies from sixteen to tuenty-four ounces. A 
stone of any other commodity in the riding is fourteen 


The North Riding is divided into twelve wapen- 
takes, comprising nineteen market-towns, of which 
five are boroughs, each of them sending two members 
to parliament, viz. AUertonshire, Birdforth, Bulmer, 
Gilling East, Gilling West, Halekeld, Hang East, 
Hang West, Lanbarugh, Pickering, Lythe, Rydale, 
Whitby Strand. The East Riding is divided into four 
wapentakes. All the ridings are in the province and 
diocese of York, except a small part which belongs to 
the bishopric of Chester. 




The East Riding is the least of the three grand 
Hivisions of Yorkshire. It is bounded on the north 
und west by the rivers Harford and Derwent, that 
separate it from the North Biding as far as the vi- 
cinity of Stamford-bridge. About a mile above this, 
an irregular line commences from the Derwent to the 
Ouse, and joining the latter river about a mile beiow 
York, forms the rest of the boundary between the two 
ridings. From that place the East Riding is bounded 
on the west and south-west by the Ouse, which di- 
vides it from the West Riding. On the soutU it is 
bounded by the Humber; and on the east by the 
German Ocean. It contains 819,200 acres. 


The climate of the Wolds is severe and variable; 
the winds, as they sweep over this plain and unbroken 
surface, being extremely violent and penetrating. The 
north and east winds in spring generally continue with 
little intermission throughout the whole of March, 
April, and May, and occasionally longer, retarding all 
vegetation, and dwarfing the trees and hedges. Still 
the Wolds are extremely healthy, and the most grain 
is produced in the driest summers : but where the 
crops are exposed to the sea-fogs they are usually 
small, and the grain thick-skinned and coarse. Holder- 
ness has a fertile soil, and Howdenshire, with Ouse and 
Derwent, enjoy an earlier vegetation in proportion to 
the soil, than the clay lands; whilst the Vale of Der- 
went, from itsvariety of soil, is proportionately various 
in its climate. 

The soil of the Wolds is, with little variation, a ligKt 
friable calcareous loam, in some parts mixed with 
flints and pebbles ; that of Holdnerness varies f; ~i a 


fertile cla37ey loam to a stiff cold retentive clay. The 
peculiarity of the circumstances and situation of Sunk 
Island, give it a claim to particular notice. Its name 
is probably obtained from seamen, when it first began 
to show itself a short time prior to the year 1667. 
That part which was first embanked, was originally 
about two miles from the shore, and many persons are 
living, who. recollect vessels passing between it and 
the main land, to which it is now united by a bridge 
across a narrow channel, serving as a drain to the 
adjacent country. It contains at present within the 
banks, about 4,700 acres, and twenty-four families, 
and is continually increasing in size, an extensive tract 
having been recently embanked, with a probability of 
its being still further enlarged. Several villages and 
liamlets, Mr. Strickland further observes, have at 
different periods been washed away by the sea, viz. 
Auburn, Hartburn, Hornsea, Burton Beck, and Ra- 
venser, or Ravenspur; the latter celebrated as having - 
been the landing-place of two of our kings. — Buttevant 
in Mare, is only known by tradition, but probably 
others lost at more distant periods are totally for- 


Inhabited houses, 30,3'11; males, 81,205; females, 
86,148; in all, 167,353 persons; having increased 
since the year 1801, 27,920. 


The Derwent is navigable for vessels of 70 tons and 
under, from its junction with the Ouse, up to Malton, 
and its extension as far as Yedingham-bridge, nine 
miles further (by land), will be of very great service. 
The Ouse, from York to its junction with the Trent, 
where it takes the name of Humber, is a smooth flow- 
ing river, and conveys vessels of 150 tons, as high as 
York. The natural flow of the tide ceases about ten 
miles above that city. The Humber, from its width and 
depth of water, is capable of admitting vessels of any 
burthen, up to Hull. The river Hull, which flows near 
Beverley, and by means of a canal, communicates with 


that town, passes through the centre of the clay-land 
district, is navigable up to Frodingham-bridge, whence 
a canal carries forward the navigation to Driffield, 
twenty-five miles from Kingston upon Hull. Another 
canal extends eastward from the river Hull to Leven, 
about three miles distant. Market-Weighton and 
Hedon, have likewise each the advantage of a canal 
from the Humber, so that no part of the East Hiding 
(as measured on the map), is ten miles distant from 
water-carriage. Exclusive of these navigable waters, 
many smaller streams and numberless rivulets, add to 
the comfort and ornament of the country. The Harford, 
a small river rising near the sea, at Filey, waters the 
northern part of the Vale of Derwent. The Foulness 
flows through the centre of the sand lands, and the 
Wolds are on all sides well watered with springs. 

The only stream which runs for any extent through 
the Wolds, is called the " The Gipsies/' rising at 
Wharham-le-street, and falling into the sea at Brid- 
lington-Quay. In the lordship of Bempton, a stream 
of considerable magnitude discharges itself at all times 
into the sea at the foot of the cliffs. This stream is 
very little known, as it can only be approached along 
the beach at a certain time of the tide, in very calm 
weather; nor is the approach from the sea much more 
easy in consequence of the heavy surf almost con- 
tantly breaking against the foot of these lofty cliffs. 
The numerous brooks at the eastern foot of the Wolds 
is well known to anglers, under the general name of 
tlie Driffield Waters, which, with the river Hull, 
abound with trout of peculiar excellence and large 
size. The Cars too, in the low tract of country on 
each side the Hull, though greatly reduced in size and 
number, produce variety of pike, perch, eels, tench, 
turhot, roach, rudd and bream. The great decoys 
for water-fowl at Meux Aram, and Watton, are now 
laid dry, and the fish are in a great measure destroyed 
by the lately made drainages. 

Formerly there were extensive meres and cars in 
Wallingfen, and Spalding Moor; but these being 


drained within the last sixty years, the country is now 
cultivated as far as it will admit. Hornsea Mercj in 
Holderness, is the largest in this part of England, 
being about two miles long, and about three quarters 
broad in the widest part, and contains about 600 acres. 
Not being above a third of a mile distant from the 
coast, and so much on a level with the high tide, in 
lieavy gales ©f wind, the salt water driven up the 
outlet has sometimes entered the lake, and proved 
destructive to the fish in the lower part of it. This 
lake is interspersed with several wooded islands, and 
animated with water-fowl. It produces only pike, 
eels, perch and roach; but the pike have for a long 
time proved the most numerous. 


Nearly the whole of the roads in this riding are 
entirely maintained by the townships through which 
they pass, there not being more than 140 miles of 
turnpike road in the whole riding. In the Wolds of 
this part they are excessively bad ; but in all cases 
the materials bear the blame. In Holderness the roads 
are repaired with gravel alone, spread upon the clay, 
so that in summer few countries can boast of finer 
highways, but in wet weather, the clay retaining water, 
the gravel is cut through and broken up; but though 
Howdenshire labours under the same inconvenience in 
materials, the roads are kept in a better condition. 
In other parts of the riding the roads are variously 
good or bad, according to the materials with which 
they are repaired. The general turnpike and highway 
acts of the late reign require to be revised and 


Very few old fences are to be met with in the greater 
part of this riding, the enclosures having been made 
within the space of the last fifty years. The rails in 
these are three inches square, and are put into the 
post with an angle upward ; and in this manner they 
last more than double the time of a flat rail. " Deuces 
and trays/' are so called from their being two long thin 


rails and an upright strengthening post in the middle, 
which, with the two posts at the end, form the tray; 
this is generally called guard-fencing. The gates in 
common are very various in their form; but hanging 
them properly is too little understood. 


The houses of the country are generally good, ex- 
cept upon the Wolds, where materials are so indiffe- 
rent. The old buildings here are composed of chalk- 
stone, with mud, instead of lime-mortar, and are 
covered with thatch ; but those of later date here, and 
in all other parts of the riding, are substantially built 
of brick, and covered with pan tiles. Sashed win- 
dows are now not unfrequent in farm-houses; but 
these are not so well adapted for economy and dura- 
tion as the casement. Some of the new farm-houses 
are too large, but of Gothecised farm-houses, or 
castellated cottages, there are but few. 

The cottages here are more comfortable than in 
"many other parts of England, as they generally consist 
of two lower rooms with two bed-rooms over them. 
On the Wolds they ai'e almost universally built of 
chalk, and thatched; but in the low countries sur- 
rounding them, they are generally built of bricks or 
mud, and tiled. Many of the cottages in this riding 
have land allotted them for keepmg cows; but from 
the quantity of ground required by the common mode 
of management, it is to be regretted that too many 
persons in most of the villages are deprived of this 
indulgence, so essential to health and comfort. 


On the Wolds many are to be found from QOl. to 
50^. per annum : a farm of about 200/. per annum is, 
however, of a respectable size, and such are the gene- 
rality. Of rents, some instances occur of 1000/. and 
one or two 1200/. per annum ; in Holderness and t^e 
other surrounding districts there are few very small 
farms, and still fewer of the great amount just stated ; 
perhaps the average rent of the whole may be 80O/; 
a year. 


The better sort of land upon the Wolds, may be 
worth 20s. per acre or upwards; and in the low coun- 
tries it is worth from 12s. to 30s. per acre. Near 
York and Hull, considerable tracts have been let in 
small parcels at 61. or 7/. per acre, for gardens, &c. 


The occupation of farms upon lease for a term of 
years, in the East Riding, is of very rare occurrence, 
so much so, that scarcely a considerable estate, or a 
farm of much magnitude, could be recollected as held 
under that condition, unless attended by some suspi- 
cious circumstances, where something incorrect was 
aimed at, or some advantage intended to be given or 
taken. So many inconveniences, however, had been 
found resulting from letting farms merely by verbal 
agreement, that it has since become usual on most 
estates to draw up a Legal Agreement, by which both 
parties bind themselves to the fulfilment of certain 


These, with very few exceptions, are freehold; 
those belonging to the church, or other corporate 
bodies, are usually let out upon lease for three hves, 
renewable on the fall of each, at the rate of a year 
and a half, or a year and three quarters improved rent; 
and the lessees commonly let them to the occupiers 
by the year, according to the usual tenure of the 
country. Copyhold tenures, heretofore very frequent, 
have been for some years gradually diminishing. 


The right of taking tithes in kind has of late been 
greatly abridged in this riding, in consequence of the 
sale of them by the lay impropriators, and by acts of 
enclosure ; and the practice of taking them does not 
usually occur; though in some places a corn-rent has 
been given in lieu of tithe ; and this, notwithstanding 
some objections to it, has generally been thought the 
best mode. Some parishes still continue to pay only 
the thirtieth sheaf to the Vicar; a provision, it seems, 
that cannot be altered for the better. 



In the southern and western part of tliis district, 
the llotherham, or swing-plough, is in general use, 
and which, when well made, does its work more per- 
fectly, and with greater ease both to the man and 
horses, than any other. On the Wolds the old 
fashioned foot-plough has continued too much in use, 
being a clumsy, heavy, ill-formed implement. In the 
Vale of Derwent, the gripping, or surface-draining 
plough, is much used, and some machines for cutting 
Swedish turnips. The pease-hook and the bean-hook 
are peculiar to this riding, and are made of old scythe 
blades. The hoe, and the moulding-sledge, parti- 
cularly the latter, as used here, are excellent in their 
kind. Another tool for the use of the lime-burner, 
answers the double purpose of the rake and shovel. 
The threshing machine used here, is constructed upon 
the same principle as those in Scotland. 


The Holderness, or short-horned cattle, remarkable 
for their large size and abundant supply of milk, pre- 
vail universally through this district. This breed is 
distinctly marked, being variously blotched with large 
patches of deep red, or clear black; or, with a dun, 
or mouse colour, on a clear white ground : they are 
never brindled, or mixed, and rarely of one uniform 

The South-Down breed of sheep, introduced upon 
the Wolds some years since, has gradually extended 
itself, being a species admirably calculated for bleak 
and bare situations, where they have to travel far for 
a supply of food, and where the bite is short. 

The Yorkshire bay horses are naturally stout, hardy, 
and compact animals, and at the same time clean- 
limbed ; but for want of care the breed has degenerated. 

A great number of cattle and horses are bred in 
almost every part of the riding, and in course are of 
great importance. The oxen, when at a proper age 
and fatted, weigh, when killed, from 60 to 110 stone; 


COWS weigh Irom 40 to 60 stone ; the average of oxen 
weighs 70, of cows 48 stone. 


The waggons generally used here are high, narrow, 
and long; but the mode of yoking them peculiar to 
this district, is worthy of imitation. The four horses 
are yoked two abreast, in the same manner as they 
are put to a coach, two drawing by the splinter bar, 
and two drawing by the pole; those at the wheel draw- 
ing also by a swinging bar. The driver then being 
mounted on the near side wheeled horse, directs the 
two leaders by a rein fixed to the outside of each of 
their bridles, thejr being coupled together by a strap, 
passing from the inside of each of their bridles to the 
collar of the other horse. In this manner, when 
empty, they trot along the roads with safety and ex- 
pedition, and when loaded, the horses being conve- 
niently placed abreast, perform their labour with much 
greater ease than when placed at length. 


The waste lands of the East Riding, properly so 
called, are of small extent, and so incapable of im- 
proving, that no useful information can be given under 
this head. Some fruitless efforts have been made 
under acts of enclosure, to cultivate weak and barren 
tracts, and the land has again been abandoned. Some 
plantations, however, have been made with a better 
prospect of success; and this appears to be the only 
method of deriving profit from such soils. 


Near Norton, Westow, and a few other places, is 
found a strong hard limestone, abounding with shells, 
applicable only to the coarsest purposes of building. 
Among the chalk of which the Wolds mostly consist, 
a light grey flint is found, differing in figure and in its 
more material properties from other flints, as contain- 
ing too much calcareous matter to be useful in the 
potteries, wliich are supplied by flints collected on the 
south coasts of England; and after passing up the 
Humber, conveyed by the rivers and canals to Staf- 


fordsliire ami elsewhere. Mtirl and gypsum are also 
found within the limits of this riding. 


The customary bushel used here is considerably 
larger than the Winchester, and the corn merchants 
invariably buy by the former and sell by the latter. 
In the Malton market, where much corn from the 
East Riding is sold, it is customary to sell oats by 
weight, 24 stone of 14 lbs., being considered equal to 
a quarter of eight customary bushels. The coal mea- 
sure varies at almost every part between Newcastle 
and London, gradually diminishing as it proceeds 
southward, and the price remaining nearly the same. 
At Bridlington 48 unhcaped Winchester bushels make 
the chaldron. The legal measure upon which the duty 
is paid, is 36 unheaped Winchester bushels per chal- 
dron. — On the Wolds, wool is sold by the stone of 
161 lbs. In Holderness the todd of 28J lbs. is in ge- 
neral use. Butchers' meat, hides, provisions, tallow, 
&c. are sold by the store of 14 lbs. The pound of 
fresh butter varies in ditferent markets, from 16 to 20 
ounces. Hay is sold by the ton of 160 stone, and 
straw by the threave of 12 bundles. 


The East Riding is divided into six wapentakes, viz. 
Holderness, Dickering, Buckrose, Ouse and Derwent, 
Howdenshire, and Harthill. It contains ten market 
towns, viz. Bridlington, Driffield, Beverley, Pockling- 
ton. Market- Weighton, Howden, South Cave, King- 
ston upon Hull, Hedon, and Patrington; of which 
Beverley, Iledon, and Hull, send two members each 
to parliament. 



Journey frorn Ingleton to Hotherham ; throvgh Settle, 
Skipton, Keighlei/y Halifax, Rudder sjield, and Barm- 

Ingleton is a large and tolerably well-built vil- 
lage, on the borders of the riding, next Lancashire. 
Tlie manufacture of cotton yarn has for some years 
been the principal employment of the inhabitants. 
There are several collieries close to the village, nhich 
supply the country round to a considerable distance 
with coal. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Ingleton there 
are many objects highly interesting to the natural 
philosopher, find the admirer of romantic scenery. 
At a short distance northward is Thornton Scar, a tre- 
mendous cliff, partly clothed with '.rood, and partly 
exhibiting the bare rock. This Scar is about 100 
yards high, and runs up a considerable ^vay, in differ- 
ent degrees of elevation, into the mountains, along 
with one not quite so perpendicular on the other side. 
These are only separated by a very narrow, but fright- 
fully deep chasm, through which a rapid stream pur- 
sues its course over a succession of small cascades. 
Thtjrnton Scar contains a stratum of that species of 
rock of which blue slate is formed, from which great 
quantities of tbat article is got. Not far distant in the 
same romantic dell is Thornton Force, a curious fall 
of water, formed by the river Don, which issues out of 
Kingsdale. It partly rushes from an aperture of the 
rock, having entered it about sixty yards above, with 
a fall of nearly thirty, and partly from the top of a 
locky ledge thirty yards high, over half of which it 


falls in one unbroken sheet, four yards wide, and then 
rushing over a projecting rock, fails into a deep black 
pool below. The tops and sides of the rocks are 
beautifully fringed with ivy and other shrubs. The 
whole forming, with the cascade, a very fine picture, 
leaving little for the imagination of the artist to 

About two miles furtlier is Raven Ree^ a rocky 
promontory, 40 yards high, almost covered with ivy, 
yew, and other evergreen shrubs. Ascending the 
mountains a little further, we soon enter the beautiful 
Valley of Kingsdale, about a mile in length, and 300 
yards broad, having the mountain Greg-roof on the 
north, VVharn;,ide, one of the highest mountains in 
England, on the south-east, and a high ridge extend- 
ing from thence on the south. The lime-stone on 
Greg-roof assumes the most fantastic appearance, 
seven tiers of naked perpendicular rocks, with slop- 
ing intervals (exhibiting scanty portions of earth, 
one above another like the ribs of a skeleton, run 
along the sides of this mountain ; but contrary to the 
ribs in animal nature, they run parallel to the spine. 

About four miles from Ingleton, in Kingsdale, is 
Yordas Cave. It is situated at the east end of the 
vale, under the mountain Greg-roof. The walls of 
this curious cavern are a sort of black marble, the 
roof pretty smooth, and beautifully veined with red 
and wliite. The floor is strewed with stones and 
pieces of rock. Its whole length is between 50 and 
60 yards, its breadth 13 yards, and height 47 feet. 
On entering the cave its area enlarges every way, 
the principal part lies to the right; but it extends rlso 
to the left, unfolding some wonderful closets, called 
Yordas bedchamber, Yordas oven, &c. 

On the upper side of Yordas Cave, is a quarry of 
black marble, from which elegant monuments, cnlm- 
ney-pieces, slabs, and other ornaments are dug. 

By the side of the river Wease or Greta, which 
rises about three miles from Ingleton, are slate quar- 


plants. At a small distance Irom Chapel-ie-dale, four 
miles from Itigleton, is liurttcpot, a round deep iiole, 
about 30 or 40 feet perpendicular, and a deep black 
water at bottom, whicfi runs over in i:reat floods, and 
has in it large black trout. Another deep chasm, ten 
yards long, and 20 deep, at the bottom of a preci- 
pice, is called Ginglepot, filled at the bottom with 
smooth pebbles, except in the south corner, wliere is 
deep water, which in floods swells to the top, and is • 
sues out in a vast torrent. From hence we proceed 
to Weathercote Cave, a perpendicular natural cata- 
ract, within a huge cavern GO yards in length, and 
30 broad. It is entered by a little cave, on the right 
of which is a subterraneous passage under the rocks, 
and a petrifying well. The height of the north cor- 
ner of the great cave is 36 yards. About 11 yards 
from the top issues out a torrent of water, falling 25 
yards, and losing itself on the rocks at the bottom, 
and after passing through the two preceding caverns, 
appears again by the side of the turnpike road. 

" Weathercote Cave is situated in a low field, 
where no such phenomenon is expected, and where 
no rude strokes of nature indicate any thing extraor- 
dinary. The green turf is only interrupted by some 
stone walls, bordering a grove of small trees and 
shrubs, from whence issues the deep-toned, hollow, 
sound of a tremendous cataract. The door of the 
cave is no sooner thrown open than we see, through a 
grotesque arch of rugged rocks, a large body of wa- 
ter, rushing from a square hole, and dashing down 
among the rocks at the bottom of a vast craggy basin, 
about sixty feet perpendicular, with a roar that 
astonishes the most intrepid. This furious river, as if 
ashamed of exposing its streams to the open day, no 
sooner makes this frightful leap, than in a moment it 
disappears; when running under ground for about a 
mile, it again shews itself on the surface in a more 
calm and peaceful state. From the gate at the en- 
trance we descend about fifteen yards, along a rocky 
steep, A little to the right there is a cavity of about 



20 yards in length, with a low roof, in which there is 
a petrifying spring, and a natural seat and table, 
where the philosopher, the recluse, or the poet, may 
study without interruption. 

" The rocky walls of this cave, which are almost 
perpendicular, and on the north side upwards of 100 
feet high, are partly covered with a black moss. The 
lowest and largest part, and where the water falls, is 
somewhat circular, and quite open at the top. One 
of the most striking features of this surprizing scene, 
is a stone of an enormous magnitude, suspended over 
the hole from whence the water issues, by its opposite 
angles touching the sides of a crevice. This stone, 
has certainly remained in its present situation forages, 
and however it may threaten the astonished spectator 
with impending danger, may probably continue till the 
end of time." 

" Weathercote Cave, (Mr. Bigland observes), displays 
a scenery still more romantic and sublime. The top 
of this cavern is nearly on a level with the adjoining 
lands, and the margin is surrounded with trees which 
guard and ornament the steep and rugged precipices. 
The cave is of a lozenge forai, and divided into two 
by a grotesque arch of limestone rock; the length from 
north to south is about 60, and the breadth about 30 
yards. At the south end is an entrance down into a 
small cave, on the right of which is a subterraneous 
passage into the great cave, where issuing from a large 
aperture in the rock, the astonished visitor sees an 
immense cataract falling above 20 yards in an un- 
broken sheet with a noise that stuns the ear. The 
water falling among rocks and pebbles, disappears, and 
runs about a mile along a subterraneous passage. The 
whole cave is filled with the spray from the cataract, 
and sometimes a small vivid rainbow appears, which 
for brilhancy of colour is scarcely any where to be 

Ingleborough is about three miles east from Ingle- 
ton. The westerly and northerly part of this singular 
mountain lies in the parish of Bentham ; the easterly 


in the parish of Horton, in Pibbledale; the southerly 
in the parish of Clapliam. The immense base on 
which it stands is near 20 miles in circumference. 
Several considerable streams rise in tliis mountain, 
which at length fall into the Irish Sea. The land 
round the bottom is fine fruitful pasture, interspersed 
with many acres of lime-stone rocks. The land is 
more barren as you ascend the mountain, and under 
the surface is peat-moss, in many places two or three 
yards deep; it is cut up and dried by the country 
people for burning instead of coal. As the mountain 
rises, it becomes more rugged and perpendicular, and 
is at length so steep that it cannot be ascended with- 
out great difficulty, and in some places not at all. 

There are found quarries of slate in many parts, 
which the neighbouring inhabitants use to cover their 
houses; there are also many loose stones, but no lime- 
stones; yet no stones but lime-stones are to be found 
near the base. The people call the loose stones, near 
the summit, greet stone. The foot of the mountain 
abounds with fine springs, on every side, and on the 
west side, near the summit, there is a very remarkable 
spring. The top is very level, but so dry and barren 
that it affords little grass, the rock being barely covered 
with earth. It is about a mile in circumference, and 
horse-races were formerly held on it. Upon that 
part of the top facing Lancashire and the Irish Sea 
the foundations of a house are still to be seen, and 
tlie remains of what the country-people call a beacon, 
viz. a place erected with stones, three or four yards 
high, ascended with stone stairs, which anciently 
served to alarm the country upon the approach of an 
enemy, a person being always kept there upon watch 
in the time of war, who was to give notice in the night, 
by fire, to other watchmen placed upon other moun- 
tains within view, of which there are many, particu- 
larly Wharnside, Woefall, Camfell, Pennygant, and 
Pendle-hill. There are likewise discoverable a great 
many other similar situations in Westmoreland and 
Cumberland, besides the town of Lancaster, from 
K 2 


wliich it is distant about 20 miles. The west and 
north sides of Ingleborou^h are the most steep and 
rocky: there is one part to the south, where you may 
ascend on hoi-seback. A part of the said mountain 
projects towards tlie north-east near a mile, but some- 
what below the summit; this part is called Parkfell ; 
another part juts out in the same manner, near a mile 
towards the east, and is called Simonfell; there is like- 
^vise another part called Little Ingleborough, towards 
the south; tlie summits of all which are much lower 
than the top of the mountain itself. There are holes 
or chasms, called swallows, near the base, supposed to 
be the etfect of the deluge; they are among the lime- 
stone rocks, and are open to an incredible depth. 
The springs towards the east all come together, and 
fall into one of these swallows or holes, called Allan- 
pot; and after passing under the earth about a mile, 
they burst out again, and flow into the river Ribble, 
whose head, or spring, is but a little farther up the 
valley. Tiie depth of this swallow or hole could never 
be ascertained ; it is about 20 poles in circumference, 
not perfectly circular, but rather oval. In wet foggy 
weather it sends out a smoke or mist, which may be 
seen a considerable distance. Not far from this hole, 
nearly north, is another, which may be easily de- 
scended. In some places the roof is four or five yards 
high, and its width is the same ; in other places not 
above a yard ; and except for the run of water, it 
cannot be known how far yon might walk, by the help 
of a candle, or other light. There is likewise another 
hole or chasm, a little west from the other two, which 
cannot be descended without difficulty; you are no 
sooner entered than you have a subterraneous passage, 
sometimes wide and spa<:ious, sometimes so narrow 
you are obliged to make use of botli hands, as well as 
feet, to crawl a considerable way ; and some persons 
are said to have gone sevenU hundred yards, and 
might probably have gone much further, had they 
ventured. There are a great many more holes or 
caverns, well worth the notice of a traveller: some dry, 


some liaving a continual run of water, such as Black- 
side Cove, Sir William's Cove, Atkinson's Chamber, 
&c. There is likewise, partly south-east, a small 
rivulet, which falls into a place of considerable depth, 
called Long Kin. Also another swallow or hole, 
called Johnsons Jacket Hole, a place resembling a 
funnel in shape, but very deep; a stone being thrown 
into it makes a rumbling noise, and may be heard a 
considerable time. There is likewise another called 
Gaper^GlU, into which a good many springs fall in 
one stream; and after a subterraneous passage of 
upwards of a mile, break out again, and winds through 
Clapham: then, after a serpentine course of several 
miles, this stream joins the river Lon, or Lune, and 
parsing by the town of Lancaster, it falls into the Irish 
Sea. There are likewise, both on the west and north 
sides, a great many springs, which all fall into such 
cavities, and bursting out again towards the base of 
the mountain, fall likewise into the Irish Sea, by the 
town of Lancaster; and, what seems very remarkable, 
there is not one rivulet running from the base of the 
mountain that has not a considerable subterraneous 
passage. All the springs arise about the summit, 
among the greet-stones, and iiuk or fall into some hole 
as soon as they descend to the lime-stone rocks ; 
where, passing under ground for some way, they burst 
out again towards the base. There are likewise, to 
the west and north, a great many swallows or holes, 
some very deep and frightful, others more shallow, 
with a long range of the most beautiful rocks that 
ever adorned a prospect, rising in a manner perpen- 
dicularly up to an immense height. In the valley 
above Ilorton, near the base of this mountain, there 
is a large heap or pile of grit-stones, all thrown pro- 
miscuously together, without any appearance of build- 
ing or workmanship, which cannot reasonably be 
thought to be the work of nature; few stones are to 
be found near it, though it is computed to contain 
400 of that country cart loads of stones, or upwards. 
There is likewise another pile at the base, north-east^ 
K i5 


in resemblance much the same, but not so large. 
There are several up and down the country. Indeed 
here were anciently, as far back as the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, some copper mines, which were wrought 
to good advantage; but whether the vein of ore failed, 
or what else was the reason, they are all given up long 
since, and this part of the country yields httle or none 
at all. 

Mr. Bigland was much disappointed on his ascent 
to the top of Ingleborough. The day, July 8, 181 J, 
was fine and clear below; but the mountain was from 
time to time covered with clouds which often poured 
over the top like the smoke of furnaces. Whilst 
ascending, however, all appeared clear, and he seemed 
to have met with a favourable moment ; but when he 
reached the summit, a cloud was approaching from 
the west which precluded his view of the Irish Sea. 
In the space of a few minutes, not only the distant 
mountains, butWharnside and Pennygant disappeared; 
Ingleborough was enveloped in a tremendous storm 
of wind and hazy rain, accompanied with a surprizing 
degree of cold, and darkness almost equal to that of 
night; the weather in the meanwhile underwent no 
alteration below, but continued all the day, warm, 
pleasant, and clear. 

Mr. Bigland therefore thinks it advisable that every 
tourist who visits Ingleborough, or other mountains of 
this description, should take a guide; for want of 
similar precaution he found himself bewildered amidst 
the rocks and morasses; and the approach to Ingle- 
borough on the southern side from the village of 
Austwick, is very toilsome to persons not acquainted 
with the road. The north side of Ingleborough is less 
steep than the eastern and southern sides; but the 
western is the raost sloping, and tl;e easiest ascent is 
from Ingleton. The sides where they are not perpen- 
dicular are springy; the ground indeed to the very 
summit emits water at every pore; for this mountain 
being the first check that the western clouds meet 
with in their passage from Ireland, is almost conti- 


nualiy enveloped in mists, or n ashed with rains. The 
top is level ajul horizontal; and the beacon formerly 
placed here, was to give the country an alarm in any 
sudden danger, particularly an incursion of the Scots. 
Pennygant at the distance of four miles, appears to be 
almost within a leap; and towards the south, the 
rocks near Settle and Peiidle-hill towering aloft, seem 
close at hand. Wharnside is within the distance of 
six miles, and Snow den, Crossfell, dec. are clearly 

Dr. Gale supposes that the beacon upon Ingle- 
borough was erected by the Roman garrison of 
Bremetonacae, or Overborough, which is live miles 
from it. 

In a field called the Sleights, are two large heaps 
of small round stones, a quarter of a mile from each 
other, called the Hurders. About five miles north- 
east fi^om Ingleton, is Wharnside, another high moun- 
tain. It is about 50 feet higher than Ingleborough, 
but the prospects from it are not so much diversified 
with pleasing objects, the situation being in the midst 
of a vast amphitheatre of hills. The sight of four or 
five small lakes, or sams, as they are here called, on 
the top, will however afford some amusement to the 
curious. Two of them are about 300 yards in length, 
and nearly the same in breadth. A thin seam of 
coal is found near the summit of this mountain ; and 
another is said to correspond therewith on the top of 
the lofty hill Colm, on the opposite side of Debdale or 

The perpendicular height of this mountain, accord- 
ing to Mr. Jefferies, is 5340 feet, or one mile and 
twenty yards above the level of the sea. Several 
pools or small lakes near the summit, are called tarns, 
two of which are at least 180 yards in length, and but 
little less in breadth. 

The prospects are very extensive, and command 
the whole of Wensley-dale, when not obscured by 

Fennygantj is about six miles eastward from Ingle- 


borough, and is another remarkable mountain of con- 
siderable elevation. The measurement of Penny^nt 
is 1740 yards above the level of the sea. At its base 
are two frightful orifices called Halpit and Huntpit 
Holes; the former looks like the ruins of a large 
castle, the latter resembles a deep funnel. Through 
each of them runs a subterraneous brook, which 
emerges at a considerable distance. 

There are several other curiosities of a nature 
similar to those already described, not only about 
the base of Ingleborough, but that of Wharnside, 
well worth the notice of the natural philosopher, and 
which may be visited in such succession as may be 
most convenient. The principal curiosities on the 
former not already noticed, are Meergill and Plardraw- 
kin on the north side, and Alumn-pot and -Long 
Churn on the south; those on the latter are Galekirk 
Cave on the south, and Greenside Cave on the south- 

The following is the most correct statement of the 
elevations of Ingleborough, and the other two cele- 
brated mountains in its neighbourhood. 

Wharnside 5340 feet. Measured by Jefferies. 

Ingleborough 5280 do. Ditto. 

Peimygant 5220 do. Ditto. 

From the above measurements it appears, that the 
mountains of Yorkshire are the highest in South 

Four miles from Ingleton, upon the road is the 
village of Clapham, which contains several well-built 
houses, and the adjacent country is rendered particu- 
larly agreeable by the many small villas and gentle- 
men's seats interspersed about it. 

About two miles before we reach Settle, under a 
high ridge of prominent lime- stone rocks, is a re- 
markable ebbing and flowing well. A stone trough 
of about a yard square is placed over the spring, with 
openings at various heights to admit the issuing of the 
water at different times ; sometimes it rises and falls 
nearly a foot in this reservoir every ten or fifteen 


minutes. Drunken Barnahy, who wrote liis Itinerary 
nearly 200 years ago, mentions this well, and observes 
that it puzzled the learned of his age. 
" Near to the way, as the traveller goes, 
A fine fresh spring both ebbs and flows; 
Neither know the learu'd, that travel, 
What procures it salt or gravel." 
This phenomenon has never been accounted for in 
a satisfactory manner. This singular spring is close 
to the right-hand side of the road leading to Ingkton, 
Kirkby Lonsdale, and Kendal, at the bottom of Gig- 
gleswick Scar, an almost perpendicular clitT of lime- 
stone and gravel 150 feet high, and more than three 
miles in length. The water is limpid, cold, and 
wholesome, and great care is taken to preserve it from 
being defiled by passengers. 

About a mile further is the pleasant village of Gic- 
GLESWICK, which is Said to have formerly been a 
market town, while Settle was only a hamlet, and it 
still contains the parish church to that place. This 
church is a large and handsome uniform building, 
exactly in the same style of the other churches iu 
Craven, which are known to have been rebuilt in the 
reigns of Henry VII. and VIII. In this church, on a 
brass plate, m the middle aisle, is the following in- 
scription : 

Here lies interred, 
The Rev. William Paley, B.A. 
Fifty-four years 
Master of this Free-School, 
Who died September 29, 1799, 
Aged 88 years. 
Also Elizabeth, 
The Wife of the Rev. William Paley, 
Who died March 9th, 1796, 
Aged 83 years. 
These were the parents of the late celebrated Dr. 
Paley, sub-dean of Lincoln, who is also lately de- 
ceased. This eminent person was born in July 1743, 
at Peterborough, where liis father was tlien minor 


canon of the cathedral, but removed to Giggleswick 
soon after. 

The parish of Ckgleswick contains five townships, 
viz. the village of Giggleswick and Stackhouse one ; 
the market town of Settle, with the hamlets of Lodge 
and Murbeck a second ; the two Stainforths a third ; 
the village of Langcliffe and hamlet of Winskill a 
fourth ; and the village of Ruthmell a fifth. 

The manors of Giggleswick and Settle are vested 
in his Grace the Duke of Devonshire, as Lord of the 

" The environs of Giggleswick are romantic and 
beautiful. — Here a deep and rocky valley begins to 
be formed, which allowing sufficient space for a very 
fertile tract of meadow and pasture, gradually ex- 
panding to the south, forms a bold and lofty rampart 
of grey limestone; on the east and west surmounted 
at a considerable distance, by the enormous masses 
of Pennygant and Ingleborough to the north. Im- 
mediately to the east, and almost overhanging the 
town of Settle, is Castleberg, a conical rock, backed 
by a cluster of rugged and protuberant craggs, and 
once undoubtedly crowned by a fortification. 

" The summit of Castleberg once formed the 
gnomon of a rude, but magnificent, sun-dial, the 
shadow of which passing over some grey soft stone 
upon its side, marked the progress of time to the in- 
liabitants of the town beneath. An instrument cer- 
tainly more ancient in itself, and possibly as old in its 
application, as the dial of Ahaz. 

" But the hour marks have long been removed, 
and fe%v remember the history of their old benefac- 
tor, whose shadow now takes its daily tour unob- 
served." — 

In a quarry at Craven-Bank, the boundary of Cra- 
ven, above Giggleswick, a large quantity of Roman 
coins were found some years since, chiefly of the two 
Constantines, Gratian, and others about the same 



Is a small, but well-built, market-town, otice fa- 
mous for its manufacture of, and trade in, leather, 
and hides; and a fair once a fortnight is still kept 
up for the sale of these articles, and fat cattle. Its 
situation with respect to the neighbouring country 
is rather low. The vale before it, through which the 
Ribble pursues its course, is however extensive and 

The town stands near the base of Castleberg rock, 
above-mentioned, vv-hich is said to rise nearly 300 feet 
above the tops of the houses. The inhabitants were 
some years since at the expence of cutting an easy 
winding path to the top of it, from whence there is a 
fine prospect of the vale below, and the long range of 
craggy hills on each hand. 

On' approaching Settle, in travelling from Skipton, 
quickset hedges entirely disappear, and all the fields 
are enclosed w^ith stone walls, laid without mortar ; 
some of these being six feet high, renders them much 
less agreeable than they would be if the fences were 
lower and the prospects more open, though all the 
country to the north consists of a rude assemblage of 

At High Hilly above Settle, are the remains of two 
Roman encampments; the first occupies a large tract 
of ground, in the middle of which is a noble spring 
surrounded with a bank of earth ; the second is small, 
and of an oblong form. A branch of the Roman road 
passes over the moors by Sunderland, and in view of 
Craven Bank. 

About four miles to the east of Settle is Mulham 
Cove, an immense crag of limestone, 286 feet high, 
stretched in shape of the segment of a large circle 
across the valley, which it thus terminates, "in a 
manner at once so august and tremendous, that the 
imagination can scarcely figure any form or scale of 


rock, within tho bounds of probability that shall go 
beyond it." 

At the foot of the cove, a current of water issues 
out, called Aire Head, it being, in all probability, one 
of the streams which feed that river. In floods the 
subterraneous passage is not sufficient to give vent 
to all the water which then pours in a cataract from 
the top of the rocks, forming a most grand and mag- 
nificent cascade. This curious phenomenon is sel- 
dom seen by travellers in the summer months. If 
the wind blows pretty strongly from the south or 
soutli-west, the whole front of this bluff and age- 
tinted battlement standing unsheltered and exposed, 
very little, if any, of the expanded current reaches 
the bottom; but driven back into the air, or against 
the projections of the rock, has the appearance of a 
curled foaming mist, impetuously revolving, and dis- 
sipated as a whirlwind. 

Within less than a mile of this village, it is observed 
in the " Beauties of England," is Malhara Water, a 
lake of an almost circular form, about a mile in dia- 
meter, and remarkably situated on a high moor. The 
water is fine and clear, and it abounds with excellent 
fish: here have sometimes been taken, trout of eleven 
pounds weight, and perch weighing from five to six 
pounds. — This 'lake was given by William de Percy 
to the monks of Fountain's Abbey, about the begin- 
ning of the reign of King Stephen; and the inexhaust- 
ible store of excellent trout and perch with which it 
has always abounded at one season of the year, might 
have converted the pretended fasts of these monks 
into a season of festivity. 

A little above the cove, upon the moors, is Mal- 
ham Turn^ a small lake, about four miles in circum- 
ference, abounding in trout and perch, which grow 
here to a great size. 

Passing through the village of Malham, which is 
situated at the union of the two valleys, respectively 
terminated by the Cove and Gordale Scar, at the 
distance of a mile we reach the latter. "The ap- 


approach to Gordale, on the east side of the village, 
is through a stony and desolate valley, witiiout a single 
object to divert the eye from the scene before it; this 
is a stupendous mass of limestone, of perhaps equal 
height with the cove, cleft asunder by some great 
convulsion cf nature; opening " its ponderous and 
marble jaws," on the right and left, and forming a 
ravine, over the rugged bosom of which flows a con- 
siderable stream. 

" The sensation of horror is increased by the pro- 
jection of either side from its base, so that the two 
conivent rocks, though considerably distant at the 
bottom, admit only a narrow line of day-light from 
above. At the very entrance you turn a little to the 
riglit, and are struck by a yawning mouth, in the face 
of the opposite crag, whence the torrent, pent up 
beyond, suddenly forced a passage, within the me- 
mory of man, which at every swell continues to spout 
out one of the boldest, and most beautiful cataracts 
that can be conceived. Wherever a cleft in the rock, 
or a lodgment of earth appears, the yew-tree, indigenous 
in such situations, contrasts its deep and glossy green 
with the pale grey of the limestone." 

The opening in the rocks, which gives passage to 
the stream, is said to have been caused by the force 
of a great body of w^ater, which collected in a sudden 
thunder-storm, sometime about the year 1730. 

About five miles from Settle, is Lokg Pkeston, a 
large village, at least a mile in length upon the road. 
Great quantities of calico are made, and the inhabi- 
tants have been noticed for their respectable and 
cheerful appearance. 

A church was erected here very early in the Saxon 
times. It contained a chantry, dedicated to Our Lady 
and St.Anne ; founded by Richard Hammerton, knt. 
according to the return of chantries, made by Arch- 
bishop Holgate, and valued at 5l. 6s. 8d. per annum. 
This was the south choir of the church, still the pro- 
perty of the family. There was also a chapel of St. 
Michael, which Dr. VVhitaker suspects to have stood 



near the entrance of the church-yard, where a floor 
of painted tiles is met with, in digging graves. 

The present church contains no remains of the 
original structure, excepting at the east end of tlie 
middle aisle. The rest was probably rebuilt about 
the year 1445, the time of the erection of Hammer- 
ton's chapel. 

Withia the steeple, and at considerable height 
above ground, is a strong vaulted chamber, about six 
feet by four, the use of which is not known. 

The mansion house at Helhfield is a curious cas- 
tellated building, fortified and embattled by Laurence 
Hammerton, in the reign of Henry VI. It still re- 
mains a square compact building, very strong; but of 
too narrow dimensions to accommodate the family, in 
the splendid style they then lived, and therefore must 
have served rather as a place of retreat in case of 
alarm. It was modernized by James Hammerton, 

The next place we pass through, on our road to 
Skipton, is Coniston Cold, a small township, in the 
parish of Gargrave. On Stuling Hill, an high round 
knoll, above this village, commanding one of the 
most central and extensive views in Craven, is an 
elliptical encampment, 522 feet in circumference; it 
is supposed to be Danish. On the north-west side of 
Coniston Moor, is a place called Sweet Gap, where 
tradition reports that the inhabitants of Gargrave, 
making a stand against a party of Scotch invaders, 
were cut off almost to a man. Gargrave, according 
to the same tradition, had then seven churches, six of 
which these destroyers burnt, and spared the seventh 
for the merit of being dedicated to their own national 
saint, Andrew. 

The parish of Gargrave may be considered as the 
central parish of the district called Craven, as well as 
the warmest and most fertile. It consists of the 
townships of Gargrave, Coniston Cold, Cold Newton, 
since called Bank Newton, Stainton, Esliton, Hasby, 
and Winterburne. It is partly within the fee of Clil- 


ford and partly vvithia that of Percy, which are divided 
by the river Aire. 

Gargrave is situated upon the road, about four 
miles from Skipton, and close to the Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal, upon which it has extensive ware- 
houses. The principal business of the place is the 
cotton manufacture. 

A court for the recovery of small debts is held here, 
under the Duke of Devonshire. 

The town is divided by the river Aire, which abounds 
with fish, " and has such a winding course (says 
Camden), through the Ings between this and Skipton, 
and sports so in meanders from its very source, as if 
it were undetermined almost whether to run to the 
sea, or back to its sjurce; for I was forced to cross 
it, in my direct road, no less than seven times in half 
an hour." Gargrave is a place of yearly rendezvous 
to the gentlemen of Yorkshire, and the adjacent 
counties, for the hunting-season. 

" y\bout half a mile beneath the town, on a fertile 
plain, are the buried remains of a Roman villa, called 
Kirk Sink, from a tradition that some great ecclesias- 
tical edifice had there been swallowed up. The 
stones of which this building had been composed have 
gradually been removed, probably to build the pre- 
sent church; but the irregularities upon the surface, 
prove it to be a parallelogram, about 300 feet long, 
and 180 feet wide. It was dug up about 70 
years ago, and the source of a tesselated pavement 
discovered at that time, induced Dr. Whitaker to ap- 
ply for permission to open the ground again. But the 
■walls had been so completely grubbed up to the 
foundation, that though it was just possible to ascertain 
the size of the apartments, which had been very small, 
no masses of cohering pavement could be taken up, 
and the whole lay in heaps mingled with mortar, con- 
sisting of cubes of various colours, some an inch, 
others not more than half an inch in diameter, toge- 
ther with floor-tiles of about three inches square," 
L 2 ' 



Is a good market town, entirely built of stone ; it 
consists chiefly of one spacious street, which serves for 
the market-place, and some straggling lanes. Here 
is a well-frequented market on Saturday, to which 
great quantities of corn are brought, and hence dis- 
persed into several parts of Craven. Skipton being 
close to the Leeds and Liverpool canal, the latter 
greatly facilitates the trade. 

The present church of Skipton is a spacious and 
handsome building of different styles of architecture; 
perhaps no part of the original structure remains, but 
four stone seats with pointed arches, and cylindrical 
columns, in the south wall of the nave, may be re- 
ferred to the earlier part of the 13th century. 

The church received considerable repairs in the 
time of Richard IIL but thereof cannot be older than 
the reignj of Henry the VHIth. It is very handsome, 
flat, but with light flying springers. At the east end 
are the arms of the Priory of Bolton. 

The screen is inscribed : 

anno D'ni milz^^imo cinin^mti^imo ttim^imo ttttia 
tt regni Hegi^ J^em ttiiu Xiicz&Mmo quinto. 

Beneath the altar, which is unusually elevated on 
that account, is the vault of the Cliffords, the place 
of their interment, from the dissolution of Bolton 
Priory to the death of the last earl of Cumberland. 
Dr. Whitaker examined this vault, March 29, 1803, 
after it had been closed many years, and found " that 
the original vault, intended only for the first earl and 
his second lady, had undergone two enlargements ; 
and the bodies having been deposited in chronological 
order, first, and immediately under his tomb, lay 
Henry, the first earl, whose lead coffin was much cor- 
roded, and exhibited the skeleton of a short and very 
stout man, with a long head of flaxen hair, gathered 
in a knot behind the skull. The coffin had been 


closely fitted to the body, and proved him to have 
been very corpulent, as well as muscular. Next lay 
the remains of Margaret Percy, his second countess, 
whose coffin was still entire. She must have been a 
slender and diminutive woman. The third was the 
Lady Ellinoj-'s grave, whose coffin was much decayed, 
and exhibited the skeleton (as might be expected in a 
daughter of Charles Brandon, and the sister of 
Henry VIII.) of a tall and large-Umbed female. At 
her right hand was Henry the second earl, a very tall 
and rather slender man, whose thin envelope of lead, 
really resembled a winding sheet, and folded, like 
coarse drapery, over the limbs. The head was beaten 
to the left side ; something of the shape of the face 
might be distniguished, and a long prominent nose 
was very conspicuous. Next lay Francis, Lord Clif- 
ford, a boy. At his right hand was his father George, 
the third earl, whose lead coffin precisely resembled 
the outer case of an Egyptian mummy, ^vith a rude 
face, and something like female mammae cast upon it; 
as were also the figures and letters of G. C. 1605. 
The body was close wrapped in ten folds of coarse cere 
cloth, wmch being removed, exhibited the face so entire 
(only turned to copper colour), as plainly to resemble 
his portraits. The coffin of Earl Francis, who lay 
next his brother, was of the modern shape, and alone 
had an outer shell of wood, which was covered with 
leather; the soldering had decayed, and nothing ap- 
peared but the ordinary skeleton of a tall man." 

Over him Jay another coffin which Dr. VVhitaker 
suspects had contained the Lady Ann Dacre, his 
mother. Last lay Henry the fifth earl, in a coffin of 
the same with that of his father. 

The tomb of Henry the first earl, and Maigaret 
Percy his wife, is of grey marble. On the slab are 
grooves for two figures. There are also inlets for four 
shields of arms, within the garter. All these brasses 
were stolen in the Civil Wars, but the epitaphs had 
been transcribed in 1619. The celebruted Anne 
L 3 


Countess of Pembroke caused others to be affixed, 
which Dr. VVhitaker gives at length. 

At the south side of the communion«table is ano- 
ther stately tomb of black marble, inclosed with iron 
rails, and erected by the good countess to the memory 
of her father, George Clifford, third earl of Cumber- 

In the church is a library, for the use of the parish, 
founded by Silvester Petys, principal of Barnard's Inn, 
who was born in this neighbourhood. It consists 
chiefly of ancient books, that are in bad condition, 
which is said to arise from the salary of 5^. per annum 
for their preservation not being paid according to the 
will of the founder. 

The Castle at Skipton is the great object which 
attracts the attention of strangers. It stands on an 
eminence that commands the town, and also a good 
prospect of the surrounding country. It was built by 
Robert de Romille, styled lord of the manor of Skipton 
in Craven, soon after the Conquest. It afterwards 
came to the Cliffords, and at present belongs to the 
earl of Thanet. Of the original building little besides 
the western door-way of the inner castle now remains. 
The oldest part of Skipton castle now remaining con- 
sists of seven round towers, partly in the sides, and 
partly in the angles, of the buildings, connected by 
rectilinear apartments, which form an irregular qua- 
drangular court within. The walls are from nine to 
twelve feet thick. This part was the work of Robert 
de Chfford, in the beginning of the reign of Edward II. 
For according to his descendant, the countess of 
Pembroke, " He was the chief builder of the most 
strong parts of Skipton castle, which had been out of 
repair and ruinous from the Albeniarles' time." The 
eastern part, a single range of building, at least 60 
yards long, terminated by an octagon tower, was built 
by the first earl of Cumberland, in the short space of 
four or five months, for the reception of " the Lady 
Eleanor Brandon's Grace, who married his son, in 


the 27th of Henry VIII." This part remains nearly 
in its origuial condition, as the wainscot, carved with 
fluted pannels, and even some of the ancient furniture, 
serves to prove. 

The present entrance, concealing the original Nor- 
man doorway, was added by Lady Pembroke, wlio 
repaired the castle ; a circumstance commemorated 
by the following inscription cut in stone, over the 
door at the west end : 

" This Skipton Castle was repaired by the Lady Anne 
Clifford, Countess Dowager of Pembroke, Dorset, 
and Montgomery, Baroness Clifford, Westmoreland, 
and Vesy; Lady of the Honor of Skipton in Craven, 
and high Sheriffess by inheritance of the county 
of Westmoreland, in the years 1655 and 1658, after 
the main part of it had lain ruinous ever since De- 
cember 1648, and the January following, when it 
was then pulled down and demolished almost to 
the ground by command of the parliament sitting at 
Westminster, because it had been a garrison in their 
Civil Wars in England. — Isaiah, chap. Iviii. ver. 12, 
God's name be praised." 

The entrance into the castle is by an ancient gate- 
way on the southern side, nearly facing the market- 
place. In one of the courts within the building stands 
an aged yew-tree, casting a solemn shade over the 
place. The edi6ce, however, seems upon the whole 
better calculated for a dwelling than a fortress, as it 
commands a pleasing prospect of the town and vale, 
terminated by distant hills to the south; and the 
eminences on the northern side might be converted 
into pleasure-grounds. 

Several passages wind round the castle to various 
rooms hung with old tapestry. In one of these 
chambers is a curious old family picture, with whole- 
length figures as large as life. Of this picture Dr. 
Whitaker has given a beautiful engraving in his His- 
:ory of Craven. It is composed of three parts, a 
centre and three extremes, the latter serving as doors. 
[n the centre compartment is George Clifford Earl of 


Cumberland, and on his right imnd is Margaret Ilus- 
sel, his countess, holding in her left hand the Psalms 
of David ; on her right hand stands her eldest son 
Francis, and on his right her other son Robert; nearly 
over the head of the countess is a half-length, eight 
inches and three quarters high, and seven inches and 
a half broad, of Elizabeth, Countess of Bath, eldest 
sister of the Countess of Cumberland. On the left, 
at a little distance from it, in the same line, almost 
at the left side of the picture as it is viewed, is another, 
the same size, of Frances Lady Wharton, sister to the 
Earl of Cumberland ; and below is one, rather larger, 
of Margaret Countess of Derby, eldest child of Henry 
second Earl of Cumberland by his first lady. 

The Earl of Cumberland here represented made 
twenty-two voyages against that blood-thirsty monarch 
Philip the second of Spain, who felt the effects of his 
prowess against his Invincible Armada in his European 
dominions, and also in his more distant ones in Ame- 
rica. Queen Elizabeth appointed him her champion in 
the 33d year of her reign. In the exercises of tilting 
and the courses of the field he excelled all the nobility 
of his time. He died, as the picture informs us, 
" penitently, willingly, and christianly, October 30th, 

The doors exhibit the portraits of tlieir celebrated 
daughter Anne Clifford, afterwards Countess of Dor- 
set, Pembroke, and Montgomery. One compartment 
represents her at the age of about thirteen ; the other 
in a state of widowhood, dressed in black, with a 
veil ; over the latter portrait are the heads of her two 
husbands, Richard Earl of Dorset, and Philip Earl of 
Pembroke. This last nobleman died in 1650, when 
the character of this extraordinary woman began to 
shew itself, and the greatness of her mind broke forth 
in its full lustre. She rebuilt or repaired six of her 
ancient castles, she restored seven churches or chapels, 
founded one hospital, and repaired another. She re- 
sided occasionally at each of her castles, for the noble 
purpose of being thereby enabled to dispense her 


charities in rotation to the poor on her vast estates. 
She travelled in a horse-litter, and often over the 
worst roads, to find occasion for laying out her money 
by employing the indigent in repairing the roads. 
This amiably great woman died at the age of eighty- 
six, in the year IG76, and was interred at Appleby. 

From the back of the castle is a view into a deep 
wooded dingle, having a canal at the bottom to con- 
vey limestone to the great canal. In the castle is a 
free chapel (originally founded by the Earl of Albe- 
marle who was married to Cicily, grand-daughter to 
the above mentioned Robert Romille), and having 
some lands called Holm Domain, is consequently said 
to be the castle paiish. 

In the castle-yard there is a very large oak, said to 
be sprung from an acorn that grew on the tree wherein 
King Charles II. secreted himself. There is also a 
large fish-pond, which surrounds one half of the castle, 
upon which a pleasure-boat is kept. 

Skipton has long enjoyed the benefit of a well- 
endowed Grammar School, founded in the second 
year of Edward the Vlth, by William Erme'itead, 
canon residentiary of St. Paul's. 

The school has a beautiful house, garden, and 
pleasure-grounds, attached to it, with divers lands in 
Addinghara, Skipton, and Eastby, worth at present 
near 400/. per annum. The master is chosen by a 
majority of the vicar and churchwardens of the parish 
of Skipton, within one month after the demise of the 
last incumbent ; in case of no election within that 
period, it devolves to Lincoln-College, Oxford ; and 
in case of no appointment there, after one month, to 
the dean and chapter of St. Paul's; after allowing the 
same space of time for appointing a master, and sup- 
posing the same failure or neglect, the choice recurs 
to the vicar and chui'chwardens, and revolves on the 
same ground and on the same condition as before. 
With respect to the master's duty, he is required to 
explain to the scholars Virgil, Terence, Ovid, and 
other Latin poets, and to teach them to compose 


epistles, oiatiuDs, and verses. Here is also a school 
ill which all the boys of the town are taught to sing 
psalms, by the parish clerk, who is allowed a salary 
for it. Here is a Town-house, in which the quarter 
sessions are held once a year, for the West Riding. 

The Leeds and Liverpool Canal coming close to 
the town, opens a channel of navigation to Bradford, 
Leeds, Selby, York, Hull, and the sea, on one side, 
and to Coine, Burnly, Blackburn, Wigan,and Liver- 
pool, on the other. AH sorts of merchandize are re- 
ceived by it, together with supplies of coal from Brad- 
ford, and large quantities of lirae-stone, &c. returned 
to the glass works, iron founderies, and lime-kilns, in 
the neighbourhoods of Bradford, Leeds, &c. 

WiNTERWELL Hall, inSkipton, so called probably 
from a well never frozen in winter, which is now 
swallowed up in the canal, was more than half de- 
stroyed when that was cut; part of it, however, re- 
mains on the right hand of the canal bridge, on 
entering the town from Broughton. This was, until 
the middle of Henry the VHIth's reign, the residence 
of the Lamberts. 

At Embsay, two miles east from Skipton, Wil- 
liam de Meschines and Cicily de Romille his wife, 
founded in 1120 a monastery of canons regular of St. 
Austin, which was about thirty years after translated 
by their daughter AdeUza to Bolton-in-Craven, and 
valued at the dissolution at 212/. per annum. 

The Vale of Skipton is one of the finest and most 
fertile in England: its extent cannot be ascertained, 
as only a very small part of the Vale of Aire bears 
that name. But though not marked by certain boun- 
daries, it may be considered as extending above the 
village of Gargrave almost to the source of the Aire, 
at least five or six miles to the north-west of Skipton, 
and to the same distance below the town, to the 
south-east, within about four miles and a half of 
Keighley. The breadth of the vale is irregular, but 
appears to be about a mile and a half on the average. 
It contains little tillage, but displays the most luxurifijit 


Iheadows and pastures that can any where be seen. 
Some parts, subject to sudden inundations of tlie nvci- 
Aire, produce larger crops of grass than the rest. 
The villages of Kildwick and Crosri-hill stand opposite 
each other about four miles below Skipton; the former 
on the north, the latter on the soutli side of the Aire, 
over which is a handsome stone bridge. Here the 
road from Skipton to Keighley crosses the river. This 
part of the vale, which forms a parallelogram about a 
mile and a half, or somewhat more in breadth, and 
between three or four miles in length, is greatly ad- 
mired by tourists, and may indeed be esteemed a 
terrestrial paradise. The lofty hills forming the boun- 
daries on every side, and the well-built villages at the 
bottom, especially those of Kildwick and Cross-hill; 
the fertile vale divided into beautiful enclosures, and 
the scattered farm-houses, altogether present a land- 
scape equally pleasing and picturesque, and the whole 
scenery exhibits the appearance of a beautiful recess. 
At the south-east corner of this delightful plain, the 
Aire makes a turn almost south, and runs through a 
deep and romantic valley to Keighley. Not far trom 
the north-west corner is Farnhill-hall, once a cas- 
tellated mansion, but lately only used as a farm-house. 
This part of the Vale of Skipton is not less temperate 
and healthful than the other. About a mile from the 
town of Skipton, on the left of the Knaresborough 
road, is a large quarry, from which there is a fine iron 
road, with a gentle descent, all the way to the town, 
to which the stone from the quarry is brought by carts 
without horses. Three carts being strongly linked 
together, and having iron fellies hollowed to suit the 
road, are steered by one man at the hindmost, who 
pushes them for%vard with his foot applied to a lever. 
One horse brings back the three carts to the quarry. 

The remains of Bolton Priory are about three 
miles still further east, being surrounded by bold and 
majestic high grounds they are scarcely seen until the 
traveller arrives on the spot. Bolton Priory stands 


upon a beautifuj curvature of the Wharf, on a Icveh 
sufficientl)' elevated to protect it from inundations, 
and low enough for every purpose of picturesque 
effect. In the latter respect it has no equal among 
the northern houses, perhaps not in the kingdom. — 
Fountains, as a building, is more entire, more spacious, 
and magnificent, but the valley of the Skell is insig- 
nificant, and without features. — Furness, which is 
more dilapidated, ranks still lower in point of situa- 
tion. — Kirkstall, as a mere ruin, is superior to Bolton, 
but, though deficient neither in water nor wood, it 
wants the seclusion of a deep valley, and the ter- 
mination of a bold rocky back-ground. — Tintern, 
which, perhaps, most resembles it, has rock, wood, 
and water in perfection ; but no foreground what- 

Opposite to the east- window of the Priory Church 
the river washes the rock nearly perpendicular, and 
of the richest purple, where several of the mineral 
beds, which break out, instead of maintaining their 
usual inclination to the horizon, are twisted, by some 
inconceivable process, into undulating and spirsd lines. 
To the south, all is soft and delicious; the eye reposes 
upon a few rich pastures, a moderate reach of the 
river sufficiently tranquil to form a mirror to the sun, 
and the bounding fells beyond, neither too near nor 
too lofty to exclude, even in winter, any considerable 
portion of his rays. 

But, after all, the glories of Bolton are on the 
north. Whatever the most fastidious taste could 
require to constitute a perfect landscape, is not only 
found here, but in its proper place. In front, and 
immediately under the eye, is a smooth expanse of 
park-like enclosure, spotted with native elm, ash, &c. 
of the finest growth ; on the right, a skirting oak- 
wood, with jutting points of grey rock; on the left, a 
rising copse. Still forward are seen the aged groves 
of Bolton-park, the groAvth of centuries; and tarther 
yet, the barren and rocky distances of Simonseat and 


' Bardonfell, contrasted to the warmth, fertility, and 
luxuriant foliage of the valley below. 

About half a mile above Bolton, the valley closes, 
and either side of the Wharfe is overhung by deep and 
solemn woods, from which huge perpendicular masses 
of grey rock jut out at intervals. 

This sequestered scene was almost inaccessible till 
of late, that ridings have been cut on both sides of 
tlie river, and the most interesting points laid open 
by judicious thinnings in the w^oods. Here a tributary, 
stream rushes from a waterfall, and bursts through a 
woody glen to mingle its waters with the Wharfe. 
There the Wharfe itself is nearly lost in a deep cleft of 
the rock, and next becomes an horned flood, enclosing 
a woody island ; sometimes it reposes for a moment, 
and then resumes its native character, lively, irregular, 

The cleft metioned above, is the tremendous Strid, 
This chasm, being incapable of receiving the winter 
floods, has formed, on either side, a broad strand of 
native grit-stone, full of rock basons, " or pots of the 
lin," which bear witness to the restless impetuosity of 
so many northern torrents. But if the Wharfe is here 
lost to the eye, it repays another sense by its deep 
and solemn roar, like the voice of" the angry spirit of 
the waters," heard far above and beneath, amidst the 
silence of the surrounding woods. 

The terminating objects of the landscape are the 
remains of Barden Tower, interesting, from their 
form and situation, but still more so from the recol- 
lections which they excite. 

The principal remains of Bolton Priory now stand- 
ing, were parts of the church. The nave is still 
used as a parochial chapel. Over the west door are 
two escutcheons ; that on the north displays the Clif- 
fords' arms, the other on the south side a Cross Jormce. 
Besides the west end, parts of the nave and choir are 
yet standing, though much mutilated. The want of 
a tower detracts much from the beauty of the building. 

According to Dr. Whitaker, the Priory of Embsay, 



before mentioned, was founded by William de Mes- 
chines and Cecelia his wife, in the year J12I, and 
continued there about thirty-three years, when it is 
said by tradition to have been translated to Bolton, 
on the following account. 

" The founders were now dead, and had left a 
daughter who adopted her mother's name, Romill^, 
and was married to William Fitz-Duncan, nephew of 
David, King of Scotland. They had issue a son, 
commonly called the Boy of Egremond (one of his 
grandfather's baronies, where he was probably born), 
who surviving an elder brother, became the last hope 
of the family." 

" In the deep solitude of the woods betwixt Bolton 
and Barden, four miles up the river, the W^harfe sud- 
denly contracts itself to a rocky channel, little more 
than four feet wide, and pours through the tremendous 
fissure with a rapidity proportioned to its confinement. 
The place was then, as it is yet, called the Stride 
from a feat often exercised by persons of more agility 
than prudence, who stride from brink to brink, re- 
gardless of the destruction which waits a faltering 
step. Such was the fate of Young Romille, who in- 
considerately bounding over the chasm with a grey- 
hound in his leash, the animal hung back, and drew 
his unfortunate master into the torrent. The misfor- 
tune is said to have occasioned the translation of the 
priory from Embsay to Bolton, which was the nearest 
eligible site to the place where it happened." 

One of the gates of the priory still remains; and by 
stopping up its openings, has been converted into a 
dwelling, (the ground floor being one large room) has 
been used as an occasionl residence by the Duke of 

Barden Tozcer is situated at some distance above 
the Strid, crowning the bold banks of the river Wharfe. 
It was formerly a hunting residence of the Cliffords. 
In the year 1774 Dr. Whitaker saw it entire. Since 
then the timbers of the roof have been taken away, 
" and it has now put on that form which only dilapi- 


dating remains have the privilege of absuming. The 
chapel, a plain convenient building, at a short distance 
from the tower, is still kept in repair, and used for 
public worship. 

Returning to our road from Skipton to Keighley, 
at four miles from the former place, we pass through 
the village of Kildwick, where tlie family of Cur- 
rer formerly had a seat. 

The church of Kiidwick is one of the two in the 
whole Deanery of Craven which are mentioned in 
Doomsday. The fabric of the church, however, 
appears to have been almost entirely renewed in the 
reign of Henry VIII. The choir is extended to an un- 
usual length, from which circumstance it has acquired 
with the vulgar, the name of the Lang Kirk in Craven. 
In the windows are considerable remains of painted 
glass. In the present nave, but on the north side of 
the original choir, are the tomb and cumbent statue 
of Sir Robert de Steeton, in link-mail, with his arms 
upon his shield. The statue is an exact counterpart 
of that of his cotemporary Sir Adam de Middleton, at 
Ilkly, and as both are wrought in Haselwood stone, 
of which York cathedral is built. Dr. Whitaker sup- 
poses they were executed at that place. 

The bridge of Kildwick was built by the canons of 
Bolton, in the reign of Edward II. 

At Kildwick we pass under an aqueduct of the 
Leeds canal. 

Five miles from Kildwick is Keighley, situated on 
the navigable river Aire, in a valley surrounded with 
hills. Cotton, linen, and worsted manufactures have 
been carried on here with great spirit, and much 
worsted unmanufactured has been sold at Bradford 
and Halifax. Out of 6000 inhabitants, a considerable 
portion derived their support from the manufactures 
here during the late war. 

In 1770 the church underwent a thorough repair, 

and was made uniform. In the north isle are two 

grave stones, each of which has a cross, and one a 

sword, and two shields of arms. The higher nearly 

M 2 


effaced, the lovvei- charged with a cross fleury and 
circumscribed : 


This date of 1023, if the cyphers have not been de- 
faced by time or accident, and restored by some 
careless hand, refers to the reign of Canute the Great! 
Few churches can boast of a sepulchral monument of 
such antiquity. 

At Elam Grange, near this town, a large quantity 
of Roman Denarii was found in 1775. 

BiNGLEY, about two miles to the left of our road, 
is a good market-town, between Bradford and Reigh- 
ly. It is tolerably well built of brick and stone, and 
consists chiefly of one long street, in which the market 
is held on Tuesday. The late census made the 
population of Bingley, 4782. The situation, upon 
a dry hill between two delightful vales, is salu- 
brious and pleasant, and the country, to the distance 
of two or three miles is well wooded, and beautiful. 
Near Morton, a lordship in this parish, was discovered 
one of the most valuable deposits of Roman coin ever 
turned up in Britain. It consisted of a very large 
quantity of denarii, in excellent preservation ; for the 
most part of Septimus Severus, Julia Domma, Cara- 
calla and Geta, contained in the remains of a brass 
chest, which had probably been the military chest of 
a Roman legion, and deposited upon some sudden 
alarm, in a situation which it had quietly occupied 
during a period of almost sixteen centuries. 

Bingley Church is a plain decent structure, as 
restored in the earliest part of the reign of Henry VIII. 
Bingley and Keighleyare both situated upon the Aire, 
in the southern part of Airedale. About Bingley the 
scenery is rich and woody, commanding two vaUies 
almost equally beautiful. The soil on the levels near 
Bingley is a lime-stone gravel, evidently brought down 
by torrents at some remote period, from the great 
native masses of calcareous rock at the source of the 
river. The soil is dry. but shallow; the pasture ground 


of course suffers from the effects of the drouglit in 
summer; but grain, for the same reason, attains an 
earlier maturity than in any part of the vale above. 

FromBingley to Keighley, a distance of about three 
miles, the woods are very beautiful. 

The introduction ofmanufacturesiutoKeighley and 
its immediate neighbourhood, robbed the parish of its 
sylvan beauties. 

The road now passes over a rather bleak country, 
but full of people. Houses and cottages are every 
where to be seen in great numbers, as far as the eye 
can reach; and little has been attended to by the 
inhabitants beside the woollen manufacture, for which 
this district was particularly noted. It afforded labour 
and bread to innumerable families,who quitted their own 
counties in hopes of finding an increase of wages here. 

At twelve miles from Keighley we reach Halifax, 
which is situated eight miles south-west of Brad- 
ford, and twelve miles nearly south of Keighley, on 
the western declivity of a deep valley. The town 
is about three quarters of a mile in length from east 
to west, but extremely irregular in breadth; the streets 
are narrow and rather crooked, though the houses 
are in general well built, partly of stone, and partly 
of brick. The use of the latter material has only 
been brought into fashion since about the middle of 
the last century. But as stone is exceedingly plentiful 
in the environs of Halifax, it is difficult to conceive 
how brick can be the cheaper material. It seems that 
the inhabitants of Settle, Skipton, Keighley, Bradford, 
&c., make a different calculation. These towns, with 
the gentlemen's houses, are almost entirely built of 
stone, and in the villages, scarcely any brick is to be 
seen, either in the most elegant mansions, or the 
meanest cottages. Whatever may be their reason, 
the people of Halifax, though living in a land of stone, 
seem to have a strong predilection for brick. 

Halifax has a good market on Saturday, where, 
beside provisions, &c. ; considerable quantities of 
woollen cloths of different kinds are sold. About the 
M 3 


jmiddle of the fifteenth century, Halifax is said to have 
consisted only of thirteen houses; but in 1566, the 
number had increased to 520, and since that time it 
has considerably more than trebled. Camden, who 
visited these parts about 1574, says the extensive 
parish of Halifax has under it, eleven chapels, two of 
which are parochial, and about 12,000 men in it; 
" whereas in the most populous and fruitful places of 
England elsewhere, one shall find thousands of sheep, 
but so few men in proportion, that one would think 
they had given place to sheep and oxen, or were de- 
voured by them." 

The Calder navigation passes quite through the 
parish of Halifax, and within less than two miles of 
the town. It joins the Rochdale and Manchester 
canal, near Sowerby bridge, and thus opens to this 
manufacturing district, a communication by water, 
both with the eastern and western coast. 

From the vast extent of this parish, it has been 
urged that for a long time after the Conquest it had 
been only a desert. The name of Halifax is not even 
mentioned in Doomsday-book, and it was no doubt, 
that, on account of its unfruitfulness, there never was 
any monastery or religious house in the whole parish. 

The church stands near the east end of the town, 
the choir directly fronting the entrance from Wake- 
field. It a large Gothic structure, sixty-four yards 
long and twenty in breadth, and is supposed to have 
been originally buitby the Earl of Warren and Surrey, 
in the reign of Henry I. The remains of the nave of 
the old church are only sixty-six feet in length; and 
the chancel seems to have been an addition. The 
steeple is known to have been begun in 1450, and 
finished in 1470, by the munificence of the families of 
Saville and Lacy. This tower is well proportioned, 
and is said to be 117 feet in height from the ground 
to the top of the pinnacles. Rokeby's chapel, on the 
south side, was erected according to the Will of Dr. 
Wilham Rokeby, vicar of Halifax, and afterwards 
Archbishop of Dublin, who died Nov. 29, 1521, and 


ordered that his bowels and heart should be buried in 
the choir of this church, and that this chapel should 
be erected and used as a chantry. It is eleven yards 
and a quarter in length, and five and a quarter in 
breadth. The chapel on the south side of the church 
is above sixteen yards and a half in length, and about 
five and a quarter broad. An inscription says, that 
Robert Holdsworth, LL. D., the twelfth vicar, built 
it in the year 1554, at his own proper expence. To 
the twelve chapels in the parish, the vicar of Halifax 
appoints the curates; the chapels of EUand and Hepto- 
stell, however, enjoy the parochial privileges of burying ! 

Nathaniel Waterhouse, of Skilcoat, Salter, who 
died 1641, founded an alms-house in this town, for 
twelve old people; a blue-coat hospital for tsventy 
poor children, the overseer whereof has 45/. per 
annum. He also bequeathed yearly salaries to the 
ministers of tlie several chapels, of 0,1. 31. AL and 5/.; 
a legacy to the free-school established by Queen 
Elizabeth, and a house for the lecturer. These be- 
quests, with money for the repair of the banks, 
amount to 300/. per annum. The grammar-school in 
Skilcoat, founded by Queen Elizabeth, in 1585, is 
well endowed. 

The shalloon trade was introduced into this town 
about the beginning of the last century, and what 
are called figured stuffs and draw-boys, within the 
latter half of it. Formerly much bone-lace was made 
in Halifax, but this trade afterwards declined, till it 
was again revived so as to become no inconsiderable 
branch. In the year 1724, frame-work-knitting was 
introduced, and much has been done in this line. 
But for some time past the staple manufacture of the 
place and neighbourhood has been tammies, shalloons, 
draw-boys, best known under the title of figured last- 
ings, and Amen's superfine quilled everlastings, double 
russets, and Serges de Nisme, and du Rome. These 
are all made from combing wool; and are brought in 
the unfinished state to the Piece-Hall, where the 
merchants attend every Saturday to purchase. Of 


these goods very few in proportion are sold inland* 
Large quantities go to all the European continent, and 
from thence to all parts of the globe. Many shalloons 
go by land to London, for the Levant trade. 

Great quantities of kerseys, halfthicks, bookings 
and baize, are made in the neighbourhood of Sowerby. 
The whole of the British navy is clothed from this 
source. Large quantities are also in time of peace sent 
to Holland, and some to America^ 

But the most flourishing branch of manufacture is 
that of cloth and coatings, introduced about twenty 
years ago, by a few persons of enterprize, who at a 
great expence erected mills on the Calder, and other 
smaller streams, the falls of water in this uneven 
country, being very favourable for the purpose. 

For the convenience of trade, the manufacturers 
some years_ since erected an elegant edifice, called 
the Piece-Hall, or Manufacturers'-Hall, at an expence 
of 12,000/. It is in the form of an oblong square, 
occupying ten thousand square yards, and containing 
three hundred and fifteen distinct rooms for the lodg- 
ment of goods which are exposed to sale once a week, 
only two hours on the market day, from 10 o'clock 
to 12. The form of this building is well adapted to 
its use, and unites elegance, convenience and security. 
The declivity ofthe ground, though not great, yet form- 
ing a large space, obliged the architect to raise one 
half of the building three, the other only two, stories 
high ; but the avenues to the rooms being by a cor- 
ridor, or piazza, supported by columns or pillars of 
ditferent orders round the interior of the building, 
(the exterior bein^ for greater security, a plain blank 
wall), a spectator placed in the centre of the area has 
a distinct view of every room in the building, which 
forms altogether a striking coup d'ail. 

The market days at Halifax, besides the cloth 
market, are held on Tuesdays and Thursdays; but 
Halifax is not a market town by charter, but by 

.Halifax is in the centie of the woollen manufac- 


tory, and enjoys the benefit of water-carriage to Hull, 
along the Calder, from Sowerby-bridge in its vicinity, 
and its navigable communications have been raucli 
extended by the Rochdale Canal, which connects the 
Calder, at Sowerby-bridge, with the Duke of Bridge- 
water's Canal at Manchester, and consequently in- 
cludes the neighbourhood of Halifax in the general 
system of inland navigation. 

Coals are found in various parts of this parish, 
which covers about 150 square miles, and contains 
twenty-gix townships, or hamlets, and thirteen chapels 
of ease. 

It is bounded by the parishes of Whalley, and Roch- 
dale in Lancashire, on the west; by that of Bradford 
on the north; of Burstal on the east; and of Hudders- 
field on the south. 

The manor of Halifax is a parcel of the very exten- 
sive one of Wakefield. Great part of it was anciently 
called the Liberty of the Forest of Sowerbyshire, or 
of Hardwick. Within this liberty a very singular cus- 
tom long prevailed, called Halifax gibbet law. It 
consisted of a summary mode of trying, and capitally 
punishing, felons (apparently thieves only) taken within 
the liberties, with the goods found about them, or 
upon their own confession; and the mode of execu- 
tion was beheading, by nieans of an instrument called 
a gibbet, consisting of two upright pieces of timber, 
joined by a transverse piece, within which was a 
square block of wood, sliding in grooves, worked in 
the uprights, and armed below with an iron axe; this 
being drawn up was let fall suddenly, either by pull- 
ing out a pin, or cutting a cord that supported it; and 
thus the malefactor's head was at once struck off. An 
engine exactly of the same kind was for some tim.e in 
use at Edinburgh, under the name of the Maiden ; 
but whether this was the original or only a copy, is dis- 
puted. It was revived with improvements, in France, 
under the name of the too famous guillotine: which 
was supposed to have been an original invention of 
the person whose name it bears. With respect to 


this at Halifax, it seems to have been pretty freely 
used, especially after it became a manufacturing town, 
against the robbers of tenter-grounds. The last exe- 
cutions by it were in 1650; the practice was then put 
a stop to, tiie baiiitf being threatened with a prosecu- 
tion if he should repeat it. Forty-nine persons had 
suffered by it, from the first entries in the register in 
the year 1541. A raised platform of stone, on which 
the gibbet was placed, is still remaining in Gibbet-lane. 

Mr. Pennant gives the following account of this 
remarkable custom: 

" The time when this custom took place is unknown. 
Whether Earl Warren, lord of this forest, might have 
estabUshed it amongst the saguinary laws then in use 
among the invaders of the hunting rights, or whether 
it might not take place after the woollen manufactu- 
rers at Halifax began to gain strength, is uncertain. 
The last is very probable; for the wild country around 
the town was inhabited by a lawless set, whose depre- 
dations on the c Loth-tenters, might soon stifle the 
efforts of infant industry. For the protection of trade, 
and for the greater terror of offenders by speedy exe- 
cution, this custom seems to have been established, 
so as at last to receive the force of the law; which 
was, " That if a felon be taken within the liberty of 
the Forest of Hardwick, with goods stolen out or 
within the said precincts, either Aanrf-habend, back- 
berand, or confessioned, that is, having it in his hand, 
bearing it on his back, or confessing the fact. If to 
the value of thirteenpence halfpenny, he shall, after 
three market-days, or meeting-days, within the town 
of Halifax, next after such his apprehension, and 
being condemned, be taken to the gibbet, and there 
Jiave his head cut from his body." 

"The offender had always a fair trial; for as soon 
as lie was taken he was brought to the lord's bailiff, 
at Halifax; he was then exposed on the three markets, 
(which here were held thrice in a week), placed in a 
stocks, with the goods stolen on his back; or, if the 
theft was of the cattle kind, they were placed by him; 


and this was done both to strike terror into others, 
and to produce new informations against liim. The 
bailiff then summoned four freeholders of each town 
within the forest, to form a jury. The felon and pro- 
secutors were brought face to foce; the goods, the 
cow, or horse, or whatsoever was stolen, produced. 
If he was found guilty he was remanded to prison, 
had a wreck's thne allowed for preparation, and then 
was conveyed to this spot, where his head was struck 
off by this machine. 

"This privilege was freely used during the reign of 
Elizabeth; the records before that time were lost. 
Twenty-five suffered in her reign, and at least twelve 
from the year 1623 to 1650; after which, I believe, 
the privilege was no more exerted. 

" This machine of death is now destroyed ; but I 
saw one of the same kind in a room under the parlia- 
ment house at Edinburgh, where it was introduced 
by the Regent Morton, who took a model of it as he 
passed ihrough Halifax, and at length suffered by it 
himself. — It is in the form of a painter's easel, anil 
about ten feet high. At four feet from the bottom is 
a cross bar, on which the felon lays his head, which 
is kept down by another placed above. In the inner 
edges of the frames are grooves; in these is placed a 
sharp axe, with a vast weight of lead, supported at 
the very summit with a peg; to that peg is fastened a 
cord, which the executioner cutting, the axe falls, 
and does the affair effectually, without suffering the 
unhappy criminal to undergo a repetition of the stroke, 
as has been the case in the common method. If the 
sufferer is condemned for stealing a horse or a cow^, 
the string is tied to the beast, which, on being whip- 
ped, pulls out the peg, and becomes the executioner." 

It seems that theft was very common in the neigh- 
bourhood of Halifax, and that the law was rigidly 
executed, especially when the comparatively small 
number of the population at that period is considered. 
The list of executions, indeed, as INIr. Watson ob- 
serves, is so formidable, that tlicre is no reason to 


wonder at the proverbial petition of thieves and vaga- 
bonds — *' From Hell, Hull, and Halifax, good Lord 
deliver us." Among; the celebrated persons who have 
been natives of Hahfax, are Dr. John Tillotson, who 
afterwards became Archbishop of Canterbury; St. 
Henry Saville, a man hi£;hly skilled in the mathema- 
tics and the Greek language; and David Hartley 
M.A. a celebrated phvsician, who acquired a great 
reputation from his medical and metaphysical works, 
especially his Observations on Man, his Frame, Du- 
ties, and his Expectations, 1749. 

Tiiree miles from Halifax we pass through Ealand, 
a small township in the parish of Halifax, pleasantly 
situated on the south banks of the Calder. The vil- 
lage is large, and is the only one in the whole parish 
which ever had the privilege of holding a market by 
charter. This charter, (which has long been lost}, was 
dated 10 Edward I. when that king, at the request of 
John de Warren, Earl of Warren and Surrey, granted 
to John de Eland, (afterwards Sir John), a free mar- 
ket on Tuesday at his manor of Eland, and two fairs 
then by six days, viz. one next day afore the eve, on 
the day of the eve, and on the day of St. Peter in 
Bonds. There is still a small market-cross remain- 
ing, and toll is taken by the lord's steward when any 
thing is offered to sale in the streets ; the fairs are also 
kept up, but no markets of any consequence have 
been held here for many years, owing to the great in- 
crease of trade at Halifex. 

Ealand Chapel is reputed to be the oldest place of 
worship in the whole parish, next to Halifax church. 
Some of the inhabitants here would have it believed, 
that it is nearly as old as the time of the Conquest. 
There is, however, no mention of a church or chapel 
in Doomsday-book. 

Near Stainland, another township in the parish 
of Halifax, about two miles to the west of Ealand, 
have been found several Roman coins. At Slack, in 
tliis township, where there are many traces of an an- 
cient settlement, Mr Watson places CambodukuMj 


" Here are four closes called the cald or old fields and 
crofts, adjoining to the tract of the Roman road from 
Manucunium, and containing an area of twelve or 
fourteen acres, watered by two brooks that unite at 
the town, and curve round three sides of it. Foun- 
dations of strong stone buildings, a yard tliick, drains, 
piles of thick glass, urns, bones, bricks '22 inches 
square, tesser.13, coins, and slips of copper, have been 
discovered in all these foundations. One of the brass 
coins was inscribed Cais. Aug. P. M. TR. S. C. and 
reverse . . . PVBLICA. Also two Roman inscrip- 
tions, one upon an altar dug up on the site of a tem- 
ple, in whose ruins were Roman bricks, and on the 
west side of it an hypocaust formed in the usual man- 
ner of brick pillars, standing on the east side of a 
small room (probably a bath) four yards by two and a 
half, with a pavement of lime and pounded bricks, and 
a drain at one corner. 

HuuDBRSFiELD is eight miles nearly south-east from 
Haliftx, and the same distance south-west of Dews- 
bury. The market is held on Tuesday, and besides 
provisions, &c. great quantities of woollen cloth, yarn, 
and other manufactured articles, are here disposed of. 
This large town contains nearly 10,000 souls, and till 
after the conclusion of the late war, had been as flou- 
rishing as Halifax. It has also a navigable canal called 
Sir John Ramsden's, from Cooper-bridge, on the Cal- 
der navigation, by which goods are brought here, or 
conveyed from thence to any part of the kingdom. 
This is joined on the south side of the town by the 
Huddersfield canal running to Marsden, whence it 
passes through a tunnel, of nearly three miles and a 
half in length, and soon enters Lancashire, where it 
joins the Ashton and Oldham canal, opening a com- 
munication between Huddersfield and Manchester. 
The church is a spacious handsome structure, but 
contains nothing remarkable. The large hall at Hud- 
dersfield, where the cloth is exposed to sale, was built 
by Sir John Ramsden, hart, of Byrara, near Tcrrybridge. 

The building is of a circidar form, two storie high; 


for better security, there are no windows on the out- 
side, but tlie light is admitted by windows in the in- 
ner wall. A middle row ^f one story in height, and 
supported by pillars, opens into the other parts and 
divides the area into two courts. Above the door is 
a handsome cupola, in which is a clock and bell, used 
for the purpose of opening and shutting the market. 
The hall is opened early in the morning, and is shut 
at half past twelve at noon. The resort to this mar- 
ket, of manufacturers from a large circuit in the neigh- 
bourhood, and of merchants and woolsstaplers from 
the towns of Leeds, Wakefield, Halifax, &:c. is amaz- 
ingly numerous, and the average return of the goods 
sold is supposed to be greater than that of any other 
market in the kingdom, though the amount cannot be 
particularly ascertained. 

The parish of Huddersfield is very extensive, stretch- 
ing from the river Calder on the north and north-east, 
to the borders of Lancashire on the west. Its breadth 
is less considerable. It contains, besides the town- 
ships of Huddersfield, those of Quamby, with JJnd- 
ley^ Longuood, Golian, and part of Seamanden, of 
Sfavgthicaite, and of Marsden. 

The market is held on Tuesday, and besides provi- 
sions, &c. great quantities of woolien cloth, yarn, and 
other manufactured articles, are here disposed of. 

About two miles south from Huddersfield, on a high 
hill near i^lmondsbury, are some vestiges of an an- 
cient castle and fortification, which Camden supposes 
to be the Roman Cambodunum, which we have 
above mentioned to have been, according to Mr. 
Watson, at Slack. He takes this castle hill to be 
Saxon. Nothing Roman has been found within a 
mile of it, and no Roman roads lead to it. The ad- 
ditions to Gibson's Camden say there is no appear- 
ance of stone or brick at Almondsbury; but large 
masses of cinders or vitrified earth (one above two 
feet thick every way) have been found. In 1782, in 
digging for materials to mend the roads, foundations 
of ancient buildings of hewn stone were found. 


Almondsbury in early times* was a place of some 
consequence; it was a royal villa, and had a church 
dedicated to St. Alban (whence the name is supposed 
to have been derived), which was burnt in the wars 
between Edwin, prince of the Northurabers, and 
Penda King of Mercia. 

At West Britton, six miles from Barnsley, in 
the parish of High Hoyland, is Buitton-Hall, for- 
merly the seat of Sir Thomas Blackett. The house is 
a very handsome structure, beautifully situated in the 
raidst of an extensive park, stocked with deer. There 
is a handsome chapel at West Britton, endowed by 
Sir Thomas Blackett. 

Dap.ton, three miles and a half before we reach 
Barnsley, is a populous village, with a handsome 
church; the parish abounds with coal and thnber. 


Commonly called Black Barnsley, is the principal 
town of the wapentake of Staincross. It is a mode- 
rate-sized town, situated on the side of a hill, among 
coal-pits and iron-works. It carries on a considerable 
trade in wire and other branches of hardware. The 
town is well built of stone, and it is not known from 
whence it derives its name of Black Barnsley, whe- 
ther from its numerous forges, which are continually 
smoaking, or from the circumjacent moors, which 
have indeed a very black and dreary appearance dur- 
ing the greatest past of the year. The land imme- 
diately about Barnsley is remarkably good, and famous 
for its growth of wheat and other grain, in equal per- 
fection both as to quantity and quality. Nor is the 
place less to be distinguished for the goodness and 
plenty of fuel. The wire manufactory is of consider- 
able antiquity here, and supposed to be the best in 
the kingdom, from the goodness of the materials and 
the ingenuity of the artists. They manufacture two 
sorts, hard and soft wire: the hard is used for the 
teeth of cotton and wool cards; the soft is used for 
stocking frame needles. A linen manufactory is also 
N 2 


carried on in this town and neighbourhood ; it is sup- 
posed tliat not less than five hundred looms have been 
employed in weaving Imen cloth and check. There 
is also a glass manutactory tor black bottles carried on 
near this town, superior to any of the kind elsewhere. 

The church is a hantlsome and spacious structure, 
and among the charitable institutions there is a Free 
Grammar School, founded and endowed by Thomas 
Keresforth, gent, in the year 1665. 

Two miles from Barnsley is Bank-Top, a good 
post inn, from whence there is a most delightful pros- 
pect, terminating on the west with a view of Weut- 
\vorth Castle, 

On the right of our road in the parish of Stainbo- 
rotighy three miles from Barnsley, is VVentworth 
Castle, the seat of Henry Vernon, esq., a most 
beautiful fabric, situated on an eminence, command- 
ing a fine prospect down into the north, east, and 
west; and is surrounded by an extensive park. With- 
in the house is a most elegant gallery, the length of 
•which, from south to north, measures 180 feet by 24 
withki, ornamented in a most superb stile. On the 
east side of the house, in the park, runs a serpentine 
canal of considerable length, with a handsome stone 
bridge over it, of one arch. 

Wentworth Castle occupies the site of an ancient 
fortress. It was built about the year 1730, by 
Thomas Earl of Strafford, a marble statue of whom, 
executed by Rysbrack, stands in the centre of the 

WousBOROUGii is a pleasant village situated in a 
beautiful dale, called Worsborough Dale, abomiding 
with coal, iron-stone, and timber, and streams of 
water. It has a church or chapel of ease to the pa- 
rish of Darfield, founded by Sir Robert llochley, in 
the reign of Henry III. Also a lectureship, and free 
grammar school. 

About four miles from Worsborough, is Tanker- 
ley-Hall, now in ruins, an ancient seat of the 
Wentworth family, situated in an extensive park, now 


belonginf^ to Earl P'itzwilliam. Two miles hence, and 
the same distance from Tankerley-hall, also in ruins, 
is Wentvvortli-house, the princely residence of the 
Rigiit. Hon. Earl FitzwilHani, which is also about four 
miles north-west of Rothcrham. In approaching this 
superb mansion, the eye is struck with an object in- 
teresting to every Englishman: this is the magnifi- 
cejit mausoleum erected by Earl Fitzwilliam, in honour 
of his uncle the late ^larquis of Jlockingham, whose 
upright and patriotic conduct as a sltitesman, will 
ever shine in our political annals. This monument is 
built of a very fine sort of free-stone, and stands in an 
elevated situation on the right of the grand entrance, 
from the Rotherham road into the park. Its height 
is ninety feet, and it consists of three divisions: the 
first a square Doric basement; the second story is of 
the same form, but of the Ionic order; each of its 
four sides opening into an arch, and disclosing a beau- 
tiful sarcophagus standing in the centre; on the frieze 
of the entablature, over the arches, is this inscription 
in Roman characters:— "This Monument was erected 
by Wentworth, Earl Fitzwilliam, 1788, to the Me- 
mory of Charles, Marquis of Rockingham." — This is 
surmounted by a cupola supported .by twelve columns 
of the same order. At each corner of the railing is a 
lofty obelisk. But the most interesting part is the in- 
terior of the lower story: this is an apartment rising 
into a dome, supported Ijy eight columns, encircling 
a white marble statue of the Marquis in his robes, as 
large as life, by Nollekens. The statue stands on a 
square pedestal, on one side of which are inscribed 
the titles of the deceased, the other three pay a noble 
tribute to his memory, in just and deserved eulogium. 
The verses were composed by Frederick Montague, esq. 

" Angels, whose guardian care is England, spread 

Your shadowing v.ings o'er patriot Wentworth dead; 

With sacred awe his hallowed ashes keep, 

Where commerce, science, honor, friendship, weep : 

The pious hero — deeply-sorrowing wife. 

All the soft ties that blest his virtous life. 


Gentle, intrepid, generous, wise, and just, 

These heartfelt titles grace his honour'd dust. 

No fields of blood by laurels ill repaid, 

No plunder'd provinces disturb his shade, 

But white-rob'd peace, compos'd his closing eyes. 

And join'd with soft humanity her sighs: 

They mourn their patron gone, their friend no more, 

And England's tears his short-Iiv'd power deplore 1" 

The following character in prose is given by the ce- 
lebrated Edmund Burke: 

" A man worthy to be held in remembrance, be- 
cause he did not live for himself. His abilities, in- 
dustry, and influence, were employed without inter- 
ruption to the last hour of his life, to give stability to 
the liberties of his country, security to its landed pro- 
perty; increase to its commerce; independence to its 
public counsels, and concord to its empire. These 
were his ends. For the attainment of these, his po- 
licy consisted in sincerity, fidelity, directness, and 
constancy. In opposition, he respected the princi- 
ples of government; in administration he provided 
for the liberties of the people. He employed his 
moments of power in realizing every thing that he 
had professed in ^'popular situation, the distinguishing 
mark of his public conduct. Reserved in profession, 
sure in perfonnance, he laid the foundation of a solid 

'* He far exceeded all other statesmen in the art of 
drawing together, vvithout the seduction of self-inte- 
rest, the concurrence and co-operation of various dis- 
positions and abilities of men, whom he assimilated 
to his character and associated in his labours; for it 
was his aim through life to convert party connection 
and personal friendship, which others had rendered 
subservient only to temporary views and the purposes 
of ambition, into a lasting depository of his principles : 
that their energy should not depend upon his life, nor 
fluctuate with the intrigues of a court or with the ca- 
pricious fashions among the people, but that by se- 
curing a sHCcessiou in support of his maxim, the 


British constitution might be preserved accordin}^ to 
its true genius, on ancient foundations and institu 
tions of tried utility. 

"The virtues of his private life and those which he 
exhibited in the semce of the state, were not in him, 
separate principles : his private virtues, without any 
change in their character, expanded with the (Occasion 
into enlarged public affections. The very same tender, 
benevolent, feeling, liberal mind, which in the internal 
relations of life conciliated the genuine love of those 
who see men as they are^ rendered liim an inflexible 
patriot. He was devoted to the cause of freedom, 
not because he was haughty and intractable, but be- 
cause he was beneficent and humane. A sober, 
unaffected, unassuming piety, the basis of all true 
morality, gave truth and permanence to his virtues. 
He died at a fortunate time, before he could feel by a 
decisive proof, that virtue like his, must be nourished 
from its own substance only, and cannot be assured 
of any external support. 

" Let his successors, who daily behold this monu- 
ment, consider that it was not built to entertain the 
eye, but to instruct the mind. Let them reflect, that 
their conduct will make it their glory or their re- 
proach. Let them feel, that similarity of manners, 
not proximity of blood, gives them an interest in this 

In the wall of this apartment, within the pillars, 
are four recesses, in which are eight busts of fine 
white marble, viz. to the right of the entrance are 
Edmund Burke and the Duke of Portland; in the 
second, Frederick Montague and Sir George Sa>7ille; 
in the third, Charles James Fox and Admiral Keppel; 
in the fourth, John Lee, and Lord George Cavendish. 

Wentworth House is described as an elegant struc- 
ture, consisting of a centre and two wings, extending 
upwards of 600 feet in length. Many of the apart- 
ments are extremely elegant. The hall is a qua- 
drangle of 60 feet in extent, and 38 in height; a 
gallery, supported by beautiful Ionic columns, projects 


from the sides about ten feel; in the niches within tiJe 
columns, are fine marble statues, copied from the 
ancients. Other statues also ornament this apart- 
ment; and the ceiling is stuccoed in compartments. 
Tn the anti-room is a fine antique figure of the Egyp- 
tian Isis, bearing the Lotus. In the Vandyke drawing- 
room are several exquisite paintings by that artist, 
and particularly the famous picture of Lord Stratford 
and his Secretary. Here are also preserved some 
portraits of Sir Peter Lely, D. Mytens, and Cor. 
jansen. Among others in the chapel is a large and 
beautiful painting of Samson slaying the Philistines, 
by Luca Giordano; the head of our Saviour crowned 
with thorns, by Guido; and by Spagnoletto, a boldly 
expressive representation of the preparation for St. 
Bartholomew's Martyrdom, in which all the horrible 
grace of that master shines eminently conspicuous. 
The various apartments in this man./ion are orna- 
mented with many fine pictures; among the most 
conspicuous is a sleeping Cupid, by Guido; Boys 
blowing bubbles, and eating oysters, by Lely; a Por- 
tuguese Courtezan, by Paul Giordano ; Christ taken 
from the cross, by Caracci ; a portrait of Rembrandt, by 
himself; a reputed original of Shakespeare, formerly 
in the possession of the poet Dryden; Lucretia 
stabbing herself, by Guido ; and a Magdalen, by 
Titian. There are some very valuable antiques in the 
Museum, and copies after them. Wentworth Park 
includes an area of 1600 acres, comprising a great 
variety of ground, richly clothed with wood, and 
animated by fine expanses of water. 

The village and chapelry of Greysbrooke, belongs 
to the Wentworth family. The Roman road passes 
through it, and the soil is very fertile, and abounds 
in slate and coal. The late Marquis of Rockingham 
had here a beautiful plantation of six acres, and a 
pleasure house in it. 


RoTHERHAM, a Considerable market and manu- 
facturing town, is pleasantly situated on the banks of 


the River Rother, near its confluence with the Don, 
over which it has a fine stone bridge. The chapel on 
the bridge has been converted into a dweUing-house 
for poor persons. The church, a spacious and hand- 
some Gothic edifice, was built in the reign of Ed- 
ward IV. Tlie town is far from being regular, the 
streets being narrow ; and the houses, chiefly of stone, 
have a dingy appearance. Besides a considerable 
trade carried on in coals, here is an excellent market 
on Monday for corn, cattle, and butchers' meat, and 
two annual fairs. Every other Monday, here is a fair 
for fat cattle, sheep, and pigs; and these, like the 
fortnight fairs at Wakefield, are well attended by 
graziers and butchers from difterent parts of the 
country. A meeting-house for Dissenters was built 
here in 1705; and another, of far more recent date, 
is appropriated to the Methodists. The hamlet of 
Masborough is separated from Rotherham only by a 
bridge, and the number of inhabitants is greater than 
in the latter place, and many of them have been 
employed in Messrs. Walkers' celebrated iron-works, 
where cannon of the largest calibre have been cast, 
and almost every article of cast-iron produced ; as 
bar, sheet, slit, or rod iron. Tinned plates and steel 
of every sort have also been manufactured in great 
quantities. The iron bridges of Sunderland and Yarm, 
were cast at these founderies; and the mines on the 
estates of the Earls of Effingham and Fitzwilliam, 
supply the coal and iron-stone for the blast furnaces. 
The Rotherham Independent Academy was opened 
in the winter of 1795, under the superintendence of 
the Rev. Dr. Williams. Tlie environs of Rotherham 
are pleasant and picturesque, and among the seats is 
Aldvvark-Hall, tlie residence of J. S. Foljarabe, esq. 
Wickersley, about four miles east of Rotherham, is' a 
pleasant village. Here is a stone bed peculiarly adapted 
for making of grindstones. 


Journey from Cliiheroe to Tadcaster ; through Gis- 
burn, Skipton, Otley and Harewood. 

About four miles from Clitheroe is Sallay, or 
Sawley, where William Percy in 1146, built a Ciste- 
trian Abbey, valued at the dissolution at 147/. per 
annum. The site and demenses of this house, toge- 
ther with all other manors, messuages, &c. thereto 
belonging, were granted by King Henry VIII. in the 
13th year of his reign to Sir Arthur D'Arcy, knight, 
to be held in capite by knight's service. The manor 
and demesnes of Sallay belong at present to the Right 
Honourable Lord Grantham. " Enough is still left 
of the church of Sallay, to shew that it has been a 
plain cross, without columns, side-aisles, or chapels, 
and extremely resembling the chapel of Jesus 
College, in Cambridge. Great part of the nave and 
transept are standing; the choir, chapter-house, &:c. 
are distinctly traceable by their foundations. The 
gateway, a mean building, now converted into a cot- 
tage, is entire. Part of a richly ornamented taber- 
nacle, wrought in it, has the common inscription: 

" The close wall, including, perhaps, the richest feed- 
ing pasture in this rich valley, is still distinguishable 
on some places of its original height; and wrought into 
the walls of the adjoining houses, are several large and 
well cut shields, exhibiting the arms of Percy and 
Lacy Tempest, Lacy Hamerton, and others. 

" The burial place of the Percies was probably the 
chapter-house, where neither stone nor brass is now 
left to tell where they lie; and nothing protects their 
remains, but the rubbish, which an undistinguishing 
Reformation has heaped on their heads." 

At Bolton-Hall, near Sawley Abbey, an ancient 
mansion, formerly belonging to the Pudsey family, 
are preserved the spoon, boots, and gloves of Henry VI. 
left by that monarch at Bolton, either from haste and 
trepidation, or as tokens of regard for the family. 

The boots are of fine brown Spanish leather, lined 


with deer's skin, tanned with the hair on, and about 
the ancles is a kind of wadding, under the lining, to 
keep out the wet. They have been fastened by 
buttons, from the ancle to the knee ; the feet are re- 
markably small (little more than eight inches long), 
the toes round, and the soles where they join to the 
heel, contracted to less than an inch diameter. 

The gloves are of the same materials, and have the 
same lining; they reach up, like women's gloves, to 
tiie elbow ; but have been occasionally turned down 
with the deer's-skin outward. The hands are exactly 
proportioned to the feet, and not larger than those of 
a middle-sized woman. 

GiSBURN, eight miles from Clitheroe, is a small vil- 
lage, having no manufactory or trade of any kind. 

The church is a decent structure, with a tower, side 
aisles, and choir, built of fell stone, and probably not 
older than Henry Vllth or V^IIIth. The painted 
glass in tliis church is of the latter period. The choir 
on the north side of the chancel belongs to the Listers 
of VVestby and Arnoldsbiggin; that on the south to 
Sir John Lister Kaye, bart. as lord ofMidhope. It 
does not appear that there was any endowed chantry 
in this church. 

The manor of Midhope in this parish, is one of 
the most extensive and valuable grazing farms in 

The manor of Riraington, also in Gisburn parish, 
has long been remarkable for a rich vein of lead ore, 
which yielded a considerable portion of silver; and 
several years since, a person was convicted and exe- 
cuted at York for counterfeiting the silver coin, in 
metal supposed to be procured from the lead of 

The manor of Gisburn is now the property of Lord 
Ribblesdale. Gisburn-park is beautifully situated at 
the confluence of the Ribble, which is here very wide, 
and Stockbeck. The house, with much simplicity, 
has a very elegant and pleasing eftect. The lodge, 
through which is the entrance into the park, is a most 


beautiful piece of Gothic architecture, richly orna- 
mented with figures, pinnacles, &c. carved with the 
greatest taste and elegance, from the designs of the 
present noble owner. 

" In the house is a series of good portraits, among 
which maybe distinguished Lord Chief Justice Lister, 
of the time of Henry VIII. General Lambert, ap- 
parently an original ; his son, an excellent painting, 
by himself; and above, Oliver Cromwell, by Sir Peter 
Lely. This gives a truer, that is a worse, idea of the 
man, than any other portrait of him. It is said to have 
been taken by his own order, with all the warts and 
protuberances which disfigured his countenance. On 
the canvas is painted the word, " Now," which pro- 
bably alludes to his peremptory mandate for the imme- 
diate execution of the king. This picture was brought 
from Calton Hall, and seems to have been his own 
present to General Lambert." 

Here is also preserved the horn of a buffalo, nearly 
twenty inches long, and containing about two quarts; 
it is supported by three silver feet, resembling those 
of a man in armour. Round the middle is a filletting 
inscribed: "Qui pugnet contra tres perdet duos." 
There is no tradition remaining to determine its an- 

Gisburn-park is chiefly remarkable for a herd of 
wild cattle, descendants of that indigenous race which 
once inhabited the wild forests of Lancashire. This 
species are white, save the tips of their noses, which 
are black ; rather mischievous, especially when pro- 
tecting their young. They breed with tame cattle. 

Within the manor of Gisburn, on the high bank of 
the Ribble, is a small, but very entire, square fort, 
called Castle Haugh, and near it a barrow, which 
being opened, was found to contain a rude earthern 

About four miles east from Gisburn is West 
Marton Hall, the residence of the Heber family, 
situated in a valley, embosomed in wood. It is a 
respectable old family mansion. Above, and to the 


westward of Marton Hall, is Gledstone House, a 
magnificent structure, begun in the life-time of the 
late llichard Roundel!, esq. and finished by the Rev. 
William Roundell. It is situated upon the summit 
of a bold elevation, and commands the most ex- 
tended, at the same time the most characteristic view 
in Craven. 

Proceeding on our route, we pass on the ritjht the 
hamlet of Elslack, in the parish of Broughton. 

Having already described the town of Skipton, and 
its neighbourhood, we have nothing to notice before 
we reach the village of Ilkley. In different parts of 
the church-yard here, are the remains of three very 
ancient Saxon crosses, curiously wrought in frets, 
scrolls, knots, &c. 

Ilkley was a Roman station, known to antiquaries 
by the name of OUcana. Three sides of the ancient 
encampment are very entire. It was situate on a 
steep and lofty bank, having tlie river Wharfe on the 
north side, and the deep channel of a brook, imme- 
diately on the east and west. The southern boundary 
seems to run in the direction of the present street, 
and the hall and parish church were evidently included 
within it. The foundations of the fortress, bedded in 
indissoluble mortar, are very conspicuous ; and re- 
mains of Roman brick, glass, and earthenware, every 
where appear on the edges of the brow, but no in- 
scription, or other considerable remains have been 
lately discovered. 

Ilkley is better known as a bathing place than as a 
Roman station. The copious spring here has little 
or no medicinal quality, but its extreme coldness 
has been found very serviceable in relaxed and 
scrofulous cases. 

Otley contains about 2500 inhabitants. The church 
is a spacious building, and contains several ancient 
monuments, especially to the families of Fairfax, 
Favvkes, Vavasour, Palmes, and Pulleyn. 

The country surrounding Otley is reckoned re- 
markably beautiful, and is full of gentlemen's seats. 


Between Otley and Harewood, three miles from the 
latter place, at Artliingtori, was a priory of Cluniac 
or Benedictine Nuns, founded by Thomas de Arthing- 
ton, in the reign of King Stephen or Henry II. the 
site of which upon the dissolution was granted to 
Archbishop Craumer. 

At the distance of eight miles from Otley, on the 
line of our present route, is Harewood, a very 
pleasant little town, on the river Wharfe, over which 
is a stone bridge of four arches. The river itself 
runs over a bed of stone, and is as clear as rock- 

Harewood church is situated at a small distance 
from Ilarewcod-House; it is an ancient and venerable 
structure, surrounded by a thick grove of trees. In 
the choir are six altar tombs of white marble, with 
fine whole length figures of ancient owners of the 
manor, and among them that of Sir William Gascoigne 
of Gawthorpe, who had the courage to commit 
Prince Henry, afterwards King Henry V. to the king's 
bench, for atiVonting him while he was in the seat of 
justice, letting him know, that though the son might 
bear the image of the king's person, the judge bore 
that of his authority: and which act the prince, when 
he came to be king, with true greatness of mind not 
only forgave, but commended. Sir William also 
shewed his integrity and intrepid spirit, by refusing 
to pass a sentence upon Richard Scroop, Archbishop 
of York, on a charge of high treason. 

Near Harewood church is a most sumptuous house 
called Gawthorp Hall, the ancient seat of the 
Gascoignes, now tliat of II. Shuttleworth, esq. It is 
built of fine hewn stone, is very large, and has two 
grand fronts. The south front is ornamented with a 
noble portico and pediment, supported by pillars. 
This house stands on the side of a hill, and is to be 
seen to great advantage from a hill upon the road, a 
little bejond the sixth mile stone from Leeds. The 
stables form a large court-yard with cloisters. In 
order to have agreeable objects in view, several neat 


farm-houses have been erected on various parts of the 
estate near the mansion. 

The dilapidated state in which Harewood castle is 
seen at present, renders it impossible to describe its 
ancient form and construction; but it must have been 
considerable when entire, as an acre of ground around 
its remains are covered with half-buried walls and 
fragments of ruins. 

Harewood House, though not the largest, is as 
completely furnished and fitted up, as any in the 
kingdom. The rooms are well arranged ; and, while 
tliey are equal to what may be styled grand in a 
dwelling-house, are not so great as to exclude comfort. 

The park, grounds, and water, were laid out by 
Mr. Brown, and discover the master. Though the 
prospect is not very extensive, the rising brow in the 
front of the house, with its plantations, buildings, and 
the water beneath it, afford a very pleasing view. 
The architect of this fine house was Mr. Carr of York, 
■whose great genius, taste, and skill in his profession, 
stand in no need of encomiums here. 

This seat is about the distance of eight miles from 
Otley, and somewhat more than six from Leeds. 
The foundation was laid in the year 1760, by the late 
Lord Harewood, and it is built of a very fine stone 
taken from a quarry near the place. The building 
displays all the richness of Corinthian architecture, 
and the apartments, finished in the highest style of 
elegance and taste, are richly ornamented. The plea- 
sure-grounds are extensive, and the noble owner per- 
mits the house to be viewed every Saturday, by 
tourists, and persons of decent appearance. 

To the north of Harewood, before you come to the 
bridge, is a fine view of the river Wharfe, above which 
are large remains of an ancient castle, which at the 
Conquest belonged to Romille, whose daughter married 
Meschines, from whom it carae to the Delisles, thence 
to Sir William Aldburgh, and by marriage to the 
Redmans, who inhabited it as their principal mansion 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and have a monu- 


ment in the church. The castle, from its present re- 
mains, appears to have consisted of a square centre, 
a north wing oblong, and two square towers at the 
south-east and south-west corners. The grand entrance 
was on the east side through a square tower, a little 
to the north of the centre of that side. This gate 
was just high enough for a man to enter on horseback : 
within the gate is a groove for a portcullis. In the 
hall there is a rich recess near the west wall, in the 
manner of a monument;, the arcli in the centre has 
many turns, with ornamental spandrils and ornaments 
in the entablature. 

In the room over the porch, on the east side, which 
is supposed to be the chapel, built in the time of 
Richard II. are carved in stone the arms of Sutton, 
Baliol, Thweng, Bordesly or Grauncester, Constable, 
Ross, and Vipont. 

About lialfway between Harewood and Tadcaster, 
two miles to the right of our road, isBRAMiiAM Moor, 
where a battle was fought in 1408, between a party 
of the royal troops under Sir Thomas Rokeby, sheriff 
of Yorkshire, and the Earl of Northumberland. The 
earl was prepared for the attack, but his followers 
were soon defeated. Lord Bardolph was killed on 
the field. The Abbot of Hales, being taken in armour, 
was hanged : the Bishop of Bangor's life was spared, 
though taken in the field, because he was dressed in 
his episcopal habit. Celts have been found in Bram- 
ham Moor. 

At Headley, two miles south-east from Bramham, 
was a priory of Benedictine Monks, or cell to the 
abbey at York, founded by Hippolitus Bram, in the 
reign of Henry I. 

About three miles before we reach Tadcaster, on 
the left of our road, is Thorp Arch, a small village on 
the river Wharfe, which has of late years been much 
frequented on account of it§ mineral water, sulphureous 
and chalybeate. It is upwards of a century since it 
was first discovered. It is usually called Boston Spa, 
and is recommended in rheumatic and scorbutic cases. 



Is situated upon both sides of the river Wharfe, and 
is supposed to have been the Roman station denomi- 
nated Calcaria, or Calcacester. Part of it is in the 
Ainsty of York and liberty of St. Peter. The middle 
of the bridge is the boundary between the West 
Riding and the Ainsty. In the Civil Wars of England, 
Tadcaster was ahvays regarded as a post of great 
importance, and its possession often contested. In 
the bloody field of Tovvton, near this place, during 
the dreadful contest between the Houses of York and 
Lancaster, it has been observed, " the folly of a 
nation was fully fexhibited; and between 30 and 40,000 
Englishmen fell in deciding the question, whether a 
tyrant or an idiot should be their master." 

Tadcaster has an hospital and free school, called 
the School and Hospital of Jesus Christ, founded by 
Dr. Oglethorp, bishop of Carlisle, who crowned Queen 
Elizabeth ; but was afterwards deprived of his see for 
refusing to change his religion. 

The present noble stone bridge was built more than 
a century ago. 

Tadcaster is at present a neat well-built pleasant 
town, containing a population of nearly 1800 persons. 
It has a good market on Wednesday. On the south 
side of the river Wharfe here, was formerly a castle. 

At Helagh, three miles north from Tadcaster, an 
hermitage in the wood or park, with liberty to clear 
the ground, was granted to Gilbert, a monk of Mar- 
mous lieu, by Bertram Haget, before the year 1202. 
A church was built and some religious placed here by 
liis son, and about the year 1218, a priory of regular 
canons was established and endowed by Jordan de St. 
Maria, and AHce his wife, who was grand-daughter 
to Bertram Haget. The monastery at the dissolution 
was granted to James Gage. 

About two miles and a half "from Tadcaster is 
Towton, a small village, near which was fought a 
bloody battle in the year 1461, between the houses 


of York and Lancaster. A fter the pass of Ferrybridge 
had been regained, Edward IV. crossed the river, and 
early in the raOining of Palm-Sunday advanced towards 
the Lancastrians, who to the number of 60,000 oc- 
cupied the fields towards Towton and Saxton. Though 
the Yorkists did not amount to 50,000, they were 
chpsen men, and Edward did not entertain the least 
doubt of victory ; but previous to the battle he pub- 
lished an order through his array, that his soldiers 
should not encumber themselves with prisoners. 
About nine in the morning it began to snow, and a 
sharp wind drove the sleet full in the faces of the 
Lancastrians, disordering their sight in such a manner, 
rhat they could not ascertain correctly the distance 
between themselves and the enemy. The Lord Fal- 
conbridge, who commanded part of Edward's army, 
taking advantage of this accident, ordered his archers 
to advance within shot of Henry's line, and let fly a 
shower of an'ows, which they no sooner did than they 
retreated to their former situation. The Lancastrians, 
feeling the eftects of this attack, believed the Yorkists 
were within their reach, and plied their bows until 
their quivers were exhausted, without doing the least 
execution. Then Lord Falconbridge advanced again 
with his archers, who now shot their arrows without 
opposition, and slew a vast number of the enemy even 
with the shafts which they picked from the field after 
their own quivers were emptied. The Earl of Nor- 
thumberland and Sir Andrew Trollop, who com- 
manded the van of Henry's army, seeing the disad- 
vantage under which they laboured in this way of 
fighting, advanced to close combat, and each fought 
with equal courage and rancour. The battle raged 
with great fury from morning till night; and Edward 
exhibited such proofs of surprising courage, activity,, 
and conduct, that the fate of the day depended in a 
great measure on his personal behaviour, and that of 
the Earl of Warwick. Towards the evening the Lan- 
castrians being discouraged by the death of the Earls 
of Northumberland and Westmoreland, the Lords 


Dacre and Willes, Sir Andrew Trollop, and many 
other officers of distinction, began to give ground, 
though not in great disorder, intending to retreat to 
the bridge of Tadcastcr. They accordingly preserved 
their ranks, and wheeled about occasionally as they 
retired, until Edward and Warwick, animating their 
men to render the action decisive, they redoubled 
their efforts, and charged with such impetuosity that 
the Lancastrians were broken and entirely routed. 
Great numbers were slain in the field of battle and in 
the pursuit; but the chief carnage happened at the 
snaall river Cock, Avhich disembogues itself into the 
Wharfe. Thither the fugitives fled, in hope of fording 
the stream; but it was so swelled with the rains as to 
be rendered impassable, until a kind of bridge or 
mound was formed by the dead bodies of the Lan- 
castrians who were slaughtered on the banks, or 
drowned in the river, which ran purple with their 
blood. Nor will this circumstance appear incredible, 
when we consider that above 36,000 men were killed 
in this battle. The Dukes of Somerset and Exeter 
escaped with great difficulty, but the Earl of Devon- 
shire was taken. 

Journey from Ripon to Sheffield; through Ripley, 
Leeds, and Wakefield. 

Ripon is a considerable market-town, situated on 
a rising ground betueen the river Ure on the north, 
and the little river Skell on the south, within a short 
distance from their source. Over the former river, 
and at a small distance from the town, is a handsome 
stone bridge of seventeen arches. There are also 
five other bridges within a short distance of the town, 
to which a navigable canal is cut from the Ure. Here 
is only one church, which is collegiate, and in some 
respects parochial, as the inhabitants have the benefit 
of its use without the charge of a church-rate. The 
town consists almost wholly of narrow and crooked 
lanes; the street leading to the church from the 
market-place, being the only one that appears any 


tiling like regular. The market-place however is a 
handsome and spacious square, surrounded with well- 
built houses, and ornamented with a beautiful obelisk, 
ninety feet high, erected in the year 1781, by William 
Aislabie, esq. of Studley, who represented this borough 
in parliament during the long space of sixty years. 
Here is also an elegant town-hall, erected in 1801, 
at the ex pence of Mrs. AUason, then proprietor of 
Studley-Royal. The Free Grammar-School here was 
endowed in 1553 by King Philip and Queen Mary. 
Here is also a public dispensary, Sunday Schools, a 
School of Industry, besides four hospitals, three of 
which are of very ancient foundation ; viz. St. Mary 
Magdalen, inhabited by six poor women ; St. John, 
appropriated to two ; and St. Anne, which has re- 
venues for the relief of eight women, each of whom 
have a habitation and an allowance of 3/. 15s. per 
annum. Jepson's Hospital was founded by Zacharias 
Jepson, of York ; here twelve poor boys are main- 
tained, clothed, and educated. Here is also a new 
theatre, built by the late George Hassel, esq. and 
opened in August 1792. Ripon has a good market 
on Thursday. 

This town was once so much celebrated for its 
manufacture of spurs, that, "As true steel as Ripon 
rowels," became a proverbial expression, when speak- 
ing of a man of fidelity, honesty, or intrepidity. The 
woollen manufacture also flourished here formerly to 
a considerable extent. Ripon is among the most 
ancient boroughs of England, having sent members to 
parliament in the 23d year of Edward I. At present 
the number of voters is about 146, and the Mayor is 
the returning officer. 

The origin of the town is without doubt to be re- 
ferred to a very ancieiit aera. Its proximity to the 
Roman city Isurium, now Aldborough; and the va- 
rious Roman roads which pass it at no great distance 
on each side, with the peculiar beauties and advan- 
tages of its situation, might lead us to imagine that it 
was not wholly unknown to that people ; but as none 


of these roads take their course through the town, it 
precludes the supposition that it ever was a Roman 

Soon after the declension of the Roman power in 
this country, we find it in a flourishing state, having a 
monastery founded by Eata, abbot of jNIelross, of 
which we shall hereafter give a more particular de- 

Ripon received its first charter of incorporation in 
the fourteenth year of the reign of Alfred the Great. 

Its government was then vested in a chief magis- 
trate, under the name of a vigilarius, or wakeman, 
1 2 elders, and 24 assistants, the former of whom some 
authors have bfeen very erroneously led to imagine, 
derived his title from watch and ward liaving been 
kept here, asserting that the town was inclosed by 
walls; but of this opinion there seems to be no con- 
finnation. The foundations of such walls, or the 
smallest traces of them, having never yet been dis- 

It was the duty of the vigilarius, or wakeman, to 
cause a horn to be blown every night at nine o'clock ; 
after which, if any house or shop was robbed before 
sun-rise next morning, the sufferer received a com- 
pensation for the loss, from an annual tax of four- 
pence levied upon every inhabitant, whose dwelling 
had but one, and of eightpence where it had two 
outer doors, from which latter circumstance double 
danger might be suspected. The tax, together with 
the good effects arising from it, is now fallen into dis- 
use, but the custom of blowing the horn is continued 
to this day. 

The town of Ripon had scarcely recovered the in- 
jury it sustained from the Danes, and begun again to 
flourish, when in A. D. 947 it suffered, if possible, a 
more extensive devastation, in the war of extirpation 
which King Edred waged against those turbulent peo- 
ple, irritated by their rebellious and faithless conduct. 

In A. D. 948 he commenced the desolation of tjjeir 
towns and villages, and amongst others he destroyed 


this place by a general conflagration, with all lis 
public buildings. 

By tlie exertions of its former inhabitants, and tiie 
encouragement of Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
the town was rebuilt in 950, and again began to 

After the siege of York, 1069, William the Con- 
queror ravaged an extent of territory, part of the 
Northumbrian kingdom, sixty miles in length, and 
llipon, with the adjacent country, was so completely 
destroyed, that, sixteen years after, when the Dooms- 
day survey was made, it remained waste and uncul- 

The peace, however, which succeeded, enabled the 
town once more to revive, and it continued undis- 
turbed until the reign of Edward II. when the Scots, 
under the command of Robert Bruce, in 131C, after 
making themselves masters of the most important 
fortresses of the north, marched into this place, and 
after remaining three days, imposed, and with diffi- 
culty levied upon the inhabitants a tribute of One 
Thousand Marks; remembering their former good 
fortune, and elated with the hopes of similar success, 
they returned the following year, and demanded the 
same ransom ; which the people being unable to raise, 
the invaders entirely destroyed the town by fire, and 
massacred the greatest part of the inhabitants. 

Soon after this calamity, and a stop being put to 
the incursion of the Scots, llipon, by the liberal do- 
nations of the Archbishop of York, and the neigh- 
bouring gentry, together with the industry of itsm- 
habitants, was in a few years restored to a flourish- 
ing condition, and even for a short time became the 
residence of the court; for in the year 1405, King 
Henry IV. being obliged to leave London, on ac- 
count of the plague, retired to Ripon, with his whole 

In the year 1604 the civil constitution of the town 
was changed, and, by the exertions of Mr. Hugh 
Ripley, a charter of incorporation was obtained from 


King James I. vesting the municipal government in 
a mayor, recorder, and twelve aldermen, assisted by 
twenty-four common-council men, and a town clerk, 
«ith the subordinate offices of two serjeants-at- 

In 1667, the Lord Protector of England granted to 
the borough of Ripon, his letters-patent for holding 
a fali every alternate week. 

The mayor is elected annually on the first Tuesday 
in January, and enters upon the duties of his office 
on the second of February following. The better to 
support his station he has the toll of corn and grain 
sold in the market, called the hand-law, or j?iarket- 
sweepings, which was enjoyed by the wakeman, pre- 
vious to the Conquest, and was confirmed to the 
corporation in the year 1532-3, by King Henry VIII. 

The ancient church of Ripon was first established 
for canons of St. Augustine, and was dissolved by 
Henry VIII. The chantries were afterwards dissolv- 
ed by Edward V^I. James I. in the second year of 
his reign, refounded the church, and endowed it 
with part of its former revenues. It is dedicated to 
St. Peter and St. Wilfrid, and the foundation consists 
of a dean, sub-dean, and six prebendaries; out of 
these the dean, upon a vacancy, elects the subdean ; 
and, as to the prebendaries, the dean and chapter 
nominate three persons to the Archbishop of York, 
who must collate one of them. 

The church is a noble Gothic structure, tolerably 
entire, but visibly erected and altered at different 
period.s, in several instances exhibiting curious changes 
from the Saxon to the Gothic style of buildiug. 

At the west end, which presents a rich specimen 
of the Gothic style, are two uniform square towers, 
110 feet high, on each of which, at the rebuilding of 
the church by Archbishop Thurlston, was placed a 
spire of timber, covered with l^ead, of the height of 
120 feet; but these were removed in the year 1797, 
by order of the chapter, and the materials sold. At the 
same time were added open battlements, with pinnacles 


at each corner. In 1804 also, the inside walls of the 
church were repaired and coloured. The floor of the 
clmrch has been entirely re-laid, and chiefly new- 

The two side aisles were probably added to tlie 
body of the church about the time of Richard III. or 
the beginning of the reign of Henry VII, The choir 
was likewise extended to the east; and about the 
same time several windows were lengthened and al- 
tered from the round to the pointed arch. Two of 
the four large Saxon arches, supporting the great 
tower (called Wilfrid's), which is 110 feet high, 
were changed to the pointed arch, and two of the 
pinnacles, with part of the raised battlements which 
were then added, still remain. 

Upon Saint Wilfrid's tower stood also a noble spire 
1'20 feet high, but of much larger dimensions than 
those before described, which was blown down on 
the eighth of December, 1660. By the fall of the 
spire the arched roof of the choir was entirely broken 
in, the fine Gothic canopies over several of the stalls 
were destroyed, and the body of the church received 
so much damage, that the estimate for rebuilding the 
steeple, and other necessary repairs, amounted to 
the sum of six thousand pounds and upwards; for 
this a brief was ohtained the same year, (12th 
Charles II.) With the money collected upon it, and 
other contributions, the church underwent a com- 
plete repair. The knots or centre blocks of the groined 
roof, which also was then broken in, are still pre- 
served in the chapter-house, and exhibit very curious 
specimens of carving in oak, of figures, foliage, &c. 

A considerable part of the present minster was 
begun in 1331, ?nd finished in 1494, as appears from 
dates in the choir, so that from the beginning to the 
end of the work, there was a space of one hundred and 
sixty-three years. 

From the west entrance on each side of the body 
are six pillars, including the corner pillars in both 
numbers, which fortn five arches; on the second 


pillar, at the west end of the north aisle, are two 
shields of arms cut in stone, one containing the arms 
of the town, the other those of the Picard family, 
who were great benefactors to tlje repairs of the 
fabric in the time of Edward III. On the south wall 
of the choir are also the arms of the Picards, and 
some other benefactors, supposed to be of tiie same 

The choir is separated from the other part of the 
church by a partition screen of stone, nearly twenty 
feet high, and ornamented with curious carved work ; 
in the middle of it is the door into the choir, over 
which is placed the organ. 

At the west entrance into the choir are stalls for 
the dean, sub-dean, and prebendaries, enriched with 
much carved work, similar to those in the cathedral 
at York; of these the dean's stall is on the right, and 
the sub-dean's on the left hand of the entrance ; tlie 
rest are assigned to tiie prebendaries, by a label over 
each. They %vere begun in the year 1489, and 
finished in the year 1491, at the charge, as is supposed, 
of Archbishop Rotherham. 

There are thirteen other stalls on the north side of 
the choir, appropriated to the use of the mayor and 
aldermen; on the south side are the archbishop's 
throne, and eleven other stalls, generally occupied by 
the common-council men of the borough, and below 
on each side of the choir, are seats for the vicar'i- 
coral, singing-men, choristers, and inhabitants. 

The seats in the stalls are all of oak, and when 
turned up, exhibit different richly carved representa- 
tions of animals, figures, and foliage. The finials 
before the stalls, and the crockets to the seats, are of 
exquisite workmanship, particularly those at the 
dean's, sub-dean's, and archbishop's seats, as are also 
two small canopies, one near the mayor's, the other 
adjoining the archbishop's seat. 

In the transept, to the north, near the entrance 
into the choir, stands a stone pulpit of curious work- 



The following are the dimensions of the church: 

Feet. Inches. 

Length of the nave, within the walls ••171 9 

Length of the choir 99 

Length of the whole fabric, within • • • . 270 

Breadth of the nave, and side aisles • • • • 87 

Breadth of the choir 67 

Height of the nave, to the ridge 88 6 

Height of the choir, to the ridge 79 

Length of the transept 132 

Breadth of the transept i 36 

Breadth of St. Wilfrid's tower, from east to 

west • • • ' 33 6 

Breadth of ditto, from north to south • • 32 5 

Length of the vestry 28 6 

Breadth of ditto 18 6 

Length of the Chapter-house 34 8 

Breadth of ditto 18 8 

Above the chapter-house is the Library, consisting 
chiefly of ancient books of divinity, with a few classi- 
cal works, and some manuscripts. St Wilfrid's needle, 
is a passage leading to a small chapel under the pave- 
ment of the great tower. This chapel, or crypt, is 
ten feet and a half in length, seven feet and a half 
in breadth, and nine feet high, and is supposed to 
have been used for the services of the Holy Week, 
and probably for penitentiary purposes. 

The Altar-piece is a curious perspective painting, 
representing a fine colonnade; but unfortunately it 
exhibits a ditferent order of architecture from that of 
the church. 

The whole of the east window was formerly filled 
with painted glass, much of which was destroyed by 
the soldiers, under the command of Sir Thomas 
Mauleverer, anno 1643. What parts of the broken 
glass could be collected, were replaced in the win- 
dow, and the whole renewed with painted glass, exe- 
cuted by the late W.Peckitt, of Yoi^. 

In the middle compartment of this window, are 


the arms of James I., ^vith an inscription commemo- 
rating the restoration and re-endowment of this Colle- 
giate Church by that monarch: here are also the 
arms of William Markham, late Archbishop of York ; 
of Peter Johnson, esq., late Recorder of York, and 
Judge 01 the Dean and Chapter's Court at Ripon, 
with those of Dean Waddilove. In the other com- 
partments are the arms of Beilby Porteus, late Lord 
Bishop of London ; of J. Robinson, Lord Bishop of 
London, and Ambassador to the Hague at the Treaty 
of L^trecht; of the Lords Grantham and Grautley; of 
Blackett and Ligleby, barts.; those of the church and 
town, and some of the Deans and Prebendaries. 

There are many handsome monuments in the 
church, and several of considerable antiquity. In 
the north cross aisle, on an ancient altar-tomb of free- 
stone, are two whole length figures, and upon the 
sides are shields with the arms of Neville, Scrope, 
Strafford, and others, which, however, are much de- 
faced. In the south aisle of the nave, on a grey 
marble altar-tomb of very ancient workmanship, are 
represented the figures ofamanand a lion, in a grove 
of trees. No legible inscripti.^n is at present to be 
found upon it, but the tradition is, that it was placed 
over the body of an Irish Prince, who died at Ripon, 
when returning from his travels. 

The sepulchral monuments, upon the whole, are 
too numerous to be detailed here. Many belong to 
the Blacketts, Kitchenmans, Redsdales, Wanleys, 
Oxleys, the Norton s of Sawley, the Weddels of 
Nevvby, the ^Nlallories and Aislabies of Studley, 
the Markenfields, &:c. The design of a monument 
here, to the memory of W. Weddel, esq. of Newby, 
is taken from the lanthorn of Demosthenes, at Athens. 
The Chapter-house also contains a handsome monu- 
ment, after a design of Bacon, to the memory of Anne 
Hope Darley, consort of the Rev. Dr. Waddilove. 
This monument also commemorates two of their chil- 
dren. The Vestry, and the Chapter-house, on the 
south side of the choir, seem to be by far the m.ost 
P 2 


ancient parts of the buildinj^, and might be taken for 
some remains of St. Wilfrid's original church. 

In the Chapter-house are several paintjjigs on pan- 
nels, representing Edward 11., Richard II., Henry IV., 
V:, and VI., James I. ; his Queen and his son Prince 
Henry, elder brother of Charles I.; Richard III., and 
Elizabeth his consort; Henry VIII.; Catherine Parr, 
Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Edward IV., and Queen 
Mary. Here are also preserved several antique curi- 
osities found in different parts of the fabric. 

" Ripon church (Mr. Bigland observes) has of late 
received considerable embellishments, through the 
laudable exertions of the present Dean, Dr. Waddi- 
love, whose constant attention has been to repair and 
adorn this venerable structure. IBeside the renewal 
of the east window, he added, in the year 1797, open 
battlements to the towers, with pinnacles to each 
corner; and in 1804, repaired the inside walls of the 
church. He also caused the floor to be entirely re- 
laid, and for the most part new flagged. In short, it 
is to his good taste, and his active superintendence, 
that the fabric owes its present superb appearance.'*^ 

Among the many charitable institutions in this 
town, we have first to notice : 

The Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, in Stamner- 
gate, was endowed by Thurstou, Archbishop of 
York, in the time of Henry the First, for lepers. This 
hospital was at its institution under the government 
of sisters, assisted by a chaplain, and appropriated 
for the relief of persons afflicted with the leprosy ; 
and to prevent the contagion from reaching the inha- 
bitants of the town, this building was erected about 
two furlongs from it. Bat when leprosy became less 
frequent, it was converted to the use of sisters and 
brethren, under the superintendence of a master, who 
was bound to relieve distressed clergy, and the poor. 

This hospital at present consists of a range of 
buildings, divided into six separate dwellings, and 
is now inhabited by six poor widows, who have their 
situation, together with the yearly allowance of 


three pounds each for life, together with the rent of 
the field adjoining to the hospital. The chapel is on 
the east side of the road. The hospital was rebuilt 
by Hooke. 

Divine service is still performed in the chapel on 
the Sunday after the 22d of July, and on the feasts of 
St. John and St. Thomas. 

The mastership of it is in the gift of the Archbishop 
of York; to which the Dean of Ripon, for the tune 
being, has of late years been appointed. 

The Hospital of St. John Baptist was founded by 
one of the archbishops of York, early in the reign of 
King John ; but for wliat number of poor does not 
now appear. This building is small, and at present 
appropriated to the habitation of two poor sisters, who 
have each an annual allowance of one pound seven 
shillings and sixpence. Near the hospital is a chapel, 
dedicated to St. John Baptist, in which divine service 
was celebrated every Sunday until the year 1722. 
In it was a chantry said to be founded by John Sher- 
wood, who also founded a chantry in Hipon church, 
and is buried near the steps to the altar, under an old 
uninscribed grave-stcme. The Archbishop of York is 
patron of this hospital, which is st}'led the Hospital of 
St. John the Baptist, in Bond-gate, in the parish of 

The Hospital of St. Anne, sometimes called ' Mai- 
son de Bieu,' is said to have been founded by some 
of the Nevills, in the reign of Edward IV. On the 
outside of the building are the arms of Sir Solomon 
Swale, with initial letters and a date, " S. S. 1G54." 

When James I. came to Ripon, April 15, 1617, he 
was presented by tiie corporation with a gilt bow and 
a pair of spurs; the latter article cost 5/. Ripon 
spurs might be forced through a half-crown. 

A navigable canal comes up to the town, by which 
coals are brought and merchandize conveyed to and 
from York, Hull, London, &c. 

"There are several mills for various purposes, 


erected upon streams branching from the rivers Skell 
and Laver; one of these streams runs through a street 
called Skillgate; from this the town is well supplied 
with excellent water, by means of an engine erected 
at the expence of William Askwith, esq. by which 
water is conveyed into every house at a small annual 
rent. Numerous springs, in and near the town, add 
to the many benefits it receives from the nature of its 
situation ; two of these are inclosed for cold baths, 
and a third, of very fine water is received into a bason 
in a kind of alcove. This was erected at the ex- 
pence of the late Wm. Richardson, M.D. with this 

" Utilitate Publicae. 
The Archbishop of York has a criminal court and 
priscm for the liberty of Ripon; the court-house and 
prison stands on the north-side of the church, on the 
site of the palace ; the Archbishop of York is lord, and 
custos rotulorum of this liberty, and on the nomina- 
of the archbishop, and by his Majesty's commission ; 
justices of the peace are appointed, who in conjunc- 
tion with the mayor and recorder, hold a sessions 
here, and act in as judicial a manner for the towns and 
districts within the liberty, as the justices for the se- 
veral ridings within the county. Besides the sessions 
there is a court of common pleas, called the court mi- 
litary, held here on the Monday in every third week, 
for the trial of all civil causes arising within the li- 
berty, in which the archbishop's learned steward, ap- 
pointed by patents, presides as judge. 

The court-yard in front of the prison is open and 
airy, being 80 yards by 50. Felons have not the pri- 
vilege of walking in it, the wall which encloses it being 
only six feet high. 

The dean and chapter have also a prison, and hold 
a court of pleas here, called the canon fee court, on 
the Tuesday in every third week, for the recovery of 
debts, and the trial of civil causes arising within the 


manor, which extends over some parts of the town, 
and likewise includes the townships of Aismunderby, 
with Bondgate, Skelton, Markington with Waller- 
thwaite, and Nunwick with Howgrave. 

The remains of a very ancient custom is still gene- 
rally observed by the inhabitants of this town. On 
Midsummer-eve, every housekeeper, who has in that 
year changed his residence, into a new neighbour- 
hood, (there being certain limited districts called 
neighbourhoods), spreads a table before his door in 
the street, with bread, cheese, and ale, for those who 
chuse to resort to it, where after staying awhile, if the 
master is of ability, the company are invited to supper, 
and the evening is concluded with mirth and good 
humour. The origin of this custom is unknown, but 
it probably was instituted for the purpose of introdu- 
cing new comers to an early acquaintaince with their 
neighbours; or it may have been with the more laud- 
able design of settling differences by the meeting and 
mediation of friends. 

The feast of St. Wilfrid is celebrated annually, and 
continues nearly a week. On Saturday after Lammas- 
day, an effigy of the prelate is brouglit into the town, 
preceded by music; the people go out to meet it, 
and with every demonstration of joy, commemmorate 
the return of their former patron from exile. The 
next day is dedicated to him, being called St. Wil- 
frid's Sunday. 

At the east end of the town, and not far from the 
minster, is a remarkable tumulus, commonly called 
Ellshaw, or Ailcey Hill, made up of human skele- 
tons, laid in regular order, greatly decayed, discerni- 
ble from the bottom to the top of the hill. Camden 
says in his time it was called Hill Shaw. Its shape is 
conical; the circumference at the base is about 900 
feet, the length of the side near the road is about 222 
feet. The tradition is, that it was raised by the Danes ; 
others have conjectured the hill to be formed of the 
rubbish of a monastery, ruined in the contests of the 
Danes and Saxons; but the vast quantity of human 


bones found in digging it, without the least appear* 
ance of any mortar or cement, leaves no room to 
doubt that it was a repository of the dead. We are, 
liowever, inclined to adopt the opinion of Mr. Tho- 
resby, who, speaking of the coins of i£lla, Osbright, 
Alfred, Ealred, and Ethelred, found at Ripon, A. D. 
1695, and transmitted to ^him by the Archbishop of 
YoKk, concludes that it derives its name from ^Ua, 
King of Northumberland. 

The Danes and other northern people used in this 
manner to inter those who fell in battle. 

At what time or on what occasion this monument 
was formed, must still remain uncertain; but it is 
highly probable that the vast number of bodies de- 
posited here, have been of persons who fell in some 
dreadful conflict near this place, so often the seat of 
war and calamity. 

The environs of Ripon are pleasant; the air is mild 
and salubrious; and the surrounding country is rich, 
fertile, well wooded, in a high ?itate of cultivation, and 
interspersed with villages and seats of the nobility and 
gentry. Among these, Studley Royal, and Nevvby- 
hall, must be considered as the great ornaments of the 

Studley Royal, the seat of Miss Lawrence, is a com- 
modious and elegant house; the apartments are excel* 
Icntly finished, and adorned with a good selection of 
pictures by the most distinguished masters. The 
prospects from the house are irregular and pleasing, 
and the park is enlivened by herds of deer. Beyond 
the extensive woods and plantations, Ripon minster 
and part of the town appear in view. The pleasure- 
grounds, at least three quarters of a mile from the 
house, lie in a valley, through which a small brook 
runs from Fountain's Abbey, and the hills on each 
side are covered with wood. These ruins of a far- 
famed monastery are more perfect, and contain many 
more marks of the original structure, than those of 
many structures in England. The west end of the 
church is tolerably entire, and is composed of widely 


pointed arches and massy Norman columns. The 
ruins of the abbey and the church spread over a large 
tract of ground. The chapter-house, the refectory, the 
dormitory, and about a hundred yards of the cloisters 
are also tolerably entire. 

The celebrated monastery of Fountain's Abbey was 
founded in the year 1132, for monks of the Cistertian 
Order, who had then been lately introduced into 
England, and the primitive monks of this place seemed 
to have been inspired with all the enthusiasm of St. 
Bernard, the chief of their order, as at one time they 
■were reduced to such straits by a general scarcity, as 
to be obliged to feed on the leaves of trees and herbs 
gathered in the fields, and boiled with a little salt. 

Having sustained these difficulties rather than quit 
the place, the fame of their sanctity and abstinence 
spread far and wide, and many rich sinners, who 
wanted passports to heaven through the prayers of 
these holy men, contributed most profusely: for in- 
stance, Hugh, dean of York, being sick, ordered him- 
self and all that he had to be carried to the monastery 
of Fountains, and being very rich, his wealth brought 
great relief to the house. 

At length, after Edward the Third had secured the 
northern parts of the kingdom from the depredations 
of the Scots, the monks of Fountain's Abbey were in 
such repute for their supposed sanctity, that many of 
the northern barons purchased with immense dona- 
tions, a sepulture within its walls. Among these was 
the ancient and noble family of Percy. The abbey, 
with all its offices and appendages, occupied ten, or, 
according to some writer?, twelve, acres of ground. 
The whole length of the church, from east to west, is 
351 feet, and that of the transept 186. The great 
tower at the north end is very perfect, and finely pro- 
portioned, and by its remarkable situation, gives an 
uncommon degree of eft'ect to every view of the ruins. 

Descending the hill from the seat where these first 
strike the view, the tourist is conducted along the mar- 


gin of a rivulet, the abbey still appearing with addi- 
tional grandeur on a nearer approach. 

On crossing the mouldering arches of a bridge, he 
finds himself at the entrance of these beautiful ruins. 
— Built in the most elegant stj^le of Gothic architec- 
ture, the tower and all the walls are yet standing, the 
roof alone being gone to decay. 

The following are the more exact dimensions of 
these venerable remains: the great tower is one hun- 
dred and sixty-six feet six inches high, and 24 feet 
square. It is placed at the north end of the transept, 
and is probably from the appearance of the windows, 
and angular ornamental buttresses, of which there are 
none attached to the church, of a somewhat later 
aera than the rest of the building, or of the time of 
Edward III. when York minster was erected. It is 
entitled to particular notice as being very perfect and 
lofty, and of noble proportions; and giving, by its 
peculiar situation, an uncommon degree of picturesque 
dignity to Qvery view of the ruin in which it is in- 

Immediately behind the altar is the sanctum sanc- 
torum, 132 feet long, and 30 broad, where only the 
principal or heads of the order were admitted. Ad- 
joining is the altar. 

Within a few yards of the tesselated pavement of 
the altar lies a stone coffin, in which, it is said. Lord 
Henry de Percy was buried, in the year 1315. 

' In a chapel to the left is a broken stone figure, said 
to be the Earl of Mowbray in full armour, with the 
arras of Mowbray on his shield. 

At the top of the north corner window of the tran- 
se})t is the figure of an angel holding a scroll, with the 
date 1283. 

The nave or body of the church presents a majes- 
tic specimen of the early Gothic style of architecture 
of the time of Henry III. being completed by abbot 
John de Cancia, who died in the year 1215; whilst 
the eastern part of it exhibits instances of great light- 


ncss and elegance in the choir and columns of the 
sanctum, and especially in the magnificent arch of 
the great east window. If this superb and lofty arch 
has not been added since the date on the west win- 
dow (1292) it is, perhaps the first example of one of 
the magnitude in the kingdom, and the whole church 
may be esteemed one of the purest models now ex- 
tant, of the simple and majestic style of building which 
prevailed in the reign of Edward I. 

The cloister garden is 120 feet square, and now 
planted with shrubs and evergreens. 

The chapter-house is 84 feet by 42; the rubbish 
within it was cleared away about the year 1791, 
when several tomb-stones of the abbots interred here 
were discovered; the floor has been a tesselated 
pavement of various designs, fragments of uhich 
still remain. The tomb-stones are much broken, and 
the inscriptions are so defaced, that two only remain 
legible, viz. 

" Hie requiescit dominus Joannes X. 

Abbas de Fontibus qui obiit VIII. Die. 


" Hie requiescit dominus Johanus XH. Abbas de 

The scriptorium was over the chapter-house, and 
of the same dimensions; it appears to have been sup- 
ported by ten pillars of grey marble, the basements 
of which are now remaining. 

The kitchen, which is divided, is very small, when 
compared with the other apartments, and is remark- 
able for two curiously arched fire places. 

The refectory is 103 feet by 45 ; with a gallery on 
one side, probably for disputations. 

The cloisters are 300 feet long and 42 feet wide; 
the roof is arched, and supported by 21 stone pillars. 
Near to one end is a large stone bason, two yards in 

The cloister garden is 120 feet square, and is 
planted with shrubs and evergreens. 


Over the cloisters is the dormitory of the same di- 
mensions; under the steps leading to which is a 
porter's lodge. 

A few yards distant are the ruins of the apartments 
occupied by the abbots. 

Over the principal west window, on the outside, is 
a thrush standing upon a tun, carved with stone, sup- 
posed to denote the name of the founder, with a scroll 
bearing date 1292 ; the same hieroglyphic is placed 
over the window at the extremity of the south side. 
On each side of the tower are inscriptions, in large 
Saxo-monastic characters. 

Fountain's Hall stands about two hundred yards 
west from the abbey, and was built out of its ruins, 
by Sir Stephen Proctor, one of the squires to James I. 
— There is nothing deserving of particular notice at 
this hou5€, except some curious painted glass, in the 
windows of the chapel, exhibiting the arms cf diffe- 
rent families, and a curiously ornamented chimney- 
piece, representing the Judgment of Solomon. 

Skelldale extends severaf miles above Fountain's 
Abbey, and still appears in all its romantic beauties. 
About a mile higher up, is the village of Aldfield, 
which deserves to be better known for its medicinal 
waters, which rise on the southern side of the vale. 
A fine trout stream runs between them, and a charm- 
ing spring of fresh water issues within a few yards. 
This spa is \-isited in summer by great numbers of 
country people, who scarcely ever fail finding relief in 
all cases in which the use of sulphureous waters are 

About four miles east fi-om Ripon, on the road to 
Boroughbridge, is Newey-Hall, situated on the east 
bank of the river Aire. A few good family portraits 
are among the pictures in this house, but its principal 
ornament is the museum, or gallery of statues, which 
contains a series of the most valuable antique marbles 
that taste could select or money procure. Among 
the most eminent the following are pointed out by the 
iuiienious editor of the works of the late Mr, Daves, 


viz. the Nereid Galatea; a colossal head of Hercu- 
les; the philosopher Epicurus; a Dacian Kinj;; a 
Venus; Brutus, who slew Julius Ca^sJlr; the Empress 
Faustina, wife of Antoninus Pius; the Goddess Pal- 
las, and a Dancing Faun. Sir Edward Blackett re- 
built this hoose jn"l760, at an expence of 32,000/.; 
but this, with other estates, devolved to the Kight 
lion. Thomas Weddel, Lord Grantham, after the 
death of William Weddel, esq. in 1792. 


Is a small market-town, situated about seven miles 
from Ripon, upon the river Nid, over wjiich it has a 

In Ripley church there is a monument under an 
arch, with the effigies of a knight and his lady in a 
cumbent posture, with several escutcheons of arms 
round it; which monument seems to have been for 
Sir Thomas Ingleby, a judge in the reign of Ed- 
ward III. There is also a handsome monument 
in the choir, against the south wall, for Sir William 

There is a tradition that this church formerly stood 
near the river, but on account of the floods was re- 
moved to where it now stands. 

In this town is a school with the following inscrip- 
tion over the school-room door: 
" This school was built by JNIary Ingleby, in the year 

1702, and endowed with part of the fortune of Ka- 

therine Ingleby, being two youngest daughters of 

Sir WiUiam Ingleby, of Ripley, in the county of 

York, Baronet." 

At Ripley there is an ancient castellated building, 
the seat of Sir John Ingleby, bart. According to an 
inscription carved on the frieze of tlie wainscot in one 
of the chambers, it was built by Sir William Ingleby 
in the reign of Philip and INIary. It has been much 
enlarged of late years, and is now a spacious and com- 
modious mansion, embattled only for ornament; but 
the lodge and great tower still retain their clmracte- 


ristics of strength and security. The apartments are 
elegant, and in the great staircase is a superb Vene- 
tian window of stained glass, ornamented with a se- 
ries of escutcheons, displaying the quarterings and the 
intermarriages of the Ingleby family, during the course 
of 433 years that they have been settled at Ripley. 
The market is held on Monday. 

Between Ripley and Knaresborough are Bilton 
Hall, and Coguill Hall, pleasantly situated upon 
the river Nid. 


The town of Knaresborough is situated on the side 
of a high hill, almost encompassed by the river Nid, 
which issues from the bottom of the Craven hills. 
The prospects from the higher parts of the town, of 
the surrounding country, are extremely beautiful. A 
handsome stone bridge over the Nid leads uphill into 
a neat wide street, to the market-place. 

The town is tolerably large, well-built, and Ijand- 
some, and contains about 4000 inhabitants, numbers 
of whom have been long employed in the manufactory 
of linen and cotton. The market held on Wednesd;iy 
is one of the greatest corn-markets in Yorkshire, great 
quantities of grain being sold here, and sent westward, 
especially taSkipton and Craven. 

The church is for the greater part modern. It con- 
tains some monuments of the SUngsby family; and 
under a stone, which formerly covered St. Robert, 
who died about 1216, is buried Sir Henry Slingsby, 
beheaded 1658 for his steady adherence to the royal 
cause. When the bells were hung in the year 1774, 
several pieces of halt-burnt wood were taken out of 
the wall of the steeple, probably the ends of timber de- 
stroyed by fire during the reign of Edward H. when the 
Scots ravaged the northern parts of England, and when 
this town and the church were involved in a general 
conflagration. Since the Reformation this clmrch 
seems to have been repaired out of the ruins of the 


Knaresborough is an ancient borough by prescrip- 
tion, and has returned two members to parliament 
ever since the first year of Queen Mary. The right of 
election was then vested in 84 or 88 burgage houses, 
the owners of which were entitled to vote. The Duke 
of Devonshire is now, and the family has for a long 
time been in posse-sion of ail the burgage-houses, 
except four. The number of houses in Knaresborough 
is about 883, the inhabitants, 4234. The number of 
voters at present is only 100; two-thirds of which are 
under the influence of the Duke of Devonshire, and 
the remainder the property of Sir William Slingsby. 

The remains of Knaresborough Castle are situated 
near the river Nid, on a craggy rock (whence it takes 
its name), and is washed by the river. It is said to 
have been built by Serlo de Burgh, soon after the Con- 
quest ; he was uncle by the father's side to Eustace 
Fitz-John, who took upon him the name of Vesci. It 
appears by the history of Fountain's Abbey, that this 
Eustace inhabited the castle in the year 1133; for 
when the monks of the abbey were in great distress 
for want of food, he sent them a basket of bread. It 
seems to have been pretty entire in Leland's time, 
from his account of it given above. According to the 
same author in his Collectanea, this castle, in the 
reign of Edward II. about the year 1319, was taken 
by John de Lillburne, who afterwards surrendered 
himself to the king upon certain conditions. A his- 
tory of this castle, published at Knaresborough many 
years ago, places this event in the reign of Edward 
III. and says Lillburne stole the castle, and burnt the 
records; but no authority is cited for this assertion. 
In the year 1399 the deposed Richard II. was removed 
hither from Pickering Castle, on account of some in- 
surrections in his favour. 

In the time of the Civil Wars, during the reign of 
Charles I. the castle appears to have been capable of 
resistance. y\fter the battle of Marston-Moor, it 
was bravely defended by the townsmen, for the king, 
for a considerable time, against the regular troops of 
Q 2 


the parliament, and* at length capitulated upon ho-' 
nourable terms. 

The site of the castle occupies a circular space of 
about 300 feet diameter, overlooking the river. The 
lines of tlie exterior ^vall of the works are discerni- 
ble; and in a wall, taking a diagonal direction across 
the works, is a gallery of communication. One of the 
circular towers is still visible. The keep, by the parts 
left, was certainly a grand design, consisting of three 
stories; on the second, or principal story, the windows 
are large, which with other decorations warrants its 
former magnificence. Taking an east view of the re- 
mains they are very picturesque; in the centre the 
keep, to the left the vestiges of a gateway, and on the 
right a distant view of the river and country. 

The commander of the parliament forces, as he did 
not dare to wreak his vengeance upon the people, 
levelled his malice against the castle, the interior 
of which he destroyed, leaving only what remains at 

The ruins consist of part of the south point of the 
keep, of dismantled towers, dilapidated arches, and a 
vaulted room, which was used as a prison. Yet even 
now enough is left to strike the imagination. 

The winding labyrinths, the hostile tower, 
Where danger threaten'd and tyrannic power; 
The jealous draw-bridge, and the moat profound, 
The lonely dungeon in the cavern'd ground, 
The sullen dome above those central caves. 
Where liv'd one tyrant and a host of slave s. 

These ruins are but a short walk from Harrowgate, 
and connected with the many natural and artificial 
curiosities that abound in the neighbourhood, render 
the town of Knaresborough an interesting object to 
the visitors of that place. 

In the long walk on the south western bank of the 
Nid, and opposite to the ruins of the castle, is the 
famous Dropping, or petrifying, Well. This re- 
markable spring rises in the steep declivity of the hill, 


nt the toot of a limestone rock, whence it trickles 
down in above thirty places, dropping very fast, cre- 
ating a musical kind of tinkling, owing most probably 
to the concavity of the rock, which projecting in a 
circular curve from the bottom to the lop, its brow 
overhangs nearly fifteen feet. This rock, which is 
above thirty feet high, forty-five feet long, and from 
thirty to forty broad, started about 110 years ago 
from the main bank, leaving a chasm of two or three 
yards wtdc, over which the water is carried by an 
aqueduct. The whole rock is covered witli plants, 
flowers, and shrubs. The spring is supposed to emit 
20 gallons per minute. The water abounds with fine 
particles, which it deposits only when in a languid 
motion, and leaves an incrustation on the bodies that 
it meets with, in trickling slowly amongst the many 
obstacles that impede its course. Tradition teJls u^, 
that near this rock Mother Shipton, the famous York- 
sliire sybil, was born towards the latter end of the 
fourteenth century. 

About a mile from Knaresborough is Saint Robert's 
Chapel, an excavation in the rocks. It has a door- 
way and window, with pointed arches. On the 
right of the door-way is a curious figure of a knight 
in the attitude of drawing his sword, as ready to 
defend the entrance. This sculpture is cnt in the 
rock. The interior of the chapel (eight feet square) 
is worked into two divisions with groins. The east 
end has three sides of an octagon, where is ati altar 
with compartments, and over it a niche. On the 
south side are niany heads cnt in relief. Tlie whole 
work is evidently done by an unskilful hand; perhaps 
the first hermit, who took up his abode here in the 
reign of King John, employed himself in the execu- 
tion of the design, as the imes, thougii tending to the 
early pointed style, are incorrect and irregular; a 
hole in the middle of the floor is called the Saint's 
Grave. From St. Robert's grave a pile of freestone 
rocks ranges along the river side for above three miles, 
overhung with trees romantically disposetl ; among 
Q 3 


there are the ruins of another chapel, and on the green 
sod before it a blue stone, with a cross fleuri, under 
which the last priest of the chapel is said to lie. Fur- 
ther on, almost at the end of the ridge of rocks, is St. 
Robert's cave, alow subterraneous passage, said to have 
reached to the market-place, and to have been traced 
so far. This place, in the year 1768, was the theme 
of much curiosity, on account of the bones of Daniel 
Clarke, who was about thirteen years before murdered 
by Eugene Aram, a schoolmaster, being discovered 
therein. Aram, a self-taught genius, produced at his 
trial a written defence, so replete with erudition and 
elegance, that it not only astonished the whole court, 
but the whole country. He however afterwards con- 
fessed the fact, and was executed August 1759. 

The walk along the margin of the river from the 
dropping well to the bridge, is extremely delightful. 
The precipitous rocks which run along the north side, 
are not less than a hundred feet in height. At the 
bottom and on the declivity are many dwellings, 
scooped out of the rock, and inhabited from time im- 
memorial. The most remarkable of these is called the 
roCk-house, a large cavern, supposed to have been 
the retreat of some of the banditti that formerly in- 
fested the neiglibouring forest. Under a large rock 
are a few steps that lead down into this singular 
abode. The latest occupiers were an industrious 
weaver and his family, w ho had formed a small piece 
of ground on the slope of the rock into a garden. In 
fact, there are several gardens with ciiarming walks, 
in different stages of the dechvity, quite to the top of 
the hill. At the bottom of the rocks is a narrow slip 
of level ground along the margin of the river, covered 
with a number of small but neat houses. 

About a mile from Knaresborough castle, aie the 
remains of an ancient camp, on the point of a hill 
about 200 feet above the river Nid. From this 
station there is a fine view of the town and castle of 
Knaresborough, and the valley through which the 
river runs. 


Plumpton lies about two miles from Knaresborough: 
this is a romantic spot, laid out with walks and other 
decomtions amidst rocks and trees, and is much re- 
sorted to by the company from Harrowgate. Beck- 
withshaw is also a pleasant part of the ancient forest, 
and still retains some appearance of the Shaw, or 
small wood. 

Ribstone-hall, the seat of Sir Henry Goodricke, 
hart, is situated on an eminence, nearly encompassed 
by the river Nid, commanding a wide, extensive, and 
beautiful prospect. In the saloon are many fine 
pictures ; and in the chapel-yard a very curious se- 
pulchral monument of the standard bearer of the ninth 
Roman Legion, which was dug up in Trinity-gardens, 
near Micklegate, in York, in the year 1688. In his 
right hand is the ensign of a cohort, and in his left a 
measure for corn. This place produces the dehcious 
apple called the " Ribstone-park pippin," though the 
original tree was brought from France ; this is still 
standing, and in the year 1787 produced six bushels 
of fruit. 

SpofFord presents some striking ruins, which extend 
forty-five yards from north to south, and sixteen from 
east to west. These are situated on a sloping bank, 
ending on a low wall of rock within the castle, 
affording convenience for lower apartments. The 
hall, which has been a most magnificent room, is 
seventy-five feet in length, and thirty-six in breadth ; 
the window^s are arched like those of cathedral 
churches. It seems to have been built about the 
time of Edward the Third, when the idea of castle 
began to give place to that of the palace. Here was 
the seat of the Percys before Alnwick or Warkworth 
came into their possession; and the manor-house, 
according to Leland, was much defaced in the Civil 
Wars between Henry VI. and Edward IV. 

Ripley has a seat of the Tngleby's very near it: 
Ripon, Studley-park, and Fountain's Abbey are fre- 
quently visited from Harrowgate, though from fifteen 
to twenty miles distant. The forest of Knaresborough 


extends from east to west upwards of twenty miles; 
and in some place is eight miles in breadth. 

In KnaresboroLigh parish, about three miles west 
of the town, on a large and dreary moor, anciently a 
part of the forest, are the villages of Upper and Lower 

Harrowgate, two miles north-west of Knares- 
borough, consists of two scattered villages, distin- 
guished by the names of High and Low Harrowgate, 
nearly a mile distant from each other; both built on 
a common, yet possessing sufficient accommodation 
for company. The situation of Higb Harrowgate is 
extremely pleasant, commanding a most extensive 
prospect of the country, finely varied by towns, vil- 
lages, fields, and woods. The cathedral of York is 
seen distinctly at the distance of twenty miles, and 
the view is terminated by the Craven-hills on the 
west; Hambleton-hills and the Yorkshire Wolds on 
the east. 

Of Harrovvgate it has been remarked, while some 
places are visited because they are fashionable, and 
others on account of the beauty of their scenery, this 
is chiefly resorted to by valetudinarians, who fre- 
quently derive health from its springs ; otherwise 
upwards of two thousand persons would not annually 
repair to this sequestered spot. 

The old chalybeate spa at Harrowgate, discovered 
by Captain Slingsby in 1571, rises opposite the 
Granby-inn, and has an elegant dome over it, erected 
by the Earl of Koslyn in 1786. This well is strongly 
recommended to persons for whom tonics are pre- 
scribed. The Tewit Well stands about half a mile 
west of the former, from which it differs very little. 
The Sulphur Wells are at Lower Harrowgate, and 
are properly enclosed and secured ; the water at first 
is clear and sparkling, and throws up a quantity of 
air bubbles; has a strong sulphureous smell, tastes 
salt, and, according to the popular opinion, seems to 
the palate like rotten eggs and gunpowder. Taken 
from two to four pints it is purgative, and is found 


serviceable in scurvy, scrofula, and cutaneous diseases. 
It is also us#d by way of bath or fomenting, when its 
good effect on the diseases of the skin and the cure of 
ulcers, are generally perceptible, as well as in re- 
moving old strains, aches, and paralytic debilities. 
It has also been found useful in destroying worms, 
and been recommended in gout, jaundice, spleen, the 
green sickness, and other disorders arising from ob- 

The season at Harrowgate begins in May, continues 
till Michaelmas, and in fine autumns concludes in 
October. The company are accommodated at several 
large inns on a heath about a mile from the town, 
each liouse having its long-room and an ordinary; the 
board per day, fluctuates between seven and ten 
shillings at the different inns. Here, and at the 
hoarding-houses, various parties are formed, who eat 
in common, and thus enjoy at a reasonable rate many 
comforts and even luxuries, which singly they could 
not command, while their repasts are seasoned by 
social conversation, and both sexes vie with each 
other in the art of being mutually agreeable. 

A theatre was opened at Harrowgate in 1788 ; 
there are, besides, billiard-rooms, at which ladies as 
well as gentlemen attend ; the former merely for 
amusement: deep play of any kind is seldom practised; 
and the consequence of mixing with female company 
is found to be advantageous to sobriety. • Hargrove's 
library at High Harrowgate, is well supplied and much 
frequented ; and there is also another improving 
library. The new promenade is an elegant and com- 
modious building in the midst of a large garden, and 
serves as a morning lounge for tlie company v.ho at- 
tend the wells. 

Mr. Bigland observes, that " the sulphur springs are 
very offensive to the smell and the ta^te; but expe- 
rience has proved them to be excellent remeilies in 
cutaneous disorders and scrophulous cases, as well as 
highly ethcacious in destroying w orms and their nidus ; 
in cleansing the bowels, and removing chronic ob- 


structions. In the year 1783, was discovered in the 
garden of the Crescent-inn, at Low Harrowgate, a 
new spring, which heing of a middle nature between 
the sulphur and chalybeate, and containing ingredients 
of both, is peculiarly suited to chronic diseases. 

The Harrowgate waters have been analyzed, and 
their qualities explained by many eminent physicians. 
The first treatise on the virtues and uses of the chaly- 
beate springs was written soon after their discovery, 
by Dr. Bright; who was followed by Dr. Dean in 
1626; by Dr. Stanhope in 1631; Dr. French in 1651; 
Dr. Neale in 1656; and Dr. Simpson in 1668. The 
sulphureous waters have been treated by Dr. T. Short, 
Dr. William Alexander 1773 ; Dr. Walker in 1784, 
and Dr. T. Garnet in 1793, to the last edition of 
whose valuable treatise an appendix of cases is added 
by Dr. J. Jaques, physician at Harrowgate. Dr. 
Nisbet, who published " A iNIedical Guide for the 
Invalid to the principal Watering Places in Great 
Britain, in 1806," remarks, that Higher and Lower 
Harrowgate possessing sufficient accommodations for 
company that mix in social parties, they enjoy ruore 
pleasure amidst the bleak and barren wilds of York- 
shire, than many taste in the fashionable haunts of 
Bath and Brighton. 

The rise of Harrowgate since the first discovery of 
the springs in the year 1561, has been remarkable. 
Being at first but a miserable hamlet, the company 
for want of accommodations, were obliged to lodge 
in farm-houses and cottages, till the year 1687, when 
the first inn, now called the Queen's Head, was built. 
Before the commencement of the last century there 
were three good inns at High Harrowgate; but during 
the last sixty years the annual resort of nobility and 
gentry has been great beyond all precedent, and this 
has become one of the principal watering places in 
England, having eight spacious and commodious inns, 
besides a numlier of private lodging-houses, for per- 
sons who are desirous of a more retired situation. 
At the inns there are public balls twice a week, at 


each house in rotation. Here is also a chapel erected 
by subscription, and consecrated in 1749. Divine 
sen/ice is performed here every Wednesday and 
Friday, and a sermon preached every Sunday through- 
out the year. Since the buildings about Harrowgate 
have increased, there are nearly 1500 inhabitants, 
many of them in opulent and easy circumstances. 

Among the walks and rides round Harrowgate, is 
Harewood-Hall, the seat of Lord Harevvood, built on 
an eminence, and from the south front overlooking a 
piece of water. This fine house being within an easy 
morning's ride, is commonly visited by the company. 
The entrance to the ancient castle here, supposed to 
have been built about the time of Edward X., is by 
two portals. 

One mile east from High Harrowgate is a bridge 
over a small brook, called Starbeck, and about two 
hundred yards to the east of this spot are two springs, 
formerly in great repute, but now quite neglected. 
Bilton-park is about half a mile hence on the left of 
the road leading to Knaresborough, and here are 
several petrifying springs, besides one of sulphureous 
water. Marble, alabaster, and coal, are likewise to 
be met with on this estate. We pursue our route 
through Harewood ; but meet with nothing remarkable 
till we come to 


The town of Leeds, situated on the north bank of 
the river Aire, is one of the most commercial and 
opulent towns in Yorkshire. It covers an eminence 
gently rising from that river to the upper end of the 
town, and falling with an easy slope to the east and 
west as well as to the south. On the eastern side the 
town falls into a deep valley, through which a rivulet 
runs, having a number of dyeing-houses on its banks. 
Still this rivulet does not form the boundary of the 
town, as there are a considerable number of houses, 
and several streets, lanes, and alleys beyond its 
eastern banks. The town of Leeds is in general well 
built, almost entirely of brick; but its difterent quarters 


form, one with anotlier, a striking contrast. The 
houses upon the rivulet just mentioned are mean, and 
the streets and lanes, dirt}', crooked, and irregular, 
emitting disagreeable smells from the dyeing-houses 
and the different manufactures. 

The southern 'edge of the town is almost as dis- 
agreeable ; and though it has some good houses, it 
has been said in a great measure to nave the appear- 
ance of a prison. But the middle and western parts 
display fine streets and several elegant buildings. 
The breadth of tlie town from north to south is not 
jnuch more than half a mile ; but its length from east 
to west, is not less than a mile and a half. It is 
divided nearly into two equal parts by Briggate and 
the market-place, which open into each other, running 
uearly in a line from south to north. Briggate, the 
principal street in Leeds, is about 500 yards in length, 
and thirty in breadth. In this the cloth-market was 
formerly held on Tuesdays and Saturdays, at an early 
hour in the morning. At the upper end of Briggate, 
is the Moot-hall, the front of stone, supported by 
columns and arches, and the arms of the town, in 
relievo, between two maces, the ensigns of mayoralty. 
The fleece in the escutcheon, designates the woollen 
manufacture, supported by the birds of Minerva, in 
memory of Sir John Saville, afterwards created Lord 
Saville, the first honorary alderman when the town 
and parish were incorporated, in the second year of 
Charles I. In a niche over the arms of the town is a 
statue of Queen Anne in white marble, by Carpenter, 
the gift of Alderman Milner. 

From the IMoot-hall to the market-place the street 
is divided by a row of buihhngs into two; that to tl.e 
east is the shambles, and the other is called the back 
of the shambles. The market-place, or as it is usually 
called. Cross-parish, is a very spacious street, having 
the large market-cross at the east end. At the top 
of the market-place is the Head Row, so called from 
its rising with an easy ascent to the crown of the hill, 
on thesouthcrji dcclivitv of which the town is situated. 


At the upper end of New-street, entirely built by 
John Harrison, esq, the great benefactor of Leeds, is 
the church-yard of St. John's. A little further to the 
north is Mill-Hill, at the extremity of the town, 
where the castle formerly stood, and where there arc 
now a large house and gardens ; this is one of the 
most delightful situations in Leeds. Li the middle of 
the town, to the east and west of Briggate, are several 
good streets and large and handsome houses. But 
tlie western part displays the greatest degree of ele- 
gance. Here is a spacious square, environed with 
handsome brick houses, which being built at different 
times, has no general name. The east side is called 
Park-row ; the west is denominated East-parade ; 
and the north side the South-parade : the south side 
is formed by the Mixe(i-Cloth Hall and the general 
infirmary. Tiie centre is partly laid out in gardens, 
but the largest proportion is used as a tenter-ground. 
Park-square is also composed of elegant modern 
houses, and the centre is laid out in walks and planted 
with shrubs. On the south side of this square is St. 
Paul's church, a very modern and handsome structure 
of stone, having been opened on Christmas-day, 1794. 
To the south of Park-square, and separated from it 
by the new road to Kirkstall is Park-place, a row of 
very handsome houses fronting the south, and com- 
manding a fine view of the river Aire and the neigh- 
bouring hills. Leeds contains five churches, viz. St. 
Peter's, St. John's, St. James's, Trinity church, and 
St. Paul's. St. Peter's, the parish church, is a spa- 
cious, plain, and venerable pile of considerable anti- 
quity; but the name of its founder, and the time of 
its foundation, are unknown. A church here is cer- 
tainly mentioned in the Doomsday Survey. St. Peter's 
is 165 feet in length, and 97 in breadth, built in the 
form of a cross, with a tower or steeple 96 feet in 
lieight, rising from the centre on four massy colunms 
with arches. The roof, 51 feet high, is supported by 
.three rows of pillars, terminating in pointed arches; 
and the nave displays a sort of singularity in being 


divided into four aisles, which run from the transe^jt 
to the west end. The choir is spacious, and before 
the Reformation, was divided into several distinct 
chapels. There are galleries quite round the church ; 
on the front of that opposite the pulpit are the arras 
of the town, a golden fleece in a field azure, sur- 
rounded by a garter, on which is inscribed Sigillum 
Burgi de Leedcs, supported by two crowned owls, in 
honour of Sir John Saville. Here are a fine peal of 
ten bells, with chimes that play at four, six, eight, 
and twelve o'clock, and an excellent organ built by 
Ilenry Price. On the ceiling of the nave, the As- 
cension is painted in fresco, by Pannentier. 

In this church are many sepulchral monuments of 
the 15th and 16th centuries, now greatly defaced; 
but the inscriptions are mostly preserved by Thoresby. 
Among those of a modern date there are several upon 
young and promising otiicers that fell during the late 
revolutionary war. St. John's was founded and finished 
by John Harrison, esq., and consecrated Sept. J, 
1634. This eminent benefactor, who died anno 1656, 
in the 77th year of his age, is here interred under a 
tomb of black marble, with an appropriate inscription. 
Trinity church, erected about 1721, is a handsome 
stone structure with a tower and spire ; the roof is 
supported by a double row of Corinthian columns. 
St. Paul's, another elegant stone edifice erected by 
the Rev, Miles Atkinson, is neatly finished. St. 
James's church is an octagonal building of stone, and 
was first occupied by the late Lady Huntingdon's 
preachers, but was purchased by two clergymen of the 
established church, and has been since consecrated. 

Besides the five churches, here are eight meeting- 
houses for Protestant Dissenters, viz. one Presbyterian, 
one Unitarian, three of Independents, one of Scotch 
Seceders, one for Baptists, one for Quakers, exclusive 
of two Methodist meetings, aud a Roman Catholic 

The General Infirmary is a large and handsome 
building of brick, built and supported by voluntary 


subscription. Every person, wherever his residence 
may be, is admissible, if recommended by a subscriber; 
but in cases admitting of no delay, this is not neces- 
sary. IMr. Howard, who visited this hospital in 1788, 
says, this hospital is one of the best in the kingdom. 
In Vicar-lane there is another hospital, called the 
House of Ilecover}', for the reception of poor persons 
liaving infectious i'evers. Its objects are, first, to pre- 
vent the spread of contagious fevers, by removing into 
well-ventilated apartments every poor person on the 
first appearance of an infectious fever ; by which 
separation the rest of the family and neighbourhood 
will probably be preserved from its ravages; and ge- 
nerally to effect the recovery of those who might 
otherwise fall victims to the disease. 

To the old alms-houses founded and endowed by 
John Harrison, esq. for forty poor women, twelve 
more have been added, according to the will of the 
late Arthur Aikin, esq., which now afford a retreat to 
sixty-four aged persons, each of whom receives the 
sum of six guineas per annum. The new alms-houses, 
ten in number, forming three sides of a square, were 
founded by jNlrs. Potter, for the widows of deceased 
tradesmen, each having a salary of ten pounds per 

The Free Gramraar-School was also erected by 
the benevolent John Harrison, esq.; and in 1G92, 
Godfrey Lawson, esq. added a new apartment. This 
school has produced several eminent men in church 
and state. The charity school instructs seventy boys 
and fifty girls in reading and knitting: this was like- 
wise founded by Mr. Harrison. The workhouse was 
built by Richard Sykes, esq. alderman in 1636; but 
has since been considerably enlarged. At the King's 
Mills, held by J. P. Neville, esq. by a grant from the 
crown, all the inhabitants of Leeds are obliged to 
grind their corn, except those whose houses stand oa. 
ground formerly belonging to the Knights of St. John 
of Jerusalem. 

The water«works arc near the bridge crossing the 
R 2 


Aire; by means of tliese works the town is abundantly 
supplied with soft water. Adjoining these are the 
vast warehouses belonging to the Aire and Galder 
navigation. Here are also assembly-rooms, consist- 
ing of a ball-room, tea-room, and card-room; the 
dancing assemblies are held every fortnight during 
the winter. The theatre was built by the late Tate 
Wilkinson, esq. Plays are performed here generally 
three nights in the week, during the summer months; 
the season commencing about the middle of May. 
In this town there is also a circulating library, which 
contains a good collection of books, and some va- 
luable manuscripts; to these it has been in agitation 
to add an annual exhibition of pictures. The Mixed- 
Cloth Hall, erected in 1758, at the expence of the 
manufacturers, is a quadrangular building, inclosing 
an open area. The structure is 127 yards in length, 
and 66 in breadth, and is divided into six covered 
streets, each containing two rows of stands, making 
in the whole 1800. Each stand is 22 inches in front. 
About twenty individuals have been in possession of 
two stands each. All these persons have served a 
regular apprenticeship to the making of coloured 
cloth. Each stand cost the original proprietor three 
guineas each; but they have since been raised from 
eight to fifteen pounds, according to the situation. 
The White-Cloth Hall was built in 1775, and is a 
quadrangle like the other, having five covered streets, 
each with a double row of stancis: The first cost of 
these was thirty shillings ; but they have been sold 
from three pounds to eight guineas. Manufacturers 
of an inferior class, who have served a regular ap- 
prenticeship, but have no property in the halls, bring 
their cloth into the inclosed area, and pay a fixed 
price for every piece exposed to sale. In Albion- 
street is a small hall, for clothiers who cannot be ad- 
mitted into the other halls, not having served a re- 
gular apprenticeship. The cloth-market at both the 
lialls is held on Tuesdays and Saturdays, and the 
commencement is announced by ringing a bell, and 


the whole business of the market must be concluded 
in an hour and a quarter. Any merchant remaining; 
in the hall after the last bell has done ringing, must 
pay five shilhngs every five minutes, or be excluded 
till the fines are paid. The corn-market is held every 
Tuesday in Cros^-parish. The shambles display great 
abundance of butchers' meat; and the fish-markets 
are held on Monday and Thursday. The quantity of 
fruit and garden stuff" sold every market-day is very 
great. Besides cloths, here are several manufactures 
of sacking, canvas, linen, and thread. Here are also 
carpet manufactories ; and a number of cotton-mills, 
most of which have been worked by steam. Numerous 
luills cover the banks of the Aire, for grinding corn, 
dyers' wood, rape-seed, fuUing-cloth, turning ma- 
chinery, &c. 

In 1811 the popuktion of Leeds was 62,534 per- 
sons, an increase of nearly ten thousand since the 
census of 1801. The navigable river Aire, with the 
Leeds and Liverpool canal, have been the means of 
increasing the trade of these places by an easy com- 
munication with the eastern and western seas. This 
canal, which commences about a quarter of a mile 
above the bridge at Leeds, passes by Kirkstall Abbey 
and Shepley, above which it crosses the river Aire. 
It then proceeds to Bingley, and passing within a 
short distance of Keighley, continues its course to 
Skipton. Near Gargrave, four miles and a half west 
of bkipton, it again crosses the Aire, and is afterwards 
continued into Lancashire, through which county it 
is carried to Liverpool, an extent of 109 miles. 

The borough of Leeds, which comprises the whole 
parish, is governed by a corporation, consisting of a 
mayor, twelve aldermen, and a common-council of 
twenty-four members. The mayor and aldermen are 
justices of the peace; and one or more of them attend 
every Tuesday and Friday at the Rotation-office, for 
the dispatch of business. A sessions for the borough 
is held every three months, at which the mayor pre- 
sides; and a general sessions for the West Riding is 


held here at Michaehnas. The Moot-hall, till the 
year 1811, was the sessions or court-house, but at 
that time the magistrates voted three thousand pounds 
towards the building of a handsome new one, since 

To this has been added a prison, very different, in 
point of convenience, from that which was visited by 
Mr. Howard. When that gentleman pointed out the 
insalubrity of this wretched dungeon, on being told 
that prisoners seldom remained in it more than a 
month, he observed, " an hour was too long to stay 
in such a place." 

The recent establishment of a Vagrant-office in 
Leeds has already been attended with the most bene- 
ficial consequences. Street beggars are already con- 
siderably diminished ; and the lodging-houses, which 
used each to harbour twenty or thirty vagrants daily, 
are quite clear of visitors, and are likely to be closed. 

In March 1818, the first stone of Wellington-bridge 
was hiid here; it consists of one liandsome arch; the 
architect was .1. Rennie, esq. 

With respect to the cloth-market at Leeds, finished 
goods on the ground story are offered for sale from 
half past eight till ten minutes before ten o'clock, 
down to the quantity of half a piece, and at ten the 
market up one pair of stairs for white, or undyed 
goods, commences. In this town butchers' meat of 
good quality, together with roots and vegetables, as 
well as fruit, are exposed in great abundance for sale. 
Dyed yarns, and even cart-loads of the plant woad, 
are also exposed in the market for sale. New buildings 
even in the latter end of the summer of 1819, were 
erecting, and excited the appearance of a town in a 
thriving state. The manufactories are now extended 
to the whole process of carding, spinning, • weaving, 
shearing, and pressing, all by steam. 

The pleasant village of Knostrop is upon the banks 
of the Aire; and the environs of Leeds, in general, 
are pleasant. 

The remains of Kirkstall Abbev are situated at 


Kirkstall, a small vilkige upon the river Aire, about 
three miles from Leeds. Dr. Whitaker, in his History 
of Craven, observes, that " among the monastic re- 
mains of the north of England, this abbey may claim 
the second place, whether it be considered as a feature 
in landscape, or as a specimen of architecture. In 
the former view it must yield the palm to Bolton ; 
with the latter indisputably to Fountains. 

*' The lead and timber only were removed at the 
dissolution, and nearly the whole building yet remains, 
"with few additions to the structure of Abbot Alex- 
ander; and fewer losses by removal or decay. The 
whole exhibits that struggle between the Norman and 
early Gothic styles, which took place in the reign of 
Stephen. The windows are single round-headed 
lights, the doors of the same shape, adorned with zig- 
zag or rectangular mouldings ; the columns of the 
church massy, but clustered, with pointed arches and 
with Saxon capitals, each varying in pattern from the 
rest. The cloister quadrangle, with the various apart- 
ments surrounding it, is nearly entire. The original 
refectory (for there is another of much later date), 
has been a magnificent vaulted room, supported on 
two fine cylindrical columns, cacli of a single stone. 
The Chapter-house is partly of the original structure, 
and partly an enlargement, little prior to the dissolu- 
tion. The tower, according to the practice of the 
twelfth century, was carried at first little higher than 
the roof, but a lofty and graceful addition made to it, 
apparently about the time of Henry VII. so loaded 
the columns on which it stood, that about twenty 
years ago the north-west pillar suddenly gave way, and 
drew after it an enormous ruin of two sides of tiie 
whole tower, which has perhaps contributed to the 
picturesque effect of the whole. The cloister court 
was the monk's cemetery, and about three years ago, 
the gravestone of one of the last of the society was 
found in fragments, though nothing more of the in- 
scription was legible than 


AMiie same time the remains of a coffin, consisting 
of plates of beaten iron, were discovered. 

Kirkstall Abbey was founded in the year 1152, 
for Cistertians, whom Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lin- 
coln, first settled at Bernoldswick, near Gisburne in 
Craven. Dr. Whitaker gives an interesting account 
of the circumstances which led to the translation of 
the monastery, and its final dissolution, to which we 
must refer the reader. 

The ruins of the abbey occupy a very considerable 
space; their length from north to south measuring 340 
feet, and from east to west 445 feet. The choir is 
fifteen yards by eight and a half v^ilh three chapels on 
each side ; five yards and a half by three and a half. 
The transept nme yards and a half square. The 
nave 48 yards long, by eight and a half without the 
aisles ; which are three yards and a half. The altar, 
of white free-stone, lies broken to pieces; the authors 
of this violence are said to have come to untimely 
ends. The site of the abbey, upon its dissolution, 
was granted to Archbishop Cranmer and his heirs. 

Mr. Thoresby, the historian of Leeds, describes 
many curious painted bricks found among the ruins 
of the abbey, of different sizes, some of which were 
in the shape of those now in use, but larger: the 
largest of them was about eleven inches long, five in 
breadth, and two in thickness. These bricks were 
found near the foundation. A curious altar-piece is 
said to be preserved, formerly belonging to the abbey, 
on which was painted the history of Joseph of Arima- 
thea, entombing our Saviour. Eight alabaster statues, 
gilded and inclosed in a space of nine inches broad, 
and thirteen long, were attached to.this piece, and also 
the iron box for preserving the important papers of 
the society. 

The revenues of the house at the dissolution were 
valued at 329/. per annum. 

At CocKRiDGE, about two miles north from Kirk- 
stall, a small village, formerly part of the possessions 
of the abbey, Roman coins have been frequently dug 


up ; and on the moor not far from Addle-mill, in the 
year 1702, were discovered traces of a Roman town. 
Among the ruins were many fragments of urns and 
pottery, with the remains of a large aqueduct in stone. 
At a short distance from hence is a Roman camp, 
ahout four chains by five with a single vallum. Two 
inscriptions were found, with a bust in relief over a 
third, which was destroyed by the labourers. Mr. 
Gough, in his Camden's Britannia, has given a plate 
of these stones and inscriptions. 

Addle church is built of small square stones, like 
the Roman wall and multangular town at York, and 
is evidently of great antiquity. 

We shall here make a small deviation from the line 
of our route, in order to visit the town of Bradford, 
nine miles westward from Leeds. It is a neat, middle- 
sized manufacturing town, containing about 8,000 in- 
habitants. The parish is very extensive, containing 
the following townships : Eccles-hill, Shipley, North 
Blerley, Bowling, HortoH;, Clayton, Thornton, Heaton, 
Manningham, and Hawath, all which are very po- 

Bradford church is a handsome and spacious struc- 
ture ; but there was one more ancient erected here 
about the year 1268. The town stands chiefly on a 
rising ground, covering a strata of good stone. Coal 
and iron ore are found in great abundance in the 
neighbourhood, particularly upon the commons of 
Wibsey and Barling, where there are considerable 
iron works. The staple trade of Bradford consists 
chiefly of the manufacture of worsted stuffs, for the 
disposal of which they have a Piece Hall, 144 feet 
long, and 36 broad, divided into two departments : 
the upper, or chamber, is appropriated to the purpose 
of selling worsted yarn in the gross, and here occa- 
sionally is held the sessions for parochial business and 
common law. The ground floor is divided longitu- 
dinally, having a range of closets on each side to con- 
tain the goods, opposite to which is a show board, 
running the whole length. 


In passing along the roads here, it is observed, on 
every side the traveliei hears the rattling of looms and 
sees the smoke of steam engines employed for various 
purposes, whilst the whole country around exhibits a 
scene of active industry and crowded population. 
But at present, almost every vestige of this happiness 
and prosperity has been destroyed by the introduction 
of machinery, and tJie long continuance of the late war. 

The town of Bradford is well built, almost entirely 
of stone, as a brick house is rarely to be seen. The 
air is sharp and healthful, and the environs extremely 

About three miles east from Leeds is Temple New- 
some, formerly a preceptory belonging to the Knights 
Templars; now the residence of the Right Hon. 
Viscountess Irwin. The mansion is built of brick, 
and is one of the most magnificent houses built with 
that material in the kingdom. The grounds are very 
extensive, and if not laid out according to the present 
taste, have an air of grandeur not to be found in the 
modern system. 

In Whitkirk church, about a mile from Temple 
Nevvsome, are several ancient monuments, and an 
elegant one to the memory of Mr. Smeaton, the en- 
gmeer who erected the Edystone light-house. 

At the distance of five miles nearly east from Brad-o 
ford, and six nearly west from Leeds, is 

FuLNECK : here is an establishment of the Moravian 
Brethren. The present buildings were erected in the 
year 1748, by a number of German Moravian Bre- 
thren, and form a terrace of considerable length, 
commanding an extensive prospect. The establish- 
ment consists of a chapel and hall, school, and w ork- 
shops, and also two large halls, appropriated for the 
accommodation of the residents, consisting of un- 
married persons of that persuasion of both sexes, and 
who are kept separate from each other with a pe- 
culiar degree of exactness. These buildings, with the 
bouses for separate families, form a considerable vil- 
lage; the number of inhabitants of which is from four 


to 500. Various branches of trade are carried on 
in it, as shoemakers, tailors, bakers, &c. but their 
chief employment is the woollen manufacture. The 
single women are famous foi their skill in working 
muslins with the needle, and tambour, and their 
labours sell at a high price. The vocal and instru- 
mental music of the settlement is reckoned very ex- 

Fulneck is considered as the principal establish- 
ment of the Moravian Brethren in the united king- 
dom, and is the residence of their bishop, who is 
appointed at the meeting of a synod on the Continent, 
and regularly ordained to preside over all the congre- 
gations in Great Britain. 

In the village there is also a commodious ir»n for the 
entertainment of visitors and travellers, and a shop 
in which are sold groceries, draperies, and a variety 
of other goods. The Widows' House here was princi- 
pally intended for the accommodation of the widows 
of deceased missionaries and ministers. The schools 
too were at first select for the offspring of these per- 
sons, but now several persons of different persuasions 
send their children to this seminary, where the great- 
est order is maintained; each scholar has a bed to 
himself; there are two teachers for each room, so 
that the pupils are not neglected for a moment. 
Every thing about Fulneck, in short, exhibits an ap- 
pearance of regularity, neatness, and decency. 

About a mile before we reach Wakefield, on the 
left of our road, at the head of a rich vale, is Hat- 
Fi eld-Hall, formerly called Wood-Hall, late the seat 
of John Hatfield Kaye, esq. who enlarged, ornament- 
ed and improved it in 1768, adding three Gothic 
fronts. It had been rebuilt 1608, by Girvan Hatfield, 
descendant from Sir Stephen Hatfield, high sheriff of 
Gloucestershire, o Henry VI. 

Wakefield, about eight miles soutli from Leeds, 
has been considered as one of the most opulent of 
the clothing towns. Many of the new streets contain 


reinaikably h indsome and spacious mansion houses, 
built of red brick and stone. 

It is charmingly situated on the side of a hill slop- 
injT gently towards the Calder. Most of the streets 
are regular. The market-cross is an elegant struc- 
ture, being an open colonnade of the Doric order, 
supporting a dome with an ascent, with an opening 
circular pair of stairs leading to a large room which 
receives its light from a lantern at the top, and in 
which most of the business of the town is transacted. 
The market is held on a Friday, and a great deal of 
business is done, particularly in the sale of wool. 
The fortnight fairs held every other Wednesday, are 
well attended by graziers and jobbers from Lincoln- 
shire, the' East Riding, and Craven, and by butchers 
from Halifax, Hudderstield, Sheffield and Manchester. 

Huddersfield is in fact a thriving handsome town, 
and has for some time threatened to rival Leeds. 
The steam-boats that run betweon Huddersfield, Hali- 
fax, and other places in tlie line of the new canal, are 
also called fly-boats, on account of their expedition. 
By the junction of this canal with the river Calder at 
Cooper's-bridge, a communication is opened with 
Halifax, Wakefield, Leeds, York, and Hull. 

The parish church of Wakefield is an ancient, lofty, 
Gothic structure, dedicated to All Saints : the spire is 
said to be the highest in the county. The time when 
this church was built is uncertain; but in August 1329, 
Godfrey Plantagenet confirmed to the monks of 
Lewes, in Sussex, the pension of sixty shilhngs out of 
it, which had previously been given to them by 
William Earl Warren. In November 1348, the church 
being become the property of the king, was appropri- 
ated by William, Archbishop of York, to the dean 
and college of the royal chapel of St. Stephen, in the 
palace of Westminster, reserving to himself and suc- 
cessors, out of the fruits thereof, the annual sum of 
twenty shillings, and to his dean and chapter, ten 
shillings. Prior to the second of January, 1439, the 
church had been governed by a rector secular; but 


then the said William, Archbishop of York, ordain- 
ed, at Ripon, that it should be governed by a per- 
petual vicar (Irnving the cure of souls), presentable by 
the said dean and college, who fihould have for his 
portion the fruits of the church, except the great 

In 1724, the south side of the church was wholly 
rebuilt ; and the greatest part of the north side, to- 
gether with the east end, have been rebuilt within 
these few years. On the outside of the east end, there 
has likewise been a very elegant vestry room erected. 

The parisli church is dedicated to All Saints. The 
new church which was completed in 1795, was con- 
secrated by the Archbishop of York, and is called the 
church of St. John the Baptist. That elegant quarter 
of the town where it stands, is called St. John's. 

About forty years ago, a widow lady (Mrs. New- 
•stead), bequeathed the sura of one thousand pounds 
towards the support of a minister who should officiate 
in a new church, when built, and also the ground for 
the same. But the property being litigated, the mat- 
ter lay dormant until the whole of the testatrix's pro- 
perty was purchased by Messrs. Maude and Lee, who, 
concurring with some disinterested inhabitants, pro- 
cured an act of parliament for fulfilling the will of 
the donor, and for enlarging the town, by the addition 
of several new streets. The first stone of the new 
church was laid by the Rev. Henry Zouch, of Sandall, 
amidst the applauses of an amazing concourse of 
people; and a great number of handsome houses in 
streets and squares have since been erected. 

There is a Free Grammar-school, founded and en- 
dowed by Queen Elizabeth, but much enlarged by 
benefactions from private persons, inhabitants of the 
town and parish. The school-house is a noble and 
spacious building, erected by Thomas Saville, and 
sons, ancestors of the Earl of Mexborough. There 
are several exhibitions appropriated to this school, 
for the maintenance of students in the University of 
Cambridge, of very considerable value, and some 

194 WEST htbixc of yorksiiirf. 

smaller ones for the students at the University of 
Oxford. There are likewise two scholarships for 
young members of Clare Hall, in Cambridge. 

Here is also a Charity-school, founded for the in- 
struction and clothing of 106 poor boys and girls of 
Wakefield. Seventy of these are under the imme- 
diate care of a master, who has a good house adjoin- 
ing the school, for his residence, and a salary of up- 
^vards of forty pounds per annum. The remainder of 
tiie children are under the care of another person, who 
has about sixteen pounds a year for instructing them. 

The charitable donations to this town, amount in 
all to about 1000/. per annum, and are under the direc- 
tion of fourteen trustees, called governors. They are 
appropriated to the maintenance of several exhibi- 
tions in both universities, as mentioned above; to 
binding out poor boys to various trades, with premi- 
ums; to the support of old and infirm widowers and 
widows, who have houses also to reside in, and to 
any other charitable purpose which the governors 
may think proper. 

The West Riding House of Correction is situated 
in Wakefield, and is an extensive and handsome 
building, walled round. The governor's house is a 
noble structure, standing in the south front wall of 
the prison. 

The hall here erected by subscription, is two stories 
high, about seventy yards in length, and about ten 
broad. Each story contains a row of stands or repo- 
sitories, facing each way, and properly labelled, so 
that any manufacturer's stand may easily be found. 
The commencement of this market is announced by 
the Hall-keeper, by the ringing of a bell suspended 
in the cupola before mentioned. The Calder naviga 
tion has been the means of promoting the trade of 
this town equally with that of others with which it 

The south entrance into the town of Wakefield is 
over a handsome ancient bridge, built sometime in 
the reign of Edward HI., over the Calder ; a fine 


specimen of ancient masonry, and on a large scale. 
In the centre is a chapel, projecting from the east 
side of the bridge, four arches ranging on either 
hand. At the north-east angle of tiie chapel is a 
stair-case for ascending into from the v/ater. The 
east window has much tracery, and the parapet is 
perforated. The windows on each side of the build- 
ing, north and south, are equally rich. But all em- 
bellishment seems inconsiderable, and all praise in- 
adequate, when referring to the west front, imme- 
diately connected with the pass on the bridge. The 
design is twenty-six feet in breadth, and is divided into 
seven parts by buttresses ; these parts are made out 
as so many recesses with pointed arched heads and 
lofty pediments. The second, centre, and sixth 
parts have door-ways (the centre one and sixth 
bricked up); above is an entablature supporting 
niches, turrets, and five basso-relievos : these latter 
decorations are crowned with small battlements. — The 
several grounds are filled with compartments and tra- 
ceries, which with the crotchets, finials and other 
ornaments, are minute and delicate in the extreme. 

This superb relic of antiquity, Mr. Bigland observes, 
was some years since used as a warehouse, and its 
beautiful embellishments have received considerable 
damage. The east window hanging over the river, is 
adorned with various tracery, and the parapets are 
perforated. The buttresses, finials, traceries, &:c. 
form an assemblage of Gothic embellishments, which 
for richness and delicacy, can scarcely be excelled, 
though the west front, facing the passage over the 
bridge, exceeds all the rest in profusion of ornament. 
This superb Gothic chapel, has lately been used as a 
news-room by a society of gentlemen. 

The basso-relievos exhibit the Nativity, Resurrec- 
tion, and Ascension ; the fourth not quite intelligible, 
(being with the rest, much mutilated), but appears 
to contain two personages, one on each side of an 

This chapel was dedicated to St. Mary, and ap- 
s 2 


pears to have been erected shortly after the bridge, 
by Edward III., in memory of his father, Richard, 
Duke of York, who fell in the battle of Wakefield: 
it was afterwards rebuilt and embellished by Edward 

Wakefield has been embellised with a new Court- 
house, and a new Asylum for the insane, together 
with many respectable dwelling houses, near the new 
church. The Black Bull, is a large handsome inn, of 
modern erection, in the best street. 

About two miles from Wakefield, on a hill south 
of the Calder, is the village of Heath, which is uni- 
versally allowed to be one of the most beautiful in 
England. It consists of various elegant stone houses, 
built round a green, with hanging woods and gardens 
towards the river. 

About a mile and a half from Wakefield, on the 
road towards Barnsley, are the remains of Sandal 
Castle, under the walls of which, Richard, Duke of 
York, father of Edward IV. lost his life, in the battle 
with Queen Margaret. Of this castle little exists 
besides two uprights, of about twenty feet each in 
length, containing a few arched openings of win- 
dows. The castle was demolished by Oliver Crom- 
well, in 1648. The village of Sandall has a handsome 
church, which is a vicarage to an extensive parish. 

From hence we continue our route towards Shef- 
field ; through Barnsley, and over a road which we 
have already described in the course of our journey to 


Is pleasantly situated upon an eminence, at the 
confluence of the rivers Sheaf and Don, over each|of 
which is a stone-bridge. That over the Don is called 
Lady's bridge, consisting of three arches; and leads to 
Barnsley, to the north, to Rotherham to the north- 
east; supposed to be so named from a reUgious house, 
which anciently stood near it, and was dedicated to 
the Virgin Mary, which was afterwards converted 


into alms-hooses for poor widows ; but when the 
bridge was widened, in 1768, these houses were 
pulled down. It was erected originally in 1485, for 
one hundred marks; the town finding all tlje materials. 
The bridge over the Sheaf was rebuilt by Edward, 
Duke of Norfolk, in 1769, consisting of one arch, 
and leads to Sheffield-park, Hansworth, Woodhouse, 
&c. to the east. 

The extent of the town from east to west^ and from 
north to south, is nearly a mile. 

In the north-east part of the town, where the two 
rivers meet, there was formerly a strong castle of a 
triangular form, defended on two sides by the rivers 
Don and Sheaf; having a strong breast-work before 
the gates, which were palisadoed, with a trench twelve 
feet deep, and eighteen feet wide, full of water, and 
a wall round five yards thick. This castle, with the 
lordship of Sheffield, was granted to Thomas, Lord 
Fournyvale, 39 Edward III., to be held by homage 
and knight's service, and the payment to the king 
and his heirs, of two white hares yearly, on the feast 
of St. John the Baptist. 

It was surrendered, upon articles of capitulation, 
to the parliament forces, by Gabriel Hemsworth, 
Samuel Savile, and Thomas Robson, commissioners 
authorized by the Governor, Major Beaumont, 
August 10, 1644, and was afterwards demolished; 
so that there is but little of it remaining at present, 
to note its former site, except that the streets and 
places thereabouts still retain the names of the Castle- 
hill, Castle-ditch, Castle-fold, Castle-green, &c. 

The corporation here relates only to the manu- 
factory, and is styled " The Company of Cutlers of 
Hallamshire" incorporated by act of parliament in 
1625. It is governed by a master, two wardens, six 
searchers, and twenty-four assistants. 

As a certain portion of ground, or tenements in 

the town, belongs to the freeholders at large, so 

seven of them (four of the estabUshed church, and 

the other three dissenters) are appointed, under the 



title of town collectors, to grant leases, receive rents, 
and apply the produce of the estate to public uses, 
such as lighting the streets, &c. 

Here are four churches, viz. Trinity Churcli, St. 
Paul's, St. James's, and the chapel belonging to the 
Duke of Norfolk's Hospital. Trinity Church, for- 
merly called St. Peter's, which stands near the centre 
of the town, was erected about the year 1100. It 
is a vicarage, and did in former times belong to the 
priory of VVorksop, in Nottinghamshire. The vicar's 
income chiefly depends upon the small tithes, Easter- 
dues, and fees for marriages, churchings, and burials, 
the glebe being but small, though improved latterly. 
The vicar has three assistant ministers, who were 
first appointed, and a donation of land made for their 
support, and other purposes, by Queen Mary, in 
1553. They are elected by twelve capital burgesses, 
as they are styled, who are trustees for the donation. 
The church is a Gothic structure, with a handsome 
spire in the centre, has eight very tuneable bells, and 
a set of chimes made in 1773. In consists of a nave, 
two side aisles, and a large chancel. On the north 
side of the communion table are the vestry and library, 
over which is a room where the burgesses before-men- 
tioned transact business. Here are interred three 
earls of Shrewsbury, and Judge Jessop, one of the 
nine judges of Chester, and his lady, ofBroomhalJ, 
near this town. 

St. Paul's church is an elegant modern structure, 
in the Grecian style. It was begun to be erected 
in 1720, being founded through tiie benefaction of 
1000/. from Mr. Robert Downes, a silversmith in 
this town, together with the subscriptions of several 
other gentlemen in the town and neighbourhood. 
It was finished in 1771. It has a tower at the west 
end, with a bell and clock, presented by Francis 
Sitwell, esq. Within is a good organ, erected in 
1755, and the galleries are supported by two rows of 
Corinthian pillars. It is a chapel of case to Trinity 


St. James's is a handsome modern building, erected 
by subscription, upon the glebe land belonging to the 
vicarage, according to an act of parliament passed in 
1788, and was consecrated the 5th of August, 1789. 

The chapel at the Dulce of Norfolk's hospital, re- 
built in 1777, is of an octagon form; and was princi- 
pally designed for the use of pensioners, who have 
daily prayers performed here. It is calculated to 
contain a large congregation, but its construction is 
unfavourable to the hearers. 

There are seven different meeting-houses, and one 
for quakers, besides a Romish chapel. 

On the eastern side of the river Sheaf, near the 
bridge, is an hospital, erected in 1670, by Henry 
Earl of Norwich, great grandson of Gilbert, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, in pursuance of his last will and testa- 
ment, and endowed with divers estates. March 3, 
1770, Edward Duke of Norfolk gave by deed 1000/. 
for the augmentation of the funds of the said hospital, 
which sum was applied by the trustees towards build- 
ing a new chapel on the site of the old one. This 
hospital maintains 15 men, and 15 women, aged, de- 
cayed housekeepers, for each of whom is provided a 
house and garden, with a pension of five shillings per 
week, besides clothes and coals. The other hospital 
was founded in 1703, by Mr. Thomas Hollis, a mer- 
chant in London, for the benefit of 16 poor cutlers' 
widows. They have each a separate habitation, and 
61. 10a-. a year, which is paid in measure quarterly, 
two cart loads of coals annually, and a brown gown 
and petticoat every second year. Upon the same 
foundation 4/. a quarter is paid to a master for teach- 
ing 40 boys to read; and 5/. per annum to a writing 
master for instructing a number of boys during three 
or four of the summer months. 

At the north-west corner of Trinity church-yard, is 
the Charity School for poor boys, instituted in 1708, 
and supported by annual subscription. 

At the opposite corner of the same church-yard, 
there is another Charity School, for clothing, feeding, 


and instructing poor girls, erected in 1786. They 
are admitted at the age of seven, and continue till 
they are fourteen or fifteen, at the option of the trus- 
tees, after which age they are hired out to proper 
places. This charity is also supported by annual sub- 

West from hence is a Free Grammar-School,^ the 
patent for which was granted by James I. It has a 
head master (who must be a graduate in one of the 
universities), and an usher. The head master has a 
good house adjoining to the school. 

About half a mile west from the town, on 4th 
September, 1793, was laid the first stone for an in- 
firmary ; towards which near 17,000/. had been then 

In 1762 was erected, on the south-east part of the 
town, in Norfolk-street, an assembly-room and a 
theatre, by the joint subscription of about 30 gentle- 
men of the town. The theatre has been since pulled 
doun, and built upon a larger plan. 

On the south side of Trinity church-yard, is the 
Cutlers' Hall, where business relative to the corpora- 
tion is transacted, erected in 1726. 

At the south-east corner of Trinity church-yard is 
the Town Hall, built in 1700, where the town affairs 
are settled, and the sessions held. 

On August 31, 1786, a new market-place was 
opened, containing extensive and commodious sham- 
bles, and other conveniences, erected by the Duke of 

The population of Sheffield in 1811, amounted to 
35,840 persons, and the houses 7652. The markets 
are held on Tuesdays and Saturdays : the fish-markets 
on Monday and Thursday are well supplied from the 
eastern coast. 

It appears from the town-seal, and other circum- 
stances, that Sheffield has been a staple for iron ma- 
nufactures from the year 1297, especially for falchion 
heads, arrow piles, and an ordinary sort of knives, 
called whittles; but in process of time, other articles 


of more importance being invented, the cutlery trade 
was pursued in the town and neighbourhood, consist- 
ing of the manufacture of sheers, knives, scissars, 
scythes, and sickles, &c. About the year 1600, be- 
gan to be manufactured an ordinary sort of iron to- 
bacco boxes, and a musical instrument called a Jew's 
trump. In 1638 files and razors began to be made. 
In 1640 clasp or spring knives began to be manufac- 
tured, with iron handles, which, in a short time were 
covered with liorn, bone, tortoise-shell, &cc. still, how- 
ever, it appears, that, for near a century succeeding, 
the Sheffield manufactures discovered more of indus- 
try than ingenuity: the workmen durst not exert their 
abilities in labour for fear of being overstocked with 
goods. Their trade was inconsiderable, confined, and 
precarious. None presumed to extend their traffic 
beyond the bounds of this island; and most were con- 
tent to wait the coming of a casual trader, rather tlian 
to carry their goods, with much labour and expence, 
to an uncertain market. The produce of the manu- 
factory used to be carried weekly by pack-horses to 
the metropolis. About sixty years ago, Mr. Joseph 
Broadbent first opened an immediate trade with the 
continent ; and the river Don being made navigable 
up to within three miles to the town in 1751, greatly 
facilitated the conveyance of goods abroad. Master 
manufacturers began to visit London in search of or- 
ders with good success. Several factors now esta- 
blished a correspondence with various parts of the 
continent, and engaged foreigners as clerks in their 
counting-liouses. The roads began to be improved, 
and Britain and Ireland were thoroughly explored in 
search of trade. The fairs in different 'jjarts of the 
kingdom annually decreased in their importance, be- 
cause shop-keepers could be easily supplied with 
goods at any time of tlie year. Buttons of plated 
metal had been made by Mr. J. Bolsover for a con- 
siderable time; but about 1758 a manufactory of this 
material was begun by Mr. Joseph Hancock, an in- 
genious mechanic, comprehending a great variety of 


articles, such as saucepans, tea-urns, coftee-pota, 
cups, tankards, candlesticks, &c. &c. Since that 
time, this branch has been pursued by numerous com- 
panies, wliich has greatly contributed to the wealth 
and population of the town. 

The cutlers' and smiths' manufactures are encou- 
raged and advanced by the neighbouring mines of 
iron, particularly for files, and knives, or whittles, 
and it is reputed to excell Binningham in these wares, 
as that does this town in locks, hinges, nails, and 
polished steel. The first mills in England for turning 
grind-stones were also set up here. Many of the 
houses here look black from the continual smoke of 
the forges. Here are about six hundred master cut- 
lers, incorporated by the style of the Cutlers of Hal- 
lamshire, (of which this is reckoned the chief town), 
who have employed not less than forty thousand per- 
sons in the iron manufactures, and each of the mas- 
ters gives a particular stamp to his wares. The act 
for the establishment of this company was passed in 
1625, and an amendment made in 1791. It is go- 
verned by a master, two wardens, six searchers, and 
twenty-four assistants. The master is elected an- 
nually on the last Thursday in August, after hav- 
ing passed through the inferior offices. 

The river Don, which being joined wirh the Sheaf^ 
runs hence to Rotherham, is navigable at about three 
miles distant from Sheffield : and from thence to and 
above the town, great number of works are erected 
upon it for forging, slitting, and preparing the iron and 
steel for the Sheffield manufactures, and for grinding 
knives, scissars, sheers, &c. 

The rising ground on every side of Sheffield is co- 
vered with plantations, and it has the advantage of 
Leeds in clean streets, as also in the appearance of the 
neighbouring country. 

Sheffield Manor-house, about a mile distant to the 
east, is mostly in ruins, except that one part of it 
which has been converted into a farm-house, and other 
parts have been made into dwellings for poor people. 


one large turret of the original building being now only 
left standing; this was formerly the seat of the Earls of 
Shrewsbury. Here Cardinal Wolsey w^as taken ill, in 
his way to London, and died at Leicester; and here 
Mary Queen of Scots was for some time kept prisoner. 

The environs of Sheffield are finely romantic; the 
eminence on which the town stands is surrounded by 
hills of much greater height, making it appear as if si- 
tuated in a valley. 

A large portion of sandy soil in Sheffield-park, in 
the summer of 1820, engaged a number of labourers 
in its cultivation by spade-husbandry; a laudable mode 
of employing the poor, which had been previously 
adopted at Birmingham. 

The parish of Sheffield extends about nine miles 
from north-east to south-west, and about five miles 
from north to south, and about six from east to west. 
It has two chapels of ease under Trinity church, viz. 
Atterclifte, one mile and a half north-east, and Ec- 
cleshall, three miles south-west from the town. 

Journey from Boroughhridge to Bawtry; through 
Fontefract and Doncuster. 

BoROUGHBP.iDGE, SO Called from the bridge here 
over the river Ure, is a town of very ancient ori- 
gin, having without doubt risen out of the ruins of 
IsuRiUM Brigaktum, and is situated upon the old 
Roman road denominated Watling Street. It is a 
-small borough town, sending two members to parlia- 
ment, in consequence of a particularly qualified bur- 
gage tenure, and was first summoned to return repre- 
sentatives by Queen Mary in 1553. Boroughhridge 
is in the Aldborough parish, to which it has a chapel 
of ease. 

In the year 1318 this town was burnt by the 
Scots. The principal business of the place at present 
arises from its thoroughfare situation on the great 
north road. The river Ure is navigable from hence 
to Ripon. The market is on Saturday. Here also 
are annual races. 


About half a mile from the town are three large 
upright stones, about 200 f(?et asunder, called by the 
country people the DeviVs Arrows. There were for- 
merly fonr, and are supposed to have been fixed here 
by the Romans. The easternmost, or highest of these 
pyramidal obelisks, is 22 feet and a half high, by four 
broad, and by four and a half in girth; the second 21f 
feet by bl; the third 16 1 feet by 8^:. 

Two miles east from Boroughbridge is Aldbo- 
Roucii, on the river Wharfe, a place of great antiquity, 
supposed to have been the Isurium Brigantum, 
mentioned above. — The present town of Aldborough 
contains about 500 inhabitants, but with respect to 
its buildings, it has only the appearance of a village; 
it, however, ranks as a borough, and returns two 
members to parliament; all the inhabitants who pay 
taxes have a right to vote. 

About four miles from Boroughbridge, in a moist 
bottom, is the source of the Ouse, covered with 
stone, in which are two round openings ; and a stone 
obelisk, without a date, erected by Henry Tiiompson, 
esq. of Kirby Hall. 

About five miles south of Boroughbridge is Allerton 
Mauleverer, the seat of the Right Hon. Lord Stour- 
ton, with a park containing nearly 400 acres of rich 
land. Here was formerly a priory of Benedictines, 
founded by Richard IMauleverer in the reign of Henry 
If. When these foreign cells were dissolved, Henry VI. 
settled the revenues of this place on King's College, 
Cambridge. Lord Stourton, who purchased this es- 
tate of Colonel Thornton in 1805, has made great 
improvements and additions to the house. 


Is a small well-built market-town, twelve miles 
from Boroughbridge, pleasantly situated upon the river 
Wharfe, over which it has a noble bridge; above which 
the river forms a beautiful cascade, by falling in a 
grand sheet of water over a high dam, erected for 
the conveniency of the mills, where they not only 


grind corn but press great quantities of oil from rape- 
seed, and rasp logwood fur tlie use of the clothiers 
and dyers. 

Here is a weekly market on Thursday. Within a 
mile of the town is Wetherby-grange, the seat of Ri- 
chard Thompson, esq. In this park is a herom-y, a 
thing not very common in this part of the country. A 
little below Wetherby is St. Helen's Ford, where the 
Roman military road crossed the river Wharfe. 

Aberford or Abberford, about nine miles south 
from Wetherby, in Camden's time was noted for its 
manufacture of pins, which were in great request 
among the ladies: it is situated on the great Roman 
causeway, now perfect on the south side of the river 
Cock. It has a market on Wednesday. — Near the 
river are the ruins of an old fortification called Cas- 

The town, a long straggling place, stands on a rock 
of limestone, and the houses are built of stone : the 
population is about 700. From Aberford to Brother- 
ton, near Ferrybridge, the country is almost entirely 
a limestone rock. At Parlington, about a mile south- 
ward, is the agreeable mansion of the late Sir Thomas 
Gascoigne, by whose death that ancient family name 
is extinct. 

At Berwick-in-Elmet, three miles west from 
Aberford, is said to have been a villa of the Northum- 
brian kings, situate near the source of the Cock or 
Coker: and not far from it was a famous stone quarry, 
called Petres Post, as affording stone for the magnifi- 
cent church at York given by the Vavasors, owners 
of tl)e quarry, who had a seat at Hesselwood. 

About five miles south east from Aberford is Shir- 
liURNE, where King Athelstan had a palace, which 
he gave, with great part of the town, to the Archbi- 
shop of York ; out of the ruins of which the parish 
church is supposed to have been erected. — Here is an 
Hospital and Free-school, founded by Robert Hungate, 
with exhibitions to St. John's College, Cambridge. 

About six inilcs from Sherbourne is Brotherton, 


" where, according to Leland, Thomas, sunne to King 
Edward I. was borne ; the Quene by chaunce labour- 
ing as she went on hunting." Near the church is a 
place of twenty acres, surrounded by a trench and 
wall, where stood the house in whicli the queen was 
delivered, and the tenants are bound to keep it sur- 
rounded by a wall of stone. 

At Castleford, about two miles to the left, the 
Roman station is now called the Castlegarth, and is 
near the church. Abundance of Roman coins and 
other antiquities have been found here. Two miles 
from hence is 

A well-built town, situated near the confluence of 
the rivers Aire and Don. Pontefract Castle was sup- 
posed to be the strongest castle in the kingdom. It is 
said to have been originally built hy Alric, a Saxon, be- 
fore the Conquest ; and afterwards enlarged by Ilbert 
de Lacy, to whom it was then given. It was here that 
Henry, Earl of Lancaster, who was lord of the castle, 
and whose ancestors had beautified, enlarged, and for- 
tified it, was beheaded by his nephew Edward II. with 
three or four more of the English barons. Richard 
II. was cruelly murdered in this castle, and here An- 
thony Earl Rivers, and Sir Richard Gray, the uncle 
and brother-in-law of Edward V. were beheaded by 
Richard III. Pontefract Castle was the last that held 
out for Charles I. in the Civil Wars. 

The houi>es here, mostly built of brick, are handsome, 
the streets open, spacious, and clean, as the town on 
every side is approached by a considerable ascent. 
Pontefract is surrounded by seats of nobles and opu- 
lent commoners, and the society is select. Here is at 
present only one church, in which divine service is per- 
formed : this in the reign of Henry I. was styled St. 
Mary de Foro, though for more than three hundred 
years past it has obtained the name of St. Giles. It has 
been enlarged both in length and in breadth, and its 
chancel has been recently ornamented with a fine 
painting by John Standish, a self-taught artist and 


native of the town. The subject is the Crucifixion, and 
all the figures resemble life. The magnificent church 
of All-Hallows received so much damage in the Civil 
Wars, that it was impossible to repair it, and it at pre- 
sent wears the appearance of a venerable ruin. Here 
were several other places devoted to religion; the 
chantry or church of St. Thomas was erected on the 
spot where Thomas Earl of Lancaster was beheaded 
in the reign of Edward II. A. D. 1322. — The priory of 
St. Jolm was founded by Robert de Lacy in 1090, for 
monks of the Order of St. Benedict. The remains of 
this ancient building are among the possessions of Lord 
Harewood. — The Dominicans, or Black Friars, had a 
house nearly in the centre of the garden called Friar's 
Wood, on the west of the town. The Carmelites and 
Austin Friars had also houses in this place. At pre- 
sent, besides the parish church, the Dissenters, Me- 
thodists, the Friends, and the Roman Catholics liave 
each a meeting-house or chapel. The market on Sa- 
turday is well supplied with butchers' meat, poultry, 
and fish, the corn market too is considerable. At the 
market-cross, formerly called Oswald's cross, it is said, 
anciently none could be arrested, and a free way 
leading to it with about five yards round it, was long 
kept unpaved in memory of this privilege. In 1735 
this old cross was pulled down, and a handsome dome, 
supported by Doric pillars, was erected in its stead. 
Fortnight fairs are held on the Saturdays after the 
fortnight fairs at York. The population of the town 
is 3200. From the gardens and nurseries about here, 
great quantities of garden stuff and seedlings are car- 
ried to distant parts. The liquorice cakes of Ponte- 
fract are well known not only throughout the British 
empire, but also in foreign countries. 

Pontefract Castle, which has frequently made a 
figure in English history, having been held for Charles 
I. was redu ced by the tremendous effects of artillery, 
and afterwards demolished by order of parliament. 
Excepting the solid mound on which it stood, and a 
i\ small round tower, little of this fortress remains, 
T 2 


The environs of Pontefract are adorned with many 
elegant mansions, viz. I\Iethley-park, the seat of the 
Earl of Mexborouirh; seven miles to the north-west, 
Nostei, the seat of — Williamson, esq. ; Hemsworth, 
Sir Francis Wood ; Ackworth, the seat of Colonel 
Baldwin; Ackworth Moor-top, the Earl of Darling- 
ton; Ackworth villa, Charles Mortimer, esq.; and 
Ackworth-park, J. 11. Jessop, esq. 

A monument is erected near Pontefract, to com- 
memorate that important event ever memorable in 
British annals, the Victory of Waterloo, which forms 
a pleasing object to the surrounding country. 

Knottingley, on the Aire, near Pontefract, has been 
noted for its trade in lime. The limestone plentifully 
obtained at Elmet, is chiefly used for manure. 

Ackworth School. This is a celebrated seminary, 
situated between the two villagesof Upper and Lower 
Ackworth. This is a spacious stone edifice, the main 
body fronts to the south, and two wings standing east 
and west are joined to it by colonnades. This school 
was originally an appendage to the Foundling Hospital 
in London. In the year 1777 the premises being offered 
for sale, it was purchased by the Society of Friends, 
for the education of their children. The whole busi- 
ness of the institution is conducted by two Commit- 
tees of Friends, one residing in London, and the other 
in the country. Nothing can exceed the order and 
decorum that prevail in these schools, which, with 
the healthful and pleasant situation, render it an eli- 
gible place of education. 

Ferrybridge is a large and handsome village 
about a mile from Pontefract: the stone bridge, since 
rebuilt, consisted in Leland's time " of seven arches, 
and the thoroughfare then no great thing but netely 
builded." It is still one 'of the principal passes over 
the Aire. 


Is a fine market-town, pleasantly situated on the 
south bank of the Don, on a narrow ridge of land. It 


is Oil the great north road, and (jne of the gentcelcst 
towns between London and Edinburgh. The entrance 
from Bawtry is magnificent: at first, the race-ground, 
enclosed by a beautiful railing; the grand stand; a 
superb boarding school for young ladies, and a large 
and lofty house built by J. H. M^w, esq., all at once 
meet the eye; and afterwards the obelisk called Hall- 
Cross. All these present themselves to the view, to- 
gether with a range of most elegant houses. The 
High-street, with Hall-gate, French-gate, and Marsh- 
gate, extend nearly a mile in length, from the Hall- 
cross on the south-east, to the 2vlill-bridge on the 
north-west, all these gates forming one continuous 
line. From the northern extremity of the town to the 
west end of St. Sepulchre's gate, in the roatl to Ro- 
therham and Sheffield, the distance exceeds half a 
mile. On the eastern side of St. Sepulchre's gate, se- 
veral new streets have been laid out, and many com- 
modious houses built. The town is, generally speak- 
ing, well built in every part, except that between the 
corn-market and the river. 

The principal public buildings are the parish church, 
dedicated to St. George, the mansion-house, the town- 
hall, and the theatre. The church stands on the site 
of an ancient castle, near the banks of the Don. The 
time of its erection is ditficult to ascertain; its elegant 
tower is certainly of a much later period than the rest 
of the edifice, though its architecture resembles that of 
the reign of Henry HI. The chief relic of antiquity 
it contains is a Saxon font, still used for the purpose 
of baptism. It is a hard sort of free-stone, and from 
its date 1061, now obliterated, appears to have been 
made in the time of Edward the Confessor, five years 
before the Norman Conquest. Here are also a Pres- 
byterian meeting, the Methodist chapel, a meeting 
for the Friends, the Independent Chapel, &c. An 
hospital erected in the 30th of Queen Elizabeth, 
maintains six decayed housekeepers of good condition; 
a public dispensary, and a work-house for the em- 
ployment and maintenance of the poor. The mansion- 
T 3 


house, nearly in the centre of tlie town, is a magnifi- 
cent structure; built soon after 1744. The town-liall 
was repaired and beautified in the year 1784. In the 
lower apartments is the Free Grammar-School. Here 
is likewise a commodious theatre. The markets are 
held near the middle of the town, in some spacious 
areas. There are few markets in the county where a 
greater quantity of grain is sold. In a large square 
called the Magdalenes, fish is sold, and the garden- 
ers stand with their vegetables, and the dealers in 
pottery with their wares. Here are wool-markets on 
several Saturdays after the time of sheep-shearing. 

Doncaster also possesses an excellent race-ground, 
wliere, besides his Majesty's plate of 100 guineas, a 
gold cup of the same value is given by the stewards. 
During the races the town is crowded with families of 
the first distinction: every evening exhibits a brilliant 
ball at the mansion-house, and a play at the theatre. 
Lodgings of course let high. 

In the vicinity of Doncaster are several seats be- 
longing to respectable families; and within three quar- 
ters of a mile to the south is Car-house, built in 
1604, by Hugh Childers, esq. that year Mayor ©f 
Doncaster, whose grandson, Leonard Childers, bred 
at this place the fleetest race-horse ever known in 
England. Nether-hall, a little to the north-east of 
this town, was long a seat of the ancient family of the 
Copleys. Further on is Wheatley-hall, built by Sir 
H. Cooke, about the year 1680: before the south- 
front of the house is a beautiful lawn, decorated with 
some of the finest oaks in the county; but when the 
river Don overflows, the inundated country to the 
north has a dreary appearance. 

About five miles south-east from Doncaster on the 
road to Rotherham, isCoNisF.OEOUGii, alarge and very 
fine village, remarkable for its ancient castle upon a 
rocky eminence on the south side of the Don. In the 
church, an ancient structure, many of the Bosville fa- 
mily are interred. The ground plot of the castle is 
rather of an oval form, about 700 feet in circuit, nearly 


surrounded by a fosse forty feet deep, now full of large 
ash and elm trees. The lower part of most of the 
outward wall, and several rounders by which it was 
strengthened, still remain ; the strong tower, or keep, 
which is 78 feet in height, is still entire ; but when 
this castle was built, or when it began to fall to de- 
cay, is not known, and the tradition concerning it is 
too vague for belief. It seems most probable to have 
been built by William, first Earl of Warren, to whom 
this estate was given by the Conqueror. Richard 
de Conisboroucrh, another of its possessors, and Earl 
of Cambridge, received his name from being born 

At the inn kept here by Mr. Whaley, the following 
account of a feast is framed and hung up in a room, 
and which is copied by many tourists, as a notable 
instance of the change of times and circumstances in 
regard to the value of money: 

" The expences of Ralph de Beeston and Sir Si- 
mon de Baldriston, at Conisborough, on Monday, the 
Morrow of the Holy Cross, in the 14 year of King 
Edward, the son of Edward II. In bread l.s. 6d. ; 
in four gallons of wine 2.5. ; in twelve gallons of ale 
bought atDoncaster, Is. 6d.; in sixteen gallons of ale 
bought at Coningsborough, Is. 4d.; in shambles meat 
bought, 2s.; in eight fowls Is.; in two geese 8d. ; in 
eggs 5d. ; in two pounds of candles 3|c?.; in a woman's 
wages for fetching the ale, Id. ; in provender for the 
horses, Is. 3c?." 

Cusworth-hall, about two miles nearly west from 
Doncaster, is an elegant mansion, and one of the 
finest situations in this part of the kingdom. Within 
the mansion is a small but elegant chapel, and over 
the communion-table a fine picture of the Good Sa- 

Askern, or Askron, eight miles north of Doncaster, 
is a fashionable water-drinking place. 

At Bilham, five miles west of Doncaster, is an ele- 
gant building, called the Belvidere, or Belle-vue, from 
which is the richest prospect in the West Riding. It 


is Stated, that seventy churches may be seen from 
this building. 

About four miles south of Doncaster, is an inclo- 
sure of about two acres, called Caerhouse, now a de- 
coy under water, except in dry seasons, wliere foun- 
dations of buildings may be seen, called by a name 
like Portry Caer, or Pautry, and said to have been a 
city sunk in the marshes. 

Bawtry is a small market-town, four miles east of 
Tickhill, and nine south-east from Doncaster, situated 
on the edge of Yorkshire, a few of the houses stand- 
ing in Nottinghamshire. The town is handsome and 
well built: the street through which runs the great 
North Road from London to York, is remarkably 
broad, and contains several elegant houses. The 
upper part of this street is the market-place, in which 
are very good shambles. The market was formerly 
held on Wednesday, but has been recently changed 
for Thursday. The population of Bawtry was re- 
turned at 918. ']'he town stands on an eminence, 
gently sloping towards the north and east towards the 
river Idle, navigable for small craft. On the western 
side of the town the ground is high ; but the marshes 
on the eastern side are subject to frequent inunda- 
tions. The elegant mansion of the Countess of Gal- 
way, in this town, is built of brick, and has an ex- 
tensive front towards the south. It stands on the 
west side of the great North Road, and would make 
a noble appearance, if it was not almost concealed 
by a lofty brick wall. The pleasure-grounds are ex- 
tensive; and in a little beautiful area surrounded 
with shrubs is an elegant menagerie, stocked with 
Chinese pheasants, and other curious birds. 

At the distance of one mile from Bawtry, on the great 
North Road, is the village of Scrooby, remarkable for 
having had a palace belonging to the Archbishops of 
York, who are still lords of the manor. Scrooby was 
a hunting-seat, the favourite residence of Archbishop 
Savage, in the reign of Henry VII. In the next 
reign it was the occasional residence of Cardinal 


Wolsey; and in Queen Elizabeth's reign /\rcI)bisliop 
Sandys sometimes resided here. The palace stood in 
a very damp and low situation, where the Ryton joins 
the river Idle. The large gateway and porter's lodge 
were taken down towards the end of tlie last century, 
and the only remaining part of this large palace has 
been many years since converted into a farm-house. 

jV little to the north-west of Bawtry, and near a 
farm-house called Marton, are some ridges, the sup- 
posed remains of a camp; however, some ancient 
weapons, and other indications of a battle, have been 
found in the grounds adjacent. 

At Haworth, near Bawtry, an hospital was founded 
by Robert Moreton, for a chaplain and poor people, 
before the year 131C, which still exists under the 
patronage of the Archbishop of Yorli. 

TiCKHiLL is situated four miles west of Bawtry. 
The market on Friday is almost disused. This town 
lies in a valley watered by a brook, and being a strag- 
gling place, covers a deal of ground. Some of the 
houses are of brick, others of stone, but only a few 
are handsomely built. The church and the ancient 
castle are the most conspicuous objects; the former 
is a spacious and handsome structure, with a lofty and 
beautiful tower, apparently built in the reign of 
Henry III., as the chancel contains an inscription in 
barbarous and abbreviated Latin, on a brass plate, to 
the memory of William Eastfield, Seneschal of the 
Lordship of Ilolderness and the Honour of Tickhill, 
who died December 24th, in the year 138G. Of the 
castle, little remains but the lofty mound on which 
the keep formerly stood, with tlie ditch, and part of 
some walls ; but an ancient gateway, forming the en- 
trance to the western side, is the most curious part 
of the ruins. The northern part of the structure, with 
modern repairs and additions, is the seat of the Hon. 
Frederick Lumley. A great part of the ground 
within the walls is converted into gardens and shrub- 
beries. After the battle of Marston-moor, and the 
surrender of York to the parliament's forces, the Earl 

214 WEST niDiNG or yokkshire. 

of Manchester sent Colonel Lilburn to reduce ^he 
castle of Tickhill, which surrendered in a few days. 
It is remarked, that as the royalists here in garrison 
liad plundered all the country round, they were better 
supplied with provisions than with military stores. A 
little to the west of the town, in a deep valley, are 
the ruins of an ancient priory of Augustines, founded 
by a dean of St. Paul's. The population of Tickhill, 
in 1811, was stated at 1508. 

About four miles from Tickhill isSANDBECK-PAKK, 
the seat of the Earl of Scarborough ; near to which 
are the remains of Roche Abbey, founded for Cister- 
tians in the year 1147. The ruins are hidden by a 
steep woody cliff toward the south, and by large rocks 
towards the north and north-east; the north and 
south sides are bounded by woods. To the east is a 
large reservoir of water, formed by the collected 
stream of a rivulet that runs amongst the ruins. The 
banks on each side this water are steep and clothed 
with wood, interspersed with fragments of rocks and 
ruins. One side of the nave of the church, and some 
unconnected arches, are all that are now left of the 
original building, except several fragments, which are 
dispersed for above a mile. 

The different offices, out-buildings, farm-house, and 
gardens, are well planned, and perfectly calculated 
for convenience and comfort. As the house stands 
nearly in the middle of a noble park, vistas have been 
cut through it to the westward, and at the extremity 
of one of these, the spire of Laughton church forms 
a fine tenninus. 

The stone of which this abbey was built, was dug 
up out of the famous quarry near adjoining, so well 
known to masons by the name of " Roche-abbey 
stone,'' which for whiteness and beauty is unequalled. 

Journey from Doncaster to Thorne^ Snaith, and 

About four miles before we reach Thornc, is Hat- 
field, where Ceadwalla King of the Britons, with 


Penila King of Mercia, slew Edwin, tlie first Christiiin 
King of Northumberland, with his eldest son Offrid, 
in the year 933. Near the town are many entrencli- 
ments. William, the second son of Edward III. was 
born here. 

Platfield is a large and pleasant village, and con- 
tains several handsome houses inhabited by gentle- 
men of fortune, especially the mansion-house of flat- 
field, now the residence of William Jessop, esq. who 
married the heiress of that ancient family. The 
church is large, and has a lofty and elegant tower; it 
was probably originally built by the Saxons, but the 
present structure does not appear to be of a period 
anterior to that of Henry III. 

Hatfield-Chace, the largest in England, comprising 
above 180,000 acres, one half of which was yearly 
overflowed, was by Charles I. sold toCol. Vermuiden, 
without the consent of the commissioners and tenants, 
to dischase, drain, and cultivate; which he at length 
effected at the expence of 400,000/. and drained 
above half. In the middle of Hatfield Waste lived 
an hermit, called William of Lindholme; his stud- 
bound cell was remaining in 1747, close to a well of 
clear spring water; at the east end of it stood an altar 
of hewn stone, and at the west end the hermit's 
grave, covered with a stone slab, 8| feet by three. 
Under this stone was found the skull, leg, and thigh 
bones, all of a very large size, and a small piece of 
beaten copper. 


Is an improving town, situated upon the river Don, 
about nine miles from Doucaster. The marshes sur- 
rounding this town have been completely drained, and 
several new roads and canals formed, very much to 
the advantage of the place. 

In the marshes round Thome great quantities of 
black oak have been found. These trees had been, 
burnt or cut down, and stone and wooden wedges, 
and broken axe-heads, were found with them, also fir 


cones and acorns, and Roman coins of Vespasian and 
other emperors. In digging the different drainage- 
cuts, were found gates, ladders, hammers, shoes, nuts, 
&c. From the position of the trees and roots, and 
other circumstances, it is evident they grew where 
they were found, being probably forests cut down and 
burnt by the Ilomans. 

Here is a market on Wednesday. Vessels trade 
regularly from this town to London ; those, sufficiently 
large for the coasting trade, are built in the suburb 
called Hangman Hill, on the banks of the river. On 
the south and soutb.-east is the flat country forming 
the west side of the Isle of Aixholm, in Lincolnshire, 
and the much greater level of Hatfield-Chace. The 
population of Thorne in 1811 was 2,713. This place 
has carried on considerable commerce by the river 
Don, and a canal cut from this stream to the Trent, 
passes within a furlong of the west end of this town. 


Is about seven miles from Thorne. It is a small 
market-town, with a population of about 700 ; situated 
about half a mile south of the river Aire. The church 
is a handsome ancient structure, dedicated to St. 
Laurence, in which are interred, in the family vault, 
all the ajicestors of the noble family of Lord Viscount 
Downe, who has a seat at Cowick, a large village, 
about half a mile south-east from Snaith, near the 
confluence of the Don and Aire, At the west end of 
the town stands an old hall, formerly the residence of 
the Yarboroughs. The market is on Thursday. 


Is a brisk market-town, situated on the banks of 
the river Ouse, eight miles north from Snaith. There 
is a very handsome wooden bridge here, much admired 
by strangers. The church must have been an elegant 
Gothic structure. In 1690 part of this beautiful 
edifice, with half of the steeple, fell down suddenly. 
It has since been rebuilt. 


The only raoiiuineiits of consequence in Selby 
church are two knights and a lady, and a slab for 
Abbot Selby, 1504. The ancient wooden stalls re- 
main in the choir. At the south-west corner of the 
church they shew the room, now in ruins, where they 
say Henry I. was born, but it is rather the building of 
some abbot: the walls are painted with large figures 
of religious with scrolls, and on the cornice at top is 
the following imperfect inscription : 

Sucre domus ure conslructum eat istud (edificlum per 
Rob. Deping ahbatem hujus monasteriu 

Robert Deping was abbot here from 1501 to J 5 18, 

A handsome Gothic cross has been set up in the 

Here are the remains of an extensive monastery, 
which was destroyed at the dissolution of religious 

Selby has a good Grammar School, founded by 
Edward VI. and well endowed. 

William the Conqueror founded an abbey at Selby, 
on account of its being the birth-place of his son 
Henry I. The abbots sat in parliament. 

By the canal from hence communicating with the 
Aire and Calder navigation with Leeds, Selby be- 
comes the unloading port into the West Riding of 

Here is a good market on Monday. The fine 
drawbridge over the Ouse was erected in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century, and facilitates the 
communication with the East Riding. 

The soil in the neighbourhood of Selby is various, 
part of it sandy, and part a hazel clay. The chief 
proprietors are Lord Petre, and the Archbi-ihop of 
York. There are also a great number of copyholders. 
A considerable quantity of woad, or rather weld for 
dyers, is raised in this neighbourhood; it is sown with 
red clover, and when it is in full bloom it is pulled 
by women and boys who go before the mowers. It 


grows well upon all land fit for turnips, and is fre- 
quently taken by itself as a crop. Large quantities 
of potatoes are also raised in this parish, and near 
the town a great deal of flax is grown, which is almost 
all cleaned and dressed in the country ; a small pro- 
portion is allowed to stand for seed. 

The warp lands in this neighbourhood are pccuHarly 
rich. The warp is deposited upon lands adjoining 
the rivers Ouse and Aire, by means of sluices which 
admit and retain the water until the sediment is ob- 
tained. Upon such land they do not venture to sow 
wheat, as it stands in danger of being perished, but 
from the richness of the soil great crops of spring corn 
are raised. 

In Wiston church, nearSelby, is a monument, fixed 
sideways in the wall, of a lady in a wimple and veil^ 
and round the stone this inscription : 

Vous ke passes parici : priez pur lalme dame Margerie, 
Ke: gist: id a vous: Ihu criemarci. 

About five niiles from Selby is Cawood. 

The Archbishop Wulstan obtained Cawood for the 
see of York, from Athelstan, in the tenth century. 
Archbishop Neville, in the reign of Richard IE. laid 
out much upon it. In the time of Henry IV. Arch- 
bishop Oennet built the hall, and his successor Kemp 
the gate-house, now standing. The castle was de- 
molished during the Civil War. The vaults and 
foundations were dug up about forty years since. 

The market at Cawood is on Wednesday. The 
famous Cardinal Wolsey resided at his palace at 
Cawood, a whole summer, and part of the winter, 
when he was arrested on a charge of high treason by 
the Earl of Northumberland, wlio had orders to con- 
duct him to London ; but the death of the cardinal 
at Leicester, terminated the business. 

Of this once magnificent palace of the Archbishops 
of York, nothing is now left but the ruins of the great 
gateway, before noticed, and some other fragments, 


which the corroding tooth of time will probably soon 


The city of York, as it now stands, is nearly two 
miles and three quarters in circuit. The entrance 
into the city are by four principal gates or bars, and 
five posterns. The gates are, Micklegate-Bar to the 
south-west, the entrance from Tadcaster; Bootham- 
Bar on the north-west^ on the road leading to New- 
castle and Edinburgh ; Monk-Bar, the entrance from 
Malton and Scarborough ; and Wahiigate-Bar on the 
south-east, the road to Beverley and Hull. The 
posterns are North-street postern, Skeldergate postern, 
Castlegate postern, Fishergate postern, Laythorp 
postern, Castlegate and Long-Walk postern. There 
are also six bridges, viz.Ouse-bridge, consisting of five 
arches, the middlemost of which is eighty-one feet in 
the span, and seventeen feet high ; Castlegate-bridge, 
of one arch ; Foss-bridge, of two arches ; Laythorp- 
bridge of five arches ; Monk-bridge of three arches ; 
and the new bridge in the Long- Walk, of one arch. 
Of all these, the first alone is over the Ouse; all the 
others are over the Foss. Monk-bridge is in the 
suburbs at a distance of nearly a quarter of a mile 
from the bar and the walls of the city. 

Of the four great gates of the city, Micklegate-Bar 
is the most magnificent ; it is adorned with lofty 
turrets, and finely embattled : over the Roman arch, 
hangs a large shield, bearing the arms of England and 
France, painted and gilt, and on each side one of a 
less size, decorated with the arms of the city. 
Boothara-Bar, is a very ancient structure, being built 
almost wholly of grit; but though the materials are 
Roman, the architecture is old English. In 1719, the 
inside of the gate was rebuilt with freestone. Monk- 
Bar is a handsome gate, with a great quantity of grit- 
stones in its foundation. The arms of France are 
quartered with those of England on the battlements. 
Walmgate-Bar has a more modern appearance than 
y 2 ^ 


the others, having undergone a thorough repair in 
1643, after having been nearly demolished by the 
parliamentary forces. 

York is divided into four districts or wards, which 
take their names from the four gates of the city. 
On entering the city by Micklegate-Bar, the first ob- 
ject that strikes the eye, is an ancient gateway on the 
right side of the street. This was the portal to the 
Priory of tlie IIoLy Trinity, which occupied within its 
precincts a large extent of ground, now called Trinity- 
gardens. Behind these gardens, within a hundred 
yards of the Ouse, is the Vetus Ballium, or Old Baile, 
implying a prison, a keep, or place of security, a word 
of Norman origin, given after the Conquest. 

The city of York has been much improved during 
the late reign. The streets have been widened in 
many places, by taking down a number of old houses, 
built in such a manner as almost to meet at the upper 
stories. They have also been newly paved, and ad- 
ditional drains made. The erection of the locks 
upon the Ouse, about four miles below the city, lias 
been a great advantage to it, for before this, the river 
was frequently very low, leaving quantities of sludge 
and dirt in the very heart of the place, also the filth 
and mud of the common sewers, which it was unable 
to wash away. 

York castle and the County-liall are grand and con- 
spicuous buildings, near the confluence of the rivers 
Ouse and Foss. The area within the castle walls is 
1100 yards in circumference, in which all the debtors 
are allowed to walk. The present noble structure 
was erected in 1701, after the ruinous towers of the 
Conqueror were taken down. The prison in the right 
wing reflects honour to the country, on account of 
the capaciousness and convenience of the apartments. 
In the left wing is a handsome convenient chapel. 
The day-room for men is 26 feet by 8 ; the cells in 
general are about seven feet and a half by six and a 
half and upwards. Six solitary cells are seldom made 
use of. The women felons are confined in the New 


Buildings opposite the county-hall; they have two 
court-yards, and a day and night room. Clifford's 
Tower is situated near the castle, on a high artificial 
mound, generally thought to be of Roman origin, and 
consisting of four circles of segments joined together. 
The tower raised upon this eminence was built by 
William the Conqueror about 1068; and according 
to tradition, one of that fimily was its first governor. 
It was formerly defended by a deep moat, a draw- 
bridge, and palisadoes. In process of time it fell to 
decay, but during the Civil Wars it was fortified for 
the king, and after the surrender of York, the parlia- 
ment placed a garrison in it ; but in 1684, about ten 
at night, it was totally ruined by a fire, by no means 
supposed to have been accidental. In a part of the 
building which has been repaired, a clergyman's widow 
lately resided, who politely allowed her servant to 
show the ruin to strangers. The sides of the artificial 
mount on which it stands are planted with trees and 
shrubs, and the moat so completely filled up, that the 
entire space, about three acres, forms a garden. 

The Cathedral. — In order to take an external view 
of the whole pile, you must commence at the western 
front. The two uniform towers, 196 feet in height, 
diminishing as they ascend in ten several contractions, 
all cloistered, for imagery, displays a richness and 
grandeur of design rarely equalled. They are each 
adorned with eight pinnacles at the top. In the 
south tower are ten bells, allowed to form one of the 
finest peals in the kingdom ; the tenor weighing 
53 cwt. in the grand key of C. Above the great 
door-way sits. Archbishop William de Melton, the 
principal founder of this part of the church ; and be- 
low, on the sides of the double doors, are the figures 
of Vavasour and Percy. Over the arch is carved in 
fine tracery work, the story of Adam and Eve, with 
their expulsion from Paradise. The visitor will be 
highly pleased to notice the repairs which the whole 
of this part has lately undergone, through the correct 
taste and liberality of the present dean and chapter, 
u 3 


M'hose active zeal for the preservation of this noble 
pile is inferior to none of their predecessors. 

Proceeding southward, six tall pinnacles are ob- 
served, intended for buttresses to the upper part of 
the nave. The images in the niches are those of the 
four Evangelists, Jesus Christ, and Ai'chbishop St. 
William. The south entrance is ascended by a hand- 
some flight of steps, and a little spiral turret called 
the Fidler^s Turret, is placed on the summit of this 
end. The circular, or inarygold window, sometimes 
called St. Catherine's Wheel, has also a very rich 
appearance. The grand Lantern Tower will here 
attract the eye. The most convenient station for a 
general view of the south side is near the entrance to 
the deanery; and the new library is the best for a 
good prospect of the north of the cathedral. Having 
passed the grand Lantern Tower, the massy buttresses 
ornamented with various figures, pinnacles, &c. will 
arrest the attention. A ifttle further brings the vi- 
sitor to the east end, over the magnificent window of 
which the statue of Archbishop Thoresby is placed, 
in his archiepiscopal chair, having in his- left hand the 
representation of a church, and seeming to point to 
this window with his right. At the basis of this are 
seventeen heads, the centre one designed to represent 
the Saviour; statues of Percy and Vavasour are again 
seen at this end ; but passing on the north, the 
chapter-house presents itself, which with its ponderous 
buttresses, &:c. merits a particular examination. 

The interior of the cathedral is, in every respect, 
answerable to the magnificence of its exterior. The 
cross aisle displays a superb specimen. The circular 
arch, not quite laid aside in Henry the Third's time, 
still appears in the upper part, enclosing others of a 
pointed form. The pillars that support the larger 
arches are of an angular shape, and all the columns 
have rich leafy capitals. The windows are long, nar- 
row, and pointed, consisting of one light, or divided 
into several by unramified muUions. The windows in 
the south end are arranged in three tiers; the upper- 


most composed of two concentric circles of small 
arches, is looked upon as a fine piece of masonry. In 
these windows are the representations of Archbishop 
St. William, St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Wilfrid; but the 
four figures of Abraham, Solomon, Moses, and Peter, 
in the lower tier, are the work of a native artist, Mr. 
Peckitt. The north and south transepts display the 
same style of architecture; but in the lowermost tier 
of lights, one window 4Df exquisite beauty is divided 
into five, separated by stone mullions concealed from 
the eye, placed at a distance by clusters of elegant 
shafts, attached at intervals, and supporting arches 
richly ornamented with a kind of chevron work, a relic 
of the Saxon style. 

From the western entrance of the Cathedral per- 
haps imagination can scarcely conceive a vista of 
greater magnificence. The screen dividing the nave 
from the choir, rises just high enough to form a sup- 
port for the organ, and does not intercept the view of 
the eastern end of the church with its columns, its 
arches, and its most superb window. The pillars and 
shafts of the nave are not detaclied, as in the tran- 
septs, but form a part of the columns that support the 
arches of the side aisle. The vaulting of the roof does 
not spring here from slender pillars, and flowery cor- 
bels placed above the capitals of the clustered co- 
lumns, but upon tall and elegant pillars rising from 
the ground, and attached to these columns. Tracery 
of the richest kind appears in these windows, particu- 
larly in the western tront, which, when illumined by 
the declining rays of the setting sun, displays a gran- 
deur beyond description. The figures of the first eight 
Archbishops decorate the lowermost compartment, 
and above are represented eight Saints. Under the 
window on each side of the great door are placed 
two escutcheons, one bearing the arms of a King of 
England, one of the Edwards, the other supposed to 
be that of the Saxon Prince Ulphus. The upper win- 
dows are elegantly adorned with imagery and escut- 
cheons. Under these runs an open gallery, in which, 


exactly over the point of the arches, formerly stood 
images of the tutelar saints of the several nations of 
Christendom. That of St, George and his dragon, 
alone remain. The screen, separating the nave from 
the choir, is now ornamented with the effigies of all 
the monarchs of England, from William the Norman 
to Henry V. inclusive. Throughout the whole of the 
choir a greater profusion of ornament abounds than 
in any other part; approaching to the high florid style 
that prevailed before the end of the fifteenth century. 
The windows shed their richly varied light through 
numerous figures of kings, prelates, saints, escut- 
cheons, and historical representations; those of the 
small transepts are remarkable for their height and 
elegance, reaching almost to the roof. But the east- 
ern window is perhaps unrivalled in the world for 
magnitude, beauty, and magnificence. This was 
begun at the expence of the dean and chapter in J405, 
who employed John Thornton, a glazier of Coventry, 
who contracted for this labour at the rate of 4s, per 
week, to be finished in the space of three years. An- 
other painted window, originally brought from the 
church of St. Nicholas at Rouen in Normandy, was 
presented to the dean and chapter by the Earl of Car- 
lisle in the year 1804. The subject is the meeting of 
the Virgin with Elizabeth, the mother of John the 
Baptist. The countenances of these figures may be 
French, but it is evident they are not Jewish. 

Among the more ancient of the tombs, that of 
Archbishop Scrope merits particular notice; but nei- 
ther this, nor those of Archbishops Rogers and Sa- 
vage, display much ornament. The monument of 
Archbisliop Greenfield, however, is a fine piece of 
architecture, enriched with tracery and pinnacles, and 
supported by arches and buttresses. In the south 
transept is the tomb of its founder, Archbishop Wal- 
ter de Grey, consisting of Yds effigy at full length in 
his pontifical robes, under a high ornamented canopy, 
supported by eight slender pillars. The railing, which 
now surrounds this tomb, was put up at the expence 


of the late Archbishop, Dr. Markham. Among the 
rest of the tombs, that of Arch.bishop Henry Bowett, 
who died 1423, is worthy of notice, being about 30 
feet high. The monuments of laymen here bear no 
proportion to those of the clergy : that to the memory 
of Charles Ho \^ard, Earl of Carlisle, in the reign of 
Charles II. is of marble, and of modern construction. 
The monuments of the Earls of Strafford and that of 
the Hon. Thomas Watson Wentworth, son of Edward 
Lord Rockingham, are elegant pieces of sepulchral 
architecture, but that of Sir George Saville claims the 
regard of all who can appreciate extensive benevolence, 
and a disinterested love of country. 

In concluding this sketch of the Cathedral of York, 
it may not be amiss to observe, that it is so surrounded 
with ijouses, that it is difficult, or even impossible to 
find a station from whence a full and distinct view of 
it can be taken. The level situation of the country, 
also, renders the prospect from the tops of the steeples 
somewhat unpicturesque. The edges of the Wolds, 
and of Hamilton Moors, distinctly seen to the east 
and the north, give some variety to the prospect; and 
on the south, at the distance of fifteen miles, the spire 
ofSelby, and Hamilton Haugh, covered with trees, in 
the middle of an extensive plain, are conspicuous ob- 
jects. However, the author of a recent description 
thinks that the best station for a visitor to take a ge-' 
neral survey around, will be underneath the central 
tower, or lantern steeple, tlie loftiest part of the edi- 
fice, where the various enrichments of sculpture, ob- 
served in the statuary screen, the rich tracery and 
painting in the windows, and the numerous clusters 
of colunms in the different aisles, all combine to shew 
a scene of splendour and solemnity, which probably 
no other cathedral but this of York can boast. 

The cathedral service at present consists of morn- 
ing prayers daily at seven, in a small vestry neatly 
fitted up with pews, on the right of the south entrance, 
in which also the Ecclesiastical courts are held. At 
ten o'clock the daily sen'ice is performed in the choir. 


An anthem is always sung, unless there be a sermon 
or litany. On Sundays and holy days a sermon is 
preached. The communion is administered every 
Sunday. In the afternoon at four, cathedral service 
is again performed, with an anthem, throughout the 
year. There are evening prayers on every week day, 
at three in winter, and four in summer, in which an 
anthem is performed. 

N.B. On Wednesdays and Fridays in Advent and 
Lent, and during the six days before Easter, there is 
no choral service or singing, either morning or even- 
ing. For the convenience of Sunday evening service, 
the choir is illuminated from St. Luke's Day till Can- 
dlemas, by seven large branches, besides a small wax 
candle to every two stalls. On particular holy days the 
four principal dignitaries have each a branch of seven 
candles placed before them at their respective stalls. 

In the old pavement of the church, were an almost 
innumerable quantity of grave stones, many of which 
formerly shone like embroidery, being enriched with 
the images, &c. in brass, of bishops, and other eccle- 
siastics, represented in their proper habits, of which 
the grave-stone of Archdeacon Dalby was a striking 
instance. These stones had also monumental inscrip- 
tions upon them. But what was thought the most 
durable by our forefathers, for this purpose, by an 
unaccountable turn of fate proved the very occasion 
of destruction by the fanatism of their sons. 

For some time after the Reformation, this hair- 
brained zeal continued to shew itself against painted 
glass, stone statues, and grave-stones, many of which 
were defaced and utterly destroyed, along with other 
more valuable monuments of the church, till Queen 
Elizabeth put a stop to those most scandalous doings 
by a proclamation. 

During the Civil Wars in the time of Charles I. and 
the usurpation, our zealots again began their depre- 
dations on grave-stones, and stripped and pillaged 
them to the minutest piece of metal. It has been 
urged that their hatred to popery was so great, that 


they could not endure to see an Orate pro Aruma, or 
even a cross on a monument, without defacing it. 
But it is plain that it was more the value of the brass, 
than zeal which tempted these persons; for there was 
no grave-stone which had an inscription cut into it, 
that was defaced throughout the whole church. 

In the old pavement of the church were a number 
of circles, which ranged from the west end up the 
middle aisle, on each side and in the centre. They 
were about forty-four on a side, about two feet dis- 
tance from one another, and as much in diameter. 
Those in the midst were fewer in number, larger, and 
exactly fronted the entrance of the great west door, 
that circle nearest the entrance in this row being the 
largest of all. We take all these to have been drawn 
out for the ecclesiastics and dignitaries of the church 
to stand in, habited according to their proper distinc- 
tions, to receive an archbishop for installation, or on 
any other solemn occasion. The dean, and the other 
great dignitaries, we presume, possessed the middle 
space, whilst the prebendaries, vicars, sacrists, priests 
at altars, &c. belonging to the arch, ranged on each 
side; and all together, when clad in their proper cope^ 
and vestments, must have made a glorious appear- 
ance : from whence, we take it^ this aisle was called 
the Processional Aisle. 

The service choir is still adorned with its ancient 
wood-work, carved and set up with clusters of knot- 
ted pinnacles of different heights; in which are a great 
number of small cells, which have had images of wood 
in them for greater decoration. Under these are the 
stalls for the canons, &c. beginning with the dean's 
stall on the right, and the precentor's on the left hand, 
each stall being assigned to a particular dignitary by 
a written label over it. The four seats next tlie pul- 
pit are now possessed by the four archdeacons of the 
diocese, though formerly the lord-mayor and aldermen 
sat on that side; the rest of the seats, for vicars and 
choristers, are as usual in other cathedrals. The 


The eagle of hrass, from which the lessons are read, 
was the j;ift of Thomas Cracraft, D. D. 

The ascent from the body of the church, through 
the choir to the altar, is by a gradation of fifteen 
steps. The altar received a considerable improve- 
ment, as to its situation, in the year 1726, and the 
nhole church in its beauty, by taking atvay a large 
wooden screen, which almost obstructed the view of 
the east window. 

The most remarkable Chapels were three at the 
east end of the church; that of St. Stephens to the 
north, AU-Siiints to the south, and betwixt them was 
the famous chapel of »S^. Mart/, made by Archbishop 
Thoresby; which last, says Stubbs, that prelate, as a 
true respecter of the Virgin Mother of God, adorned 
with wonderful sculpture and painting. At the Refor- 
ruation this chapel, without any regard to the founder 
of this part of the cathedral, was torn in pieces and 
destroyed. Our northern antiquary, the late Mr. Tho- 
resby, got a large piece of the carved work, which he 
says was preserved by somebody in a neighbouring 
liouse to the church, being inclosed betwixt two walls. 
This had a place in his Museum as a great curiosity, 
both in regard of the excellence of the sculpture, and 
the respect he paid to the memory of the Archbishop 
his ancestor. His regret for the destruction of this 
curious chapel makes him break out with the psahnist: 

" A man was famous according as he had lifted np 
his axes upon the thick trees; but now they break 
down the carved work thereof with axes and hammers." 

The dimensions of this magnificent cathedral are as 
follow : 


Length from east to west, • • 524^ 

Breadth of the east end, 105 

Breadth of the west end, 109 

Length of the cross aisles from north to } ^^^ 
south, 5 


Height of the two western towers or stee- ) ,_., 

pies, 5^^^ 

Height of the nave, 99 

Height of the lantern tower or steeple, • • 235 

Besides the Cathedral, York contains twenty-one 
parish churches within the walls, and three in the 
suburbs; but only a small number of these are worthy 
of notice, viz. The church of All Sainis, St. Mary's 
in Casilegate, All Hallows on the Pavement, St. 
Dennis on the south of Walmgate, and that of St. 
Margaret, on the north side, the latter for its singular 
porch, curiously adorned with tl:e signs of the Zodiac, 
and a variety of other liieroglyphirs. 

But among all the religious edifices in the city and 
suburbs of York, the ruined Abbey of St. Mary, next 
to the Cathedral Church of St. Peter, merits the 
greatest attention. It was situated just without 
Bootham Bar, upon an area three quarters of a mile 
in circuit. This abbey, totally destroyed by fire in the 
reign of King Stephen, was begun to be rebuilt in 
1270, under the direction of Simon de Warwick, and 
this is the identical fabric of which we see the remains 
at this day. 

The Abbot here was mitred, and had a seat in 
parliament: his retinue was little inferior to that of 
the Archbishop; and when the barons of Yorkshire 
were summoned to the wars, he sent a man to bear 
the standard of St. IMary, in the King's army. 

Of this once magnificent structure, there is now 
left standing only a small part of the ;Vbbey Church, 
or cloisters, 371 feet in length, and sixty in breadth. 
Some spacious stone vaults also remain : in a word, 
this venerable monument of ancient times 

" Looks great in ruin, noble in decay." 

At present, the greatest part of the large enclosure 
is a pasture, and garden-ground ; but such pans as 
are tenantable, are let to diilerent persons; and some 
of the principal apartments are occupied as a board- 

i:vg-5chool for ladies. 


The CuAPTEE-UousE is a fine specimen of Gothic 
architecture. I'here is some difficulty in ascertainint; 
the time of erecting this magnificent structure, the 
remaining records of the church bearing no account 
thereof. Stubbs, who is particular enough in his 
memoirs of the rest of the buildings, entirely omits this. 

By the style of the architecture, it appears to be as 
ancient as any part of the church, and exactly corres- 
ponds with that part of the fabric begun and finished 
by Walter Grey. And, indeed, if we may be allowed 
to guess at the founder, that eminent prelate stands 
the fairest of any, in the succession for it. 

The pillars which surround the dome are of the 
same kind of marble as those which support his tomb. 
But what seems to put the matter out of dispute, is 
the picture of an archbishop^ betwixt those of a king 
and a queen, o\er the entrance, which, by having a 
serpent under his feet, into the mouth of which his 
crozier enters, exactly corresponds with the like re- 
presentation of Walter Grey on his monument. 

The whole pile is an octagon of sixty-three feet 
diameter; the height of it, to the middle knot of 
the roof, is sixty-seven feet, ten inches, unsupported 
by any pillar, and entirely dependent upon one pin, 
or plug, geometrically placed in the centre. The 
outside, however, is strongly supported by eight but- 
tresses. The whole roof has been richly painted with 
the effigies of kings, bishops, &c. and large silver 
knots of carved wood, at the unitmg of the timbers, 
all which are much defaced and sullied by time. Over 
this is a spire of timber work, covered with lead, ex- 
cellent in its kind. 

The entrance from the church to this noble room 
is in the form of a mason's square. Against the pil- 
lar, betwixt the two doors, stands an image of stone 
of the Virgin, with our Saviour in her arms, trampling 
on the serpent. The image, with the drapery, is 
somewhat elegant, and has been all richly gilt, but it 
bears a mark of those times which made even stone 
statues feel their mahce. At your entrance into the 


house the first things you observe are the canons' 
seats, placed quite round the dome, which are all 
arched over, every arch being supported by small 
marble pillars, which are set at a due distance round, 
and separate the stalls. Over these arches, which 
are built like canopies, runs a gallery about the 
house, but so exquisitely carved, and has been so 
richly gilt and painted, as to be above description. 
The chapters of capitals of the aforesaid small pillars 
have such a variety of carved fancies upon them, 
alluding in some places to the ridicule the regular 
clergy were always fond of expressing against the 
seculars; in others to history, with strange conceits 
of the over-witty workmen of that age, that it is im- 
possible to which stall to give the preference. Here 
you have antic postures both of men and beasts in 
abundance ; over one is a man cut out halfway, as if 
he was thrusting and striving . to get through a win- 
dow or some narrow passage. On others are faces 
with different aspects, some crying, some laughing, 
some distorted and grinning; but above all, and 
what is never omitted to be shewn to strangers by 
the vergers, is the figure of an old bald-pated friar, 
hugging and kissing a young nun, very amorously, 
in a corner; and round the capitals of the adjoining 
pillars are several faces of other nuns, as well old as 
young, peeping, laughing, and sneering, at the wan- 
ton dalliance of the old letcher. In other places 
you have a friar shoeing a goose, greasing a fat sow 

in the , &c. 

The eight squares of the octagon^ have each a 
noble light window in them, adorned with coats of 
arms, pennances, and other devices, except one square, 
which is joined to the other building over the en- 
trance; and this has been painted with the representa- 
tions of saints, kings, bishops, &:c. The three figures 
in the midst we take to be Archbishop Walter Grey, 
standing between Henry IH. and his queen. At the 
base of this square were placed the images of the 
twelve Apostles, with that of the Virgin, and the child 
X 2 


Jesus, in the midst of them. Tradition assures us, 
that these images were all solid silver, double gilt. 
The Apostles were about a foot high, but that of the 
Virgin must have been near two feet, as appears by 
the marks where they stood. These were morsels too 
precious to miss swallowing at the first depredations 
jnade into churches, and since they are not put into 
the catalogue printed in the Monasticon, of the riches 
of this church, which were taken in Edward Sixth's 
time, we may readily suppose his father Henry had 
the honour of this piece of plunder, or else that Arch- 
bishop Holgate made him a present of them, along 
with the manors that prelate thought fit to give him 
from this see. 

To enter upon a description of the imagery, in 
painted glass, which is still preserved in the windows 
of this place, and the rest of the church, would be 
endless; but the arms of the nobility and gentry of 
England, who were contributors, originally, to the 
charge of erecting this, and other parts of the church, 
are worth preserving; especially since fine glass is of 
so frail a substance, that it is almost a miracle so 
many coats are up at the windows at this day. 
However, we must not omit an encomium bestowed 
upon it by a great traveller, in old Monkish verse, in- 
scribed on the wall in Saxon letters, as follows : 

Ut Rosa Flos Florum, Sic Est Domus 

ista domorum. 

(The Chief of Houses, as the Rose of Flowers.) 

In the square passage to the chapter-house from 
the church, remarkable for its beautiful windows of 
painted glass, have been also many coats of arms 
delineated on the wall in their proper colours, but 
very few of them can now be made out. Here 
have been several sepultures, but the grave-stones, 
one excepted, are all robbed of their inscriptions on 

On the north side of the church also, and near the 
Archiepiscopal palace, stood formerly the chapel of 


St, Sepulchre, which has a door still remaining, oj)eu- 
ing into the north aisle of the nave. 

The visitor arriving at the new library, situated on 
the north side of the cathedral, behind the chapter- 
house, cannot fail of being impressed with the effects 
of literary genius and industry, and here 

" Hold converse with the great of ev'ry time, 

The learn'd of every class, the good of every clime." 

This building, formerly annexed as a chapel to the 
archbishop's palace, which was totally destroyed some 
centuries since, is allowed to be much more commo- 
dious than the old one was on the south side of the 
cathedral. It had been many years used as a stable 
and hayloft, till the complete restoration of it to its 
exact primitive state in the English pointed style of 
architecture was effected in 1806. The west window 
of stained glass has in the centre a shield with the 
arms of the Duke of Clarence, who visited the cathe- 
dral that year. The side windows are all of ground 
glass, for the purpose of repelling too great a glare of 
light. For the convenience of taking down the 
volumes from the higher shelves, a neat oak gallery is 
supported by light iron bars. A large portion of the 
books here were the gift of Mrs. Matthews, the relict 
of Toby Matthews, archbishop, whose son, Sir Toby, 
having been disinherited by his father, was probably 
the reason that the mother bestowed her husband's 
books, to the number of 3000 volumes, on the church. 
The books are chiefly remarkable for several valuable 
tracts in divinity and history; some manuscripts, 
amongst which is a Tulk/de Inventione ad Herrenium, 
very perfect, and in a most neat cliaracter. Bibles 
and psalters; ti.e original register of St. Mary's abbey 
at York, &;c. Bui the manuscripts that are almost 
inestimable, especially, are Mr. Torre's painful col- 
lections, from the original records of all the eccle- 
siastical affairs relating to this church and diocese. 
And the fine collection of the Rev. Mr. Marmaduke 
Fothergill was likewise added to this library ; so that 
X 3 


It now contains a body of manuscripts, especially in 
the English ritual and liturgical way, equal to most 
libraries in the kingdom. 

The vestry joins to the south side of the church; it 
has a council room and treasury contiguous to it. In 
this last were kept all the rents, revenues, grants, and 
charters, with the common seal belonging to the 
church ; and had a particular officer to inspect and 
take care of them. In the large inventory of the 
riches belonging to this cathedral, taken in Edward 
the Sixth's time, is an account of the money then in 
St. Peter's chest; which was soon after seized upon, 
iind the treasurer's office dissolved ; for a very good 
reason says Mr. Willis, nam, 

Abrepto omjii Thesauro, desiit Thesaurarii Munus. 
(When all the treasure was swept away, the office of 
Treasurer ceased of course). 

The council room, or inner vestry, where his grace 
of York robes himself when he comes to his cathedral, 
is a convenient place, rendered warm and commodious 
for the clergy to adjourn to from the chapter-house in 
cold weather. In it is a large press, where are kept 
those acts and registers of the church, which they 
want more inunediately to consult on these occasions. 
In the wall of the south corner of the vestry room 
is a well of excellent water, called St. Feter^s Well. 
Opposite is a great chest, of a triangular figure, 
strongly bound about with iron bars ; which by its 
shape, must have once served to lay up the vestments 
of the copes and priests. Along the north are several 
large cupboards in the wall, in which formerly were 
locked up the church plate, and other valuable things; 
but at present they are only enriched with the follow- 
ing curiosities : a canopy of state of gold tissue, and 
two small coronets of silver gilt, which were given by 
the city for the honour of King James I. at his coming 
out of Scotland to this place in his progress to London. 
A cope of plain white satin, the only one left us out of 
the large inventory of the ornaments of this church; 
and the famous horn; if we may so call it, made of 


an elephant's tooth, which is indeed the greatest piece 
of antiquity the church can exhibit. 

This horn Mr. Camden particularly mentions as a 
mark of a strange way of endowment formerly used ; 
and from an old book, as he terms it, gives us this 
quotation about it : " Ulphus, the son of Toraldus, 
governed in the west parts of Deira, and by reason of 
a difference like to happen betwixt his eldest son and 
his youngest, about his lordships, when he was dead, 
presently took this course to make them equal ; with- 
out delay he went to York, and taking the horn, 
wherein he was wont to drink, with him, he filled it 
with wine, and kneeling upon his knees before the 
altar, bestowed upon God and the blessed St. Feter, 
all his lands, tenements, &c." 

In ancient times there are several instances of 
estates that were passed without any writings at all, 
by the lord's delivery of such pledges as these, a 
sword, a helmet, a horn, a cup, a bow, or arrow; 
nudo verho, absque scripto vel charta, tantum cum 
Domini gladio, re/ galea, vel cornu, (merely by word 
of mouth, without any writing or paper, only by the 
lord's delivery of a sword, helmet, or horn), are the 
express words of Ingulphus. 

The church of York ought to pay a high veneration 
to this horn ; several lands belonging to it being still 
called de Terra TJlphi; and before the Reformatipn it 
was handsomely adorned with gold, and was pendant 
in a chain of the same metal. These ornaments were 
the occasion of its being taken away at that time; for 
it is plain by Mr. Camden's words, that the horn was 
not there in his days : " I was informed, says he, that 
this great curiosity was kept in the church till the last 
age." We are not therefore to blame the Civil Wars 
for this piece of pillage ; for a principal actor in them, 
Thomas Lord Fairfax, was the occasion of its being 
preserved and restored to the church. Where it had 
lain, or where he got it, is uncertain ; but, stripped of 
its golden ornaments, it was returned by Henry Lord 
Fairfax, his successor. The chapter thought fit to 


decorate it anew, and to bestow the following inscrip- 
tion to the memory of the restorer upon it. 
" Corno Hoc, Ulphus, inoccidentali parte Deirae 

Princeps, vna com omnibvs terris et redditibvs 

svis olim donavit. Amissvra vel abreptum Hen- 

ricvs dom. Fairfax demum restitvit. Dec. et capit. 

de novo ornavit A. D. MDCLXXV. 

(This horn, Ulphus, Prince of the western parts of 
Deira, originally gave to the church of St. Peter's, 
York, together with all the lands and revenues. Henry 
Lord Fairfax, at last restored it, after it had been 
lost, or conveyed away. The dean and chapter de- 
corated it anew, A. D. 1675.) 

There is also a large, rich, and superb pastoral staff 
of silver, about seven feet in length, with a Virgin and 
a young Saviour in her arms, placed within the bend 
of it ; under which on one side, are engraven the arms 
vfKaiherine of Portugal, Queen-Dowager o( England, 
who gave the staff to one Smith, her confessor, nomi- 
nated to be the popish Archbishop of York by King 
James 11. in the year 1687. On the other side are 
the Smith's family coat of arms, with a mitre and 
crosier, and a cardinal's cap over them ; so confident 
was this man in his expectation of being raised to 
that dignity : which, however, he was so far from at- 
taining, that within a little time this magnificent 
ensign of his pastoral office was wrested from him by 
a party headed by the Earl of Danby, afterwards Duke 
of Leeds, M-hen he was marching in a solemn proces- 
sion from the public Romish chapel in the manor, 
near' St. Mary's abbey, to the cathedral of York; 
where his influence at that time had so far prevailed, 
as to have the great west doors opened to receive him. 
This staff was afterwards deposited in the hands of 
the dean and chapter. 

On the south side of the vestry hang up against the 
wall, two ancient tables, vt-hich are little taken notice 
of. The one contains a catalogue of the miracles 
ascribed to the virtues of our St. William, 23 years 
after his death, and are 39 in number. The other is 


a copy of an indulgence granted by Pope Nichohis, 
mentioned in tlie lite of that prolate, with other ab- 
stracts relating to this church. 

Here is also an antique chair in which several kings 
of England have been crowned, and of which the 
archbishop also makes use, within the rails of the 
altar at ordinations. On the furniture cloths of the 
vestry arc the arms of Scrope, Lord IMasham, Booth, 
and Kemp. 

The Archbishop's Palace. — There were several 
palaces formerly belonging to the see of York, of 
which that at Bishopsthorpe is now the only Archie- 
piscopal residence in its possession. It is a very 
handsome edifice, on the banks of the Ouse, about 
three miles south-east of the city. Smce built by 
Archbishop Walter Grey, it has undergone many im- 
provements. The principal front and vestibule, which 
are ascended to by a flight of stone steps, exhibit the 
old English pointed style of architecture, and have a 
beautiful appearance. The same order is observed 
in the gateway and })orter's lodge. The chief apart- 
ments are decorated with elegant furniture, large 
bronze busts, portraits, &c. of his late Majesty, the 
Right Hon. William Pitt, and others. The great 
dining-room, overlooking the river, has a ceiling exe- 
cuted in ancient fret-work. Adjoining is the chapel, 
the windows of which are glazed with coloured glass 
executed by the late Mr. Peckitt. The altar window 
at the east end measures 75 feet square, and contains 
the arms of the different archbishops from the Re- 
formation to the Revolution, properly quartered with 
those of the see. The floor is composed of white and 
black marble in chequered squares, and the pulpit 
exliibits a curious specimen of ancient wood carving. 

In the pleasure-grounds contiguous to the palace, 
the lime-tree walk is particularly admired for its 
exuberant foliage, whilst the trees intermixing over 
head, resemble the long vista of a cathedral. 

Frequent summer parties are formetl for visiting 
Bishopsthorpe by water in boats, fi'om New-walk and 


Lendall-ferries. Tlie palace, pleasure-groumls, &c. 
may be seen by application to the housekeeper and 
chief gardener. 

The MANsioN-HousEisan elegant building, erected 
in 1725; the front has a rustic basement supporting 
pillars of the Ionic order, with a pediment bearing the 
city arms. The interior is furnished with rich plate, 
furniture, &c. for the use of each mayor. Several 
excellent pictures adorn the state-room, and among 
them an elegant whole length portrait of his present 
Majesty then Prince of Wales, painted by Hoppner. 

The Guildhall is situated behind the Mansion- 
house, and is thought to be one of the finest Gothic 
halls in the kingdom, being built in 1446. It is 9& 
feet in length by 43 ; the roof is fancifully ornamented 
with several grotesque figures and heads, with the 
Royal Arms as used by Henry V., and the roof is 
supported by ten octagon pillars of oak placed on 
stone bases. At the end of the hall are the law 
courts, with rooms for the grand and petit juries. In 
one of these, called the inner room, is placed the 
musquetry of the city, for equipping four companies 
of seventy men each. The windows contain some fine 
specimens of the art of painting upon glass. One of 
these, representing Justice in a Triumphal Car, was 
put up in 1754, being a gift from the artist, Mr. 
Peckitt, to the corporation. Adjoining the Guildhall 
a new council chamber has been lately erected, which 
consists of two distinct apartments; one being for 
the lord mayor, the recorder, city council, sheriffs, 
&c. and the other for the common council. 

The Basilica, or County-Hall, stands on the 
west side of an area, and was erected in 1777. It is 
of the Ionic order, in length 150 feet and 45 in breadth. 
In the south end is the court for the trial of prisoners, 
and at the north end, that of NisiPrius. Each of these 
is 30 feet diameter, covered with a dome 40 feet in 
lieight, elegantly decorated and supported by twelve 
Corinthian columns. In the room appropriated for 
the grand jury is a manuscript list of tiie names of all 


the Ili^h Shcrifls for the county, in succession from 
William the Conqueror to the present time. Nearly 
behind this room the new drop, or place of execu- 
tion, is situated. The entrance to the hall is by 
a portico of six columns, 30 feet high, over whicli 
are the royal arms and an elegant full length figure of 

An opposite building on the east was erected in 
1780, in order to remedy many defects in the old 
gaol. Here are apartments lor the clerk of the as- 
size, and the county records. There are distinct hos- 
pital rooms for men and women; and since the year 
1803, thirty cells, two bath-rooms, seven day rooms, 
and an indictment office, have been added, besides 
three additional spacious fiagged court-yards, with a 
walk for the sick upon the top of the south-east wintc, 
secured by iron railing. The front, 150 feet in, ex- 
tent, is adorned with an elegant colonnade, similar 
to the court of justice, and many other improvements 
have been made. 

The new City Gaol, was erected on an extensive 
scale, and begun in 1802 under tlie direction of Mr. 
Peter Atkinson, architect, and completed in 1807. 
It adjoins the Old Baile, and is surrounded by a high 
brick wall; and having a vane and cupola at the top, 
is a conspicuous object in various parts of the environs. 
The edifice is entirely of stone, and in its front is a 
large court-yard, where the debtors have the liberty of 
walking. They ascend to their apartments by a large 
flight of steps, with iron railing. The cells for men 
and women felons, are on the ground floor, as is like- 
wise the day-room. In each of the sleeping rooms 
are recesses for coals, &c. The gallery here is 170 
feet long; and the governor's residence is in the cen- 
tre of the building, and has a large airy room used as 
a cbnpel. 

The prison is well supplied with water, and by 
means of proper drainage is rendered extremely clean 
and healthful. 

When any criminals are executed, a temporary 


phitforrn is erected behind the prison wall on the west 
side, facing the Old Baile. 

The new House of Coruectiok is upon Toft-green, 
under the walls, near Micklegate Bar. This building 
was completely finished in 1314, and is much more 
appropriate and convenient than the old House of 
Correction upon Peaseholme- green. The expence 
was defrayed by a joint assessment upon the city and 

The TarATUE Royal is at the upper end of Blake- 
street, erected in 1769. Tijc late Tate Wilkinson, 
esq. proctued a patent for it. It is fitted up in a neat 
uniform style, capable of containing a numerous au- 
dience. Several judicious alterations have lately taken 
place in the interior, and the house is lighted up with 
"ax candles placed in glass chandeliers of a novel form, 
which prevents the \\ix\ from ruiining and dropping 
upon persons in the pit. The company perform at York 
from February till the beginning of May, and during 
the assize and race weeks. The admission to the 
lower boxes is 4.S., to the upper 3s., pit 2s. 6d., gal- 
leries Is. and Is. Crf. 

The Assembly Rooms. — The extensive building in 
Blake-street was erected in 1730, and was designed 
by the celebrated Lord Burlington. The vestibule is 
32 feet long, 21 broad, and 21 high; and the grand 
Assembly-room is an antique Egyptian-hall, from a. 
design of the celebrated Palladio, 112 feet in lengtb, 
40 in breadth, and 40 in height. Tiiis room consists 
of two orders, the Corinthian and the composite. 
The windows and decorations are superb; the princi- 
pal lustre was the gift of Lord Burlington, The ceil- 
ing of the smaller Assembly-room used in common, 
is adorned with curious fret-work from the antique. 
There are five subscription concerts during the win- 
ter season. In the spring assize week the rooms are 
open for a concert and ball, on the Wednesday and 
Friday evenings; at the races, are balls only. 

York Subscription Library, erected in 1811, is 
nearly opposite the Post-office in St. Ilelen's-square. 


it was first instituted in 1791. The niciibers exceed 
oOO, and the terms of the aniuiai suhscriptiou is one 
pound six shilhngs, paid half yearly in advance, and 
for admission five guineas. The members are admit- 
ted by ballot; the bucks, amotinting to near 7000 
in number, are the joint property of the subscribers. 
The ground floor being occupied as a nev s-roou), the 
London newspapers are regularly taken in, with the 
best maps, &c. 

The County Hospital, or Public Infinnary, is a 
spacious building beyond Monk-bar. The front ex-' 
tends 7o feet in length, and it is 90 in depth, and en- 
closes a small court. Here is a Public Medical Li- 
brary established in J 810, for the improvement and 
diffusion of medical knowledge. This excellent cha- 
rity is dependent upon the benevolence of the public 
for its support. 

The City Dispensary, in St. Andrew-gate, for 
administering relief to the diseased poor, is also sup- 
ported by voluntary subscription. This was set on 
foot in 1788, by gentlemen of the faculty resident in 
York. Here are also extensive national and charity 
schools, Sunday schools, spinning schools, &c. &:c. 
with a saving bank established in 1816, where inte- 
rest is paid at the rate of four per cent. 

The Lunatic Asylum is situated without Boo- 
tham-bar, and was first established in the year 1777, 
by general subscription. Its front extends 132 feet in 
length; its depth is 52 feet, and it consists of three 
stories in height. The ends of the front are finished 
as pavilions, and have a projection equal to that of the 
central columns. Over the centre of the building 
rises a cylindrical bell tower, surrounded with small 
columns, and finished with a cupola and vane at the 
top. In 1817 a new building was erected behind the 
front, intended for females only. It is two stories 
high, and every room throughout is arched, and ren- 
dered completely fire-proof. A room is also used as 
a chapel, and spacious gardens and airing grounds 
surround the buildings. Patients are admitted on pay- 


ing a weekly sum for their maintenance. The ex- 
pences being moderate, render this foundation advan- 
tageous to persons of slender means. Dr. Wake is 
the attending physician, and was elected to that office 
in 1815. 

The Retreat, is another institution for the use of 
the same class of patients, belonging to the society of 
Quakers or Friends. It was opened in 1796; the 
building consists of a centre and four wings, with the 
addition of a new erection behind, called The Lodge, 
connected with the main building by a long passage 
or gallery. It is situated nearly a mile from the city, 
on the road to Heslington, upon an eminence which 
commands an extensive and beautiful prospect in all 
directions. The medical department is under a phy- 
sician of York, chosen by a monthly committee. This 
institution embraces all classes of patients, who pay 
according to their ability, though neither the physi- 
cians nor the internal managers receive any fees, all 
of them having annual fixed salaries. Mr. Samuel 
Tuke has published a very interesting memoir and de- 
scription of " The Retreat," with plans and view. 

The York Emmanuel was instituted for the re- 
lief of mental derangement, blindness, or idiotcy in 
ministers, their wives, widows, or children. This was 
established in 1782. 

About this time, by the exertions of Mrs. Cappe and 
Mrs. Gray, a spinning school was established. Spin- 
ning, however, is no longer attended to, the children 
being at present chiefly employed in sewing or knit- 
ting. They are also taught to read, are provided 
with Sunday clothes, and presented with every requi- 
site in dress, on their leaving the school. 

Connected with the Spinning School, and also with 
the Greycoat School, is the York Friendly Female 
Society. This was established in 1788, as a relief in 
case of sickness, for those especially who are educated 
in the two first-mentioned schools. General members 
paying half-a-crown upon admission, and one shilling 
per quarter the first two years, and eighteen-pence 


afterwards, are entitled to three shillings a week, six, 
and even ten, to married members on the birth oteach 
child. A private fund also provides child-bed linen. 
In 1800 the ladies commenced an annuity fund for 
raising forty shillings a year for life, to be paid such 
members as have attained the age of 53, or have been 
the longest in the society. 

The York Female Benefit Club, may be classed 
with those friendly societies common to all large towns 
and cities. 

A Lying-In Society was instituted in November 
18 ly, in aid of the more virtuous parts of humble 
society, which, besides paying a midwife, lends linen 
for a month, or pays for medical assistance if neces- 

The York Charitable Society was estabhshed 
in 1788, with a design to lessen the number of vagrant 
poor, and promote the object of Sunday schools 
among the lower classes. The whole number of chil- 
dren educated in these seminaries is nearly eight hun- 

The York Benevolent Society has for its object 
to search out the sons and daughters of suffering, to 
visit them in their affliction with temporal aid, acting 
on the broad basis of human wretchedness. 

The Society for the Prevention and Discouragement 
of Vice and Profaneness, directs its principal exertions 
to the prevention of lewdness, drunkenness, profane 
swearing, and Sabbath breaking. 

Dr. Colton's Hospital consists of a row of lov^ 
brick buildings in a back yard, established in 1717, 
for the occupation of eight poor women. The in- 
mates, by the improvement of the estate, have lately 
received about four pounds per month among them. 

The York Humane Society is an establishment on 
the plan of tliat in London, with receiving-houses, 
drags, &c. 

Mr. John Allen's Society, is an Institution of mo- 
dern date, for the benefit of a certain number of poor 
old men, who each receive half-yearly about six 
y 2 


pounds. Any ot" these pensioners dying, others, who 
are thougiit pruper objects, are appointed by the 

Walter's Hospital allo%vs small pensions and 
some cottages for the residence ot" about ten persons. 
Sir William Walter was twice Lord Mayor of York, 
previous to the year 16 V2. 

Lady Cony n ham's Charities consist of annuities 
of about 20/. a piece to poor clergymen's widows; 
and also to ten poor clercrymen, who shall respectively 
be in possession of only one living under the yearly 
value of lOOl. within the county of York. — Animities 
are likewise allowed to six poor women, or unmarried 
women residing in York, being 50 years of age and 
upwards, not respectively possessed of the sum of 50/. 

Haughtgn's Charity-school is near the church 
of St. Crux; here 50 poor children are taught to read 
and write English, and the schoolmaster receives a 
salary. Mr. Haughton also left large sums of money 
to the several charities in York. 
. Winterskelf's Hospital is nearly opposite to St. 
INIargaret's church. Here six inhabitants, besides 
lodging, receive from seven to eight pounds per annum. 

The places of worship in York are various; the 
beautiful Roman Catholic chapel is in Little Blake- 
street, and is much admired for its architecture and 
decorations. A smaller chapel at the Nunnery, has 
its walls ornamented with designs from scripture. 
Here several nuns attend, and occasionally accom- 
pany the oi^an, and the vocal music is thought parti- 
cularly fine. 

Methodist chapels are to be found in New-street 
and Albion-street; the first was opened in January, 
1805, and the latter in October, 1816. The Quakers', 
or Friends' meeting-house, is at the entrance of Far- 
Water-lane, in Castlegate. Here an ingenious me- 
thod for conveying warm air into the building in cold 
weather, and a supply of cold in summer, is made use 
of by a flue of curious contruction. 

Thf Presbyterian chapel is in St. Saviour gate, and 


was erected in 1692, cliiefly by the liberal aid of Lady 
SaralY Hevvley. It is built in the form of a cross, with 
an elevation in the centre^ and has a burial-ground 
attached to it. This has an organ and a singing-gal- 
lery, and is well aired with stoves. 

The Independents' chapel is situated in Lendal, and 
was built in 1814. It is an elegant, spacious, and 
lofty structure, and is supposed to have cost more 
thaii 3000/. 

Among the promenades, the first certainly is New 
Walk, a fiiie gravelled terrace, made in 1733, and 
extending near a mile in length along the banks of 
the Ouse. It has a long avenue of lofty elms, and in 
fine weather is usually resorted to by numerous groupes 
of gay and well-dressed pedestrians, whilst other par- 
ties in pleasure-boats, are sailing upon the river. A 
band of music from the neighbouring barracks are also 
frequently in attendance, and garden chairs are placed 
at convenient distances. A public bath has also been 
built adjoining the spring-well, commonly called " Tlie 
Lady Well," about the middle of the avenue. 

The cavalry barracks, a small distance from york, 
on the Fulford road, were erected in 1796, at the ex- 
pence of 25,000/. These handsome buildings stand in 
an area of an oblong square, occupying 12 acres of 
ground from wall to wall, and purchased at the rate of 
150 guineas per acre. The centre building for the 
officers, is a neat structure, with the royal arms finely 
executed at Coade's artificial stone manufactory. 

The race-ground is about a mile south of the city, 
commonly called Knavesmire, and is a large plain, 
or dead flat. The grand stand here is the principal 
ol/ject. On the ground floor are convenient offices 
and rooms for the entertainment of company ; above, 
on the second floor, is a handsome commodious room 
for the nobility and gentry to assemble in, v, ith a ba- 
lustrade projection, the front 90 feet in length, and 
supported by a rustic arcade of 15 feet high, com- 
manding a fine prospect. The top of the roof of this 
room is leaded, and has accommodations for viewing 
Y 3 


the races. The goal is a stone rotunda near tlie stand, 
for the convenience of those persons who decide the 
order in which the horses pass. The annual meetings 
are in May and August, and non-subscribers are ad- 
mitted upon the stand during each meeting, upon the 
payment of one guinea. 

The white-lead works belonging to Messrs. Liddell 
and Co. have been carried on very successfully since 
the year 1794. A preparation of red lead is also car- 
ried on at this manufactory, which is situated near the 
New Walk. 

The flint-glass manufactory of Messrs. Prince and 
Prest, is a little further on, close by the river Foss. It 
was first established in 1797, and will aftbrd ample 
gratification to the visitor who may wish to examine 
its particular process. 

The market-places, of which there are two, (the 
Pavement, and Thursday-market), are spacious, and 
in every respect convenient. In that part of the city 
called the Pavement, is kept a daily market for vege- 
tables, &c. 'i'he Cross is a square with a dome as- 
cended into by winding stairs, and supported by twelve 
pillars of the Ionic order. It was erected in 1672, by 
Marmaduke Rawdon, a merchant in London, but a 
native of York. The other is used on a Saturday as 
shambles, to the west side the butchers have free re- 
sort. On the west side of the market-place stands a 
cross, built in 1705, for the shelter of the market 
people in bad weather. It is a plain but elegant 

The Ainsty of the city of York, is a small district 
extending westward from York ; which forms a dis- 
tinct jurisdiction, and cannot be included in any of 
the ridings. It is bounded by the river Ouse on the 
north-east, the river Wharfe on the south-west, and 
the river Nid on the north-east. The situation of the 
Ainsty is equally as ad\antageous as any in the East 
Riding for sending its produce to the different markets 
by the rivers Ouse and Wharfe; a great part of the 
produce is carried to the populous city of York, con- 


veiiiently situated for that purpose ; a considerable 
quantity of corn is also sent to the \Vest Riding, 
which hes more convenient for that purpose than the 
east; the price of corn and other produce is therefore 
higlier here than in the East Riding. 

The country is generally fiat, with some gentle 
swells. The quantity of wood is considerable, and 
tiie whole Ainsty, generally considered, is fertile, and 
the climate mild. Within this jurisdiction are thirty- 
four villages and hamlets, besides one half of the 
market-town of Tadcaster, the middle of Tadcaster- 
bridge being the boundary between the Ainsty and 
the West Riding. The farms here are small; and 
they breed some good horses, but not many cattle, 
and neither here nor at York are there any manu- 
factures of much note, gloves excepted. 

The municipal government of the city of York is 
vested in a Lord Mayor, a Recorder, two City Coun- 
cil, twelve Aldermen, two Sheriffs, twenty-four As- 
sistants, called the council of twenty-four ; seventy- 
two Common-councilmen, and six Chamberlains. 
The Mayor assumes the title of Lord in all writing or 
speaking to him; this honour was conferred by 
Richard II. 

There is also a City Steward, Town-Clerk, Sword- 
bearer, four Attornies of the Sheriff's Court, and a 
number of inferior officers. The office of Lord-Mayor 
of York is a place of great honour and trust. He is 
the King's Lieutenant in his absence, and does not 
give place, or resign the ensigns of his authority to 
any one but the king himself, or the presumptive heir 
of the crown. On pubhc occasions he is habited in 
scarlet, with a rich mantle of crimson silk and a massy 
chain of gold. 

^ The forest ofGaltres is a little to the north of the 
city. It is in some places very thick of trees, and 
others very moorish and boggy ; it formerly extended 
to the very gates of the city, but is now much lessened, 
and several considerable villages are built in it. 



The situation, boundaries, and extent of these 
divisions of Yorkshire having been described in pages 
74 and 86 of the volume, we now proceed to give a 
detailed account of tlie principal places, according to 
the routes laid down for each journey. 
Is a small market-town, and from its inland situation, 
without any navigable communication, has no great 
trade, except in bacon and butter, of which consi- 
derable quantities are sent to York, and forwarded 
by water to London. The weekly market is on Frklay. 
The environs are flat, and not very fertile; the edge 
of the moors to the east, with the remains of Creyke 
castle, about three miles east, overlooking the country, 
are the only objects that break the dull uniformity of 
the scene. About five miles north, to the right, are 
the ruins of Bi/land Abbey, situated in a rich valley. 
Roger do Mowbray, at the instance of his mother 
Gandreda, A. D. 1143, removed the coment of Cis- 
tertian monks from Hode, to a part of her jointure 
near the river liye, almost opposite to the abbey of 
Rievall, since called Old Byland ; which place being 
thought inconvenient for the liabitatlon of the reli- 
gious, four years after they removed to Stocking, near 
Coxwold ; and at last fixed a little more easterly near 
Whitaker, where this abbey, dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin, continued in a flourishing state until the dis- 
solution, when its yearly revenues were valued at 
238/. 9s. 4d. according to Dugdale. The abbey be- 
Goming the property of Sir Martin Stapleton, he took 
every means to preserve this interesting fragment of 
antiquity from further dilapidation. The most pic- 
turesque part of the ruins is the church, of which the 
west end, with its curiously ornamented doorj now 


remain ; and a part of the south transept, with a smafl 
fragment of the south aisle. 

CoxwoLD is one mile from Byland, where the 
traveller may see Newburgh-hall, the sent of Thomas 
Edward Winn Bellasyse, esq. of the honourable family 
of the Lords Fauconberg. 


Is an ancient borough town, by prescription, situated 
on a small river, which divides the town into two 
parts, usually denominated the Old and New Town, 
and the communication between etfected by two 
small but handsome bridges. That part called the 
New Town, is in general well built, and stands mostly 
on th^ ground which was once the site of a huge 
castle, belonging to the ancient family of the Mow- 
brays, and which was demolished in the reign of 
Henry II. 

The municipal government of the town is vested in 
a baililf, who is chosen by the burgage holders, and is 
sworn in by the steward of the lord of the manor, for 
whom he holds a court-leet twice a year, at Lady-day 
and Michaelmas. 

The church is a handsome Gothic structure, dedi- 
cated to St. Mary Magdalen, and supposed to have 
been built out of the ruins of the castle. It is allowed 
by travellers (both in external and internal structure), 
to be a remarkably fine specimen of this style of 
architecture. The living is rcctoral, including the 
villages of Sowerljv, Carlton, and Sand Hutton, each 
of which places have chapels of ease. 

The manufactures of this place are inconsiderable, 
consisting chiefly of coarse linens, white and black 
liardings, sackings, bridles, and saddles. Tlie market 
on Monday is plentifully supplied with all kinds of 
provisions,' and sometimes with fish from the coast. 
Much of the poultry, butter, &c. is bought up by per- 
sons who carry it to Leeds and other places in the 
West Riding. The many fairs also attract a consider- 
able number of dealers in leather. 


There is an academy of some note in this town, at 
which there are seldom less than 150 scholars from 
different parts of the kingdom. The society for the 
education of clergymen's orphan children place all 
their boys at this school. At Bagby, two miles south- 
east from Thirsk, was an hospital for the sick and 
poor, founded about the year 1200. 

Besides the parish church, the Calvinists, the 
Quakers, and Methodists have tlieir respective meet- 
ings. The environs are fertile and pleasant. 

The Roman road from the station at Aldby, on the 
river Derwent, passed through Easingwold and this 
town to North AUerton. 

Thornton on the Street^ a small village, through 
which we pass between Thirsk and North Allerton, 
is supposed to be situated upon the old Roman road. 

From Thirsk we shall make a deviation from the 
direct line of our route, in order to visit North 

In the church of Felix Kirk, four miles north-east 
from Thirsk, there are some old monuments of knights 


A genteel market-town, is pleasantly situated on the 
river Wiske, consisting chiefly of one long street. 
It is a very ancient town, and according to the opi- 
nion of the learned antiquary Roger Gale, derives 
is name from King Alfred, and was a station in the 
time of the Romans. 

In the year 1138, near this town, the Scots were 
met by the English forces, commanded by William 
Earl of Albemarle, accompanied by Walter D'Espee, 
Roger Mowbray, Robert de Bruce, Bernard de 
Baliol, Walter de Grant, and all the northern ba- 
rons. In a sort of wh.eel carriage they had erected a 
long pole, at the top of which was a cross, and under 
this a banner, from whence the battle that ensued, 
acquired the name of the Battle of the Standard. 
Around this ensign the English were drawn up in a 
firm compact body, the front being composed of 


pikemeu and archers intermixed, to receive the first 
shock of the enemy. The Prince of Scotland ad- 
vanced to the attack with such impetuosity, that he 
bore down all before him, and even penetrated to 
the rear of the English, who, terrified at his success, 
began to fall into disorder, and gave v/ay, when their 
total defeat was prevented by the stratagem of an 
old soldier, who, cutting off a man's head, erected it 
on the point of his spear, and calling aloud, " behold 
the head of the Scotch king," rallied the troops, and 
renewed the battle. Thie Scots, confounded at this 
apparition, and dispirited by the flight of the Cale- 
donians, fought no longer with alacrity, but began to 
give ground in all quarters; nor could David the 
Scots king, who fought on foot with undaunted 
courage, bring them back to the charge, so that he 
was obliged to mount on horseback and quit the field. 
The fugitives seeing the royal banner still displayed, 
were convinced of their king's being alive, and 
crowded around him in such numbers that he was 
able to form a considerable body, with wliich he re- 
treated in good order to Carlisle, where he was, on 
the third day after tlie battle, joined by his son. 

In the year 1318, North Allerton was burned by 
the Scots, who at one period during these wars, had 
made so many English captives, that scarcely a 
family in the south of Scotland was without an Eng- 
lish slave. 

The municipal government of the town is vested 
in a bailiff, deputed and authorised by the Bishop of 
Durham, for the time being. The bishop is lord of the 
manor. The borough sends two members to parlia- 
men. The right of voting is aimexed to the site of 
the greater part of the houses adjoining to, and 
forming the street; few or none of the back tenements 
are considered as part of the burgage-tenures, or 
consequently entitled to vote. Some of these tenures 
now subsist in the form of stables or cow-houses, in 
which the appearance of our common chimnies are 
preserved as a memorial of their right ; others are 


let to poor persons at a small annual rent, on con- 
dition of their keeping them in repair; and many are 
totally ruinous and uninhabited. The Bishop of 
Durham's bailiff is returning officer. 

The weekly market is held on Wediiesdays, and 
there are four fairs, on the days inserted in our list. 

The market-place is spacious, and surrounded with 
good houses; the town is in genc;al well-built with 
brick, and contains between two and three thousand 
inhabitants. The village of Smeaton, on the great 
north road, about seven miles distant, is remarkable 
for the grandeur of its prospects; viz. the southern 
parts of the county of Durham, Cleveland, and the 
fine country along the banks of the Tees, towards 
Richmond, with part of the Vale of York, in contrast 
with the black frowning mountains of the eastern and 
western moors, all in full view. 

About a quarter of a mile west of North Allerton 
are the Castle Hills, so called from the Castle which 
formerly stood there, at which place are also to be 
seen many Roman entrenchments. On the east side 
of the town formerly stood a small monastery called 
the Treres, built by Thomas Hatfield, secretary of 
state to King Edward III. for white friars, aimo 

Stockesley, sixteen miles north-east of Allerton, 
is a small market and corporate town, situated near 
the source of the river Tees, in the fertile tract called 
Allertonshire, watered by the river Wiske. The 
town consists of one well-built street, about half a 
mile long. 

The weekly market is on Saturdays. 

The number of inhabitants is about 14,00. 

About seven miles north-west from Stockesley is 
the small market-town of Yarum, or Yarm, situated 
on the right bank of the river Tees, over which is a 
stone bridge, between the counties of York and Dur- 
ham ; the river is navigable five miles above Yarm. 

This town is incorporated, and was formerly a 
much more flourishing place than it is at present ; 


it, however, still carries on a pretty brisk trade, by 
water, in lead, corn, and butter, to London. The 
new bridge thrown over the river Wear, at Sun- 
derland, has made Yarm a considerable thorough- 
fare from Newcastle, Shields, and Sunderland, by 
way of Castle Elder to Yarm, and from thence to 
Thirsk, &:c. 

The weekly market is held on Thursday; and there 
are five fairs on the days mentioned in our list. 

The October fair is one of the most considerable in 
the north of England, and brings a great influx of 
money into the town, and adjacent country. The 
grounds in tiie parish being mostly laid down in grass, 
the fertility of the fields, with the thriving quickset 
fences and trees in the hedge-rows, give tiie country 
a rich appearance. In the church, which is a hand- 
some and modern-built structure, there is a beautiful 
window of painted glass, by Peckitt, of York, above 
the altar : it was presented by William Chalinor, Esq. 
a native of this town. 

The principal figure is a full length representation 
of Moses delivering the Law, from Mount Sinai. 

GuiSBOROUGU is a considerable market-town, situ- 
ated about four miles from the mouth of the river 
Tees, where there is a bay and harbour for ships. 

There was formerly a priory here, which was the 
common burial place of the nobility of these parts, 
and its church, from the appearance of its ruins, must 
have been equal to any in England. 

Guisborough consists chiefly of one main street, very 
broad, and many ofthe houses being built in a modern 
style, the place has a neat and pleasing appearance. 
The market is on Monday, and the fairs are well 
attended. Guisborough is remarkable for being the 
place where the first alum-works were erected in the 
latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

The town contains about 1800 inhabitants, and is 
a place of such antiquity, that Baxter supposes it to 
have been the Urhs Calnrium of the Romans. It seems 
to be a fact by no means creditable to modern im- 


provemeiits, that this part of the country, and pro- 
bably many others, as it is expressed in the Cottonian 
Manuscript, " hath been wonderfully inhabited more 
than it is now; for witliin the length of a few miles 
the lords following, have had their seates : at Kyldule 
Castle, the Percy's, Earls of Northumberland; at 
Aton, Nevil, of Westmorland; at Wharlton Castle, 
the Lord Menell; at Skelton Castle, the Lord So- 
raers; at Danby Castle, the Lord Latimer ; at Harl- 

sey Castle, at Wilton Castle, Sir Ralf 

-Bulmer; at Mulgrave Castle, Sir Ralf ; at 

Ingleby, the Lord Eure. All these great personages 
dwelt together in a small circuite, and in the midst 
of them the Prior of Gysbrough, insomuch that the 
town, consisting of 500 householders, had no land, 
but lived all on the Abbey. But the Prior, it is added, 
kept a most pompous house." 

This Priory was founded, and most amph endow- 
ed, by Robert de Bruss, A. D. 1129. In 1375, 
Edward III. gave leave to the Prior and Canons, to 
fortify and embattle their convent. Only one superb 
arch remains of this once rich and magnificent build- 

Redcar and Coatiiam are two villages in the 
northern extremity of Yorkshire, about half a mile 
distant from each other. The first, about eight miles 
from Guisborough, contains about one hundred and 
twenty-six houses; the latter about seventy. The 
street in each of these villages is covered with drifted 
sand, blown by the north-west wind from the shore; 
but the roads are very good, and the air pure, in the 
highest degree. 

The prospect from Coatham is remarkably fine, 
bounded from east to west by a range of hills, viz. 
IIunclilTe Nab, Burley Moor, Yerby Bank, Esten 
Nab, Barnby IMoor, and Hambleton Hills to the 
Tees, about ten miles. The sea on the north, forms 
the figure of a bow, the range of mountains being 
considered as the string. The greatest breadth is 
about five miles. Besides a sufficient number of ma- 


chines for bathing at these places, there are also con- 
veniences for warm bathing, at three shillings and 
sixpence each bath. The gradual declivity of the 
sands adapts them for the promenade, or the carri- 
age; and there are many beautiful drives in the 
Vale of Cleveland, surrounding Redcar, and upon 
good roads, for several miles, without being impeded 
by a turnpike. 

Sea parties are also made here, for three or four 
hours' pleasure upon the vv-ater; sometimes to dine or 
drink tea at Seaton Inn, six miles distant. Sometimes 
fifty trading vessels may be counted in sight at once. 
The sands are about eight mile| long, and one broad; 
and on this shore, near HunclifFe, the seals resort 
in herds, to sleep and bask. 

On a prominence nearest the shore, one of them 
keeps watch like a centinel, and when any person 
approaches, it rolls itself into the water, by vvay of 
giving notice to the rest; and when pursued at ebb of 
tide, they often endeavour to drive their pursuers 
away, by throwing sand or pebbles at them, with 
their hind feet. 

At Kirkleatham, about three miles from Iledcar, is 
the seat of the late Sir Charles Turner, bart., in a 
rich and extensive vale; and near it is Turner's Hos- 
pital, a large handsome building, enclosing three sides 
of a square, the fourth being ornamented with elegant 
iron gates and palisadoes; in the inner court, on a 
pedestal, is a statue representing Justice, with a sword 
and balance. This house was founded and endowed 
by Sir William Turner, knt., in 1676, for the main- 
tenance of forty poor persons, viz. twenty old men 
and Avomen, and as many girls and boys. Skelton 
Castle, about five miles from Redcar, the seat of 
John Wharton, esq., was originally built by Robert 
de Bruss, a Norman Baron, who accompanied 
William the Conqueror to England. This nobleman, 
from whom some of the kings of Scotland, and the 
family of Bruce, Earls of Aylesbury, are descended, 
was a person of such valour, that William Duke of 
z Q 


Normandy rewarded him with forty-three lordships in 
the East and West Ridings of Yorkshire, and fifty-one 
in the North Riding of that county. 

Journey from Askrigg to Pierce Bridge, through 

AsKUlGO, though a market-town, resembles a 
village, scarcely cotitaining 800 inhabitants. Tiie 
market is on Thursday. It is situated in the centre 
of VVensley Dale, near the northern bank of the 

About half a mile from Askrigg is a water-fall, 
called Millgill Force, which makes one grand vertical 
fall of about twenty or thirty yards, and then rushes 
down the rocky bed of the ravine. One mile further 
is Whitfield's Force, a spectacle highly gratifying to 
the lover of picturesque scenery; and about five 
miles up the dale from the town is Hardrow Force, 
a cascade, where the water falls, in one vast sheet, 
from a ledge of rocks ninety-nine feet in perpendicular 
height. The ravine or chasm, which extends below 
the fall, is bounded on each side by huge masses of 
rock, and is about three hundred yards in length. 
Behind the fall is a deep recess, whence a good view 
of it may be obtained with safety. During the hard 
frost in the year 1740-41, a prodigious icicle is re- 
corded to have been found here, of the whole height 
of the fall, and nearly equal in circumference. 

Four miles east from Askrigg, is Aysgarth, or 
Attescane, a village situated on the river Ure. 
Here are several water-falls, both above and below 
the bridge; the v; hole range occupying nearly half a 
mile.j This should be particularly remembered, other- 
wise a stranger might miss the Force, w here the whole 
body of the river, which is of considerable breadth, 
pours down an irregular and broken ledge of rocks in 
several places, in a fine ravine, surrounded by hills 
covered with trees. Over the river is a bridge of one 
arch, which rises thirty-two feet, and spans seventy- 
one. The romantic situation of the handsome church 


ot Aysgarth, on an eminence, solitarily overlooking 
those cataracts, the decency of the structure within 
and without, its perfect retirement, the rural church- 
yar4j the dying sounds of water, amidst woods and 
rocks wildly intermixed, with the variety and magni- 
tude of the surrounding hills, concur to render this 
scene at once awful and picturesque in a very high 
degree. The falls that are above the bridge are seen 
on descending to it, but are viewed to greater advan- 
tage on the return. They are then beheld througli a 
spacious light arch, which presents the river at every 
step, in a variety of forms. On the left is the steeple, 
emerging from a copse. From the bridge the water 
falls, near half a mile, upon a surface of stone, in 
some places quite smooth, in others worn into great 
cavities, and enclosed by bold and shrubbed cliffs; in 
others it is interrupted by huge masses of rock, stand- 
ing upright in the middle of the current. It is every 
where changing its face, and exhibits some grand spe- 
cimens before it comes to the chief descent, called 
the Force. No words can do justice to the grandeur 
of this scene, which was said by Dr. Pococke, to ex- 
ceed that of the cataracts of the Nile. The bridge 
has on it the date 1339, which is probably a stone of 
the old bridge, the present one seeming of much later 
date. This beautiful and romantic scene is thus de- 
scribed by the author of* Wensley Dale." 

" But now, O Aysgarth ! let my rugged verse 
The wonders of thy cataracts rehearse; 
Long ere the toiling sheets to view appear 
They sound a prelude to the pausing ear. 
Now in rough accents, by the pendent wood, 
Rolls in stern majesty the foaming flood; 
Revolving eddies now, with raging sway 
To Aysgarth's ample arch incline their way. 
Playful and slow the curling circles move, 
As when soft breezes fan the waving grove; 
Till prone again, with tumult's wildest roar 
Recoil the billows, reels the giddv shore; 



Dash'd from its rocky bed, the winnow'd spray 
Remounts thje regions of the cloudy way, 
While warring columns in fierce combats join, 
And make the rich, rude, thund'ring scene divine." 

Not far from hence are the ruins of Fors Abbey, 
a monastery of Cistertian monks, brought from 
Sevigny by Ararius, son of Bardulph, in the year 
1145 : made subject to Byland, from whom an abbot 
and monks were sent in the year 1150, who, a few 
years after, were removed to Toreval. 

At Bainbridge, a mile and a half south from 
Askrigg, there are evident vestiges of a Roman sta- 
tion ; and on a neighbouring hill are foundations of 
an ancient fortification enclosing an area of nearly five 

By the antique corn-mill at Cappagh, near Bain- 
bridge, a pair of ancient mill-stones were discovered 
in 1817. Tiiey vvere covered with the remains of a 
strong leather hide, and measured in circumference 
nine feet six inches, and twenty-four inches in depth. 
Being put in motion, by Mr. William Paxton, they 
run in the form of a dish, one within the other, and 
work in a very superior manner. 

About two miles from the village of Carperby, is 
Bolton Castle, which, from its extensive remains, 
appears to have been a place of considerable strength. 
The plan of this castle is quadrangular, with a square 
tower at each angle, and a small one in the centre of 
the north and south sides; its greatest length is from 
east to west. In the centre is an open court, which 
gives light and air to the internal apartments. The 
grand entrance was from the east end, and near the 
southern tower; there were besides, three other en- 
trances, one on the north, and two on the west side. 
According to Grose, the walls are seven feet thick, and 
ninety-six in height. It was lighted by several stages 
of windows. The tower, on the south-west angle, 
where the unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots was 
confined, in 1568, is now occupied by a farmer. 

During the Civil Wars in the reign of Charles I. 


Bolton Castle was bravely defended by Colonel 
Scrope, and a party of the Richmondshire militia, 
for the king, and was at last surrendered upon honour- 
able terras, upon the fifth of November, 1645. From 
neglect, and the damage it received during the siege, 
the tower on the north-east angle became so much 
injured, that it fell to the ground on the evening of 
the 19th of November, 1761. 

Bolton is remarkable for being the birth-place of 
Henry Jenkins, that astonishing and singular instance 
of longevity. He was born in the year 1500, and died 
at Allerton upon Swale, December 8th, 1670, aged 
169 years, being just \6 years older than the famous 
old Parr. He was brought up to the business of a 
fisherman, an employment which he followed 140 
years. After he was more than 100 years, he used to 
swim across rivers, and was called upon as an evi- 
dence to a fact of 140 years past. He was once but- 
ler to Lord Conyers. When advanced to the vast age 
of 160, he used to bind sheaves of corn for the far- 
mers; and what is most astonishing, he preserved his 
sight and hearing to the last. When examined as an 
evidence, as above-mentioned, two or three other men 
who attended at the same time, said that he was an 
old man when they were boys, though they themselves 
were upwards of 100 years old. Being born before 
parish registers were kept, one of the judges asked 
Jenkins what remarkable battle or other event hap- 
pened within his memory. To which he answered, 
that when the battle of Flodden was fought he was 
turned of twelve years of age; '^e said he was sent to 
take care of the horses belonging to Bolton, whicli 
carried the bows and arrows to the Earl of Surry's 
army at North Allerton: that they were sent on horse- 
back on account of its then being harvest time. That 
shortly after his return home, he heard that the Scots 
had been defeated and their king slain. Being farther 
questioned if he remembered the abbies, he said that 
he was about 40 years of age when the Earl of Shrews- 
bury received the order to dissolve those in Yorkshire; 


that he saw the monks turned out of several convents, 
and that the country vras all in an uproar. It is cu- 
rious to consider what a multitude of events are 
crowded into the period of this man's life. He was 
born when the Catholic religion was established by 
law; and he saw the papal supremacy thrown off: 
the monasteries dissolved; popery in fashion again; 
and the Protestant religion finally established. In his 
time three queens were beheaded : Anne Boleyn, Ca- 
therine Howard, and Mary Queen of Scots; and a 
King of Spain resided here in quality of King of Eng- 
land. In his time \.\\q Invincible Armada of Spain was 
destroyed by the English; and the republic of Hol- 
land formed. A king of Scotland was crow^ned at 
Westminster, and his son and successor beheaded be- 
fore his own palace; the royal family proscribed as 
traitors, and again settled on the throne; and finally 
the great fire of London in 1666. 

About a mile and a half from Bolton Castle is Bol- 
ton Hall. The house does not possess any attractive 
properties, being plain and heavy; but the scenery 
of the park and grounds is such as should not be missed 
by the traveller of taste. 

The hall was built by Cliarles Marquis of Winches- 
ter, created Duke of Bolton by William III. 

Wensley Dale is esteemed one of the richest in 
Great Britain. It abounds with wood, and has a fine 
river meandering through its fertile pastures. It is 
stocked with vast herds of cattle, and in some parts it 
produces lead ore. 

We now cross the s^ver Swale, which, though not 
of any considerable size, is noted for giving its name 
to lands, through w hich it runs for some length, called 
Swale Dale, and to an ancient family of that name, 
the last of whom was Sir Solomon Swale, bart. who 
described himself of Swale-hall, in Swale Dale, by 
the river Swale. This gentleman became unfortu- 
nate, and was supplanted by a person who was a 
clerk in the exchequer office; who observing this fa- 
mily held their estate of the crown, and that they ha3 


omitted to renew for many years, procured a grant of 
the estate for himself. A great many law-suits en- 
sued, but to no other effect than to increase the mis- 
fortunes of this gentleman, who died a prisoner in the 
Fleet; his adversary, however, had previously made 
away with himself. 

The Swale was held sacred by the Saxons, because 
when first converted to Christianity, upwards of 10,000 
men, besides women and children, were baptized in 
it by Paulinus, archbishop of York. 

Swale Dale is a low, pleasant, and rich valley, 
abounding in grass, but very bare of wood, though 
here is a place just by called Swale Dale Forest. It 
might have been so anciently, but at present the 
number of trees upon it are very inconsiderable. 

Eggleston Hall stands in a romantic situation on 
the banks of the river Swale, under the declivity of 
lofty hills towards the north, spreading its white front 
and turretted wings towards the south-west, covered 
with a grove of sycamores: a small lawn fronts the 
house, hanging on a stupendous cliff above the river; 
the nearer hills are clothed with wood, and the more 
distant, though precipitous, are verdant, and stocked 
with sheep : on each hand the river's margin is formed 
of level and sequestered meads lying at the foot of 
steep ascents. The country viewed from Egglest(m 
is remarkably picturesque; on this hand the river 
meanders in the valley through a rich level : the as- 
cents are in many parts graced with woods; on the 
more distant lands scattered villages are seen, above 
which are vales winding by the foot of lofty hills, 
where cottages are agreeably disposed amongst the 
green enclosures, whilst the heights arising at the ex- 
tent of the view are rugged and clothed with heath. 


Is the principal town of the district, denominated 
Richmondshirc, and derives its name from the rich 
and fruitful mount whereon it was built by Alan Earl 
of Bretagne, the nephew, and one of William the 


Conqueror's generals, wlio, for his valour at die battle 
of Hastings, was rewarded with this earldom, and all 
the north-west part of Yorkshire towards Lancashire. 
The charter runs thus: "I WiUiam, surnamed the 
Bastard, king of England, do give and grant unto thee 
my nephew, Alan Earl of Bretagne, and to thy heirs 
for ever, all the villages and lands which of late be- 
longed to Earl Edwin in Yorkshire, with the knights 
fees, and other liberties and customs, as freely and 
honourably as the said Edwin held them. Dated from 
our siege or camp before York." It appears that here 
were 140 knights fees, each fee containing 12 plough 
lands or 640 acres. The town was anciently sur- 
rounded with walls. 

Adjoining to the town, on the north side of the 
Swale, stands the castle built by the before 'mentioned 
Alan Earl of Bretagne. This structure forms the 
principal feature at Richmond, few places being more 
picturesque. The great square tower is ninety-nine 
feet high, and was built by Conan in the twelfth cen- 
tury. It is three stories high, with a massy column 
in the centre, which supported the floors. 

The town of Richmond is small, and contains two 
churches: its population scarcely amounts to three 
thousand. JNlany of the houses are built of free-stone, 
and the streets are well paved. 

The situation is delightful, standing on a lofty emi- 
nence boldlv rising from the Swale, which winds round 
the town and '.astle in a semi-circular direction, and 
the whole place has a very agreeable appearance. 
Between the river and the site of the castle, is a walk 
of eight or nine feet in breadth, and about sixty per- 
pendicular above the bed of the river, and presenting 
to the eye a tremendous precipice. The ground on 
which the castle stands, is elevated forty or fifty feet 
above this walk, and is faced on that side with massy 
stones, resembling a natural rock. The eastern side 
of the castle-yard is also skirted by the Swale, but 
here the descent, instead of being precipitous as on 
the south, slopes dov»n for the space of forty or fifty 


yards to the river. The west side of this once almost 
impregnable fortress is faced with a deep valley, the 
ascent from which is exceedingly steep. On the north 
the site is elevated very little higher than the town. 
The castle yet appears mnjestic in its ruins. The 
keep, of which the shell is most entire, is about 100 
feet high, and the walls are eleven feet thick, the lower 
story is supported by a vast column of stone in the 
middle, from which circular arches spring, closing the 
top: the stair-case goes only to the first chamber, the 
rest being dilapidated. In the south-eastern corner of 
the area is a ruinous tower, with a dungeon thirteen 
or fourteen feet deep. The site of this castle contains 
nearly six acres. 

Richmond was annexed to the duchy of Lancaster 
in the reign of Richard 11. Charles II. conferred the 
dukedom of Richmond on his natural son Charles 
Lenox, in whose family it still continues. 

This borough having been incorporated 19th Eliz. 
was in the next parliament, anno 27, called upon to 
send representatives. The right of election is in such 
persons as are owners of ancient burgages in the said 
borough, having a right of pasture in a common field 
called Whitcliif pasture. The number of voters is 
about 270, and the mayor is the returning officer. 

The corporation consists of a mayor, recorder, 
twelve aldermen, and twenty-four common-council- 
men. The town has thirteen free companies of trades- 
men, who annually chuse the mayor on the day of St. 

The weekly market is held on Saturday, and is 
plentifully supplied with cattle and all sorts of provi- 
sions. The inhabitants are pri icipally employed in 
the inanufacf'^e of knitted yarn stockings for servants 
and husbandmen. This trade extends itself into West- 
moreland, or rather from Westmoreland hither, for at 
Kendal, Kirby Stephen, and such other places in that 
county as border upon Yorkshire, the chief manufac- 
ture of yarn stockings is carried on. 

Richmond is one of the greatest corn iiuirkets in the 

!;i04 NOiini AND E,\ST RIDINGS. 

county: being seated on the utmost verge of the dis- 
trict in which grain is produced, the corn-factors and 
millers repair hither from Swale-dale, VVensley-dale, 
and other parts. The market-place is spacious and 
handsome, and is surrounded by good shops and houses. 
The lead-mines in Swale-dale, and the other dales 
communicating with it must be considered as an im- 
portant feature in this district: these mines have em- 
ployed about 2000 persons at once. 

GiLLiNG, three miles from Richmond, is supposed 
to have been anciently the chief place of the royalty, 
before Richmond. At this place King Oswin was 

About four miles north-west from Gilling, in Kirby 
Hill or Kirby Ravensworth parish, is the ruined castle 
of Ravensworth. 

In the township of Dalton Traverse, two or three 
miles north of Ravensworth, is a place called Castle 
Steeds, where are remains of a castrum aestivum, on 
a slip of land, above the confluence of two small 
brooks, in sight of the Roman road calletl Watling 
Street, leading from Catterick by Greta Bridge to 

At Melsonby, two miles from Gllling, there was a 
convent of Benedictine nuns, founded by king Henry 
II. granted to the archbishop of York in exchange for 
other lands. 

Aidburgh, the Isurium of the Romans, devolved 
upon the family of Aidburgh, that resided here in the 
spacious mansion called Aldburgh-hall. But though 
some of them were knights, the church produces but 
one single memorial of them, upon a flat stone inlaid 
with brass, being the figure of a knight in armour. 

This church is an ancient structure: on the outside 
of the wall of the vestry is a figure about two feet and 
a half in length, which appears to be that of Mercury, 
with a part of the caduceus and the wings. In the 
church-yard is a grave-stone, in which is cut in relievo 
the half length figure of a woman in a Saxon habit, in 
the attitude of prayer. 


The town is a borough, and returns two members 
to parliament; all the inhabitants that pay taxes have 
a right to vote. The town contains about 500 inha- 

Pierce Bridge, which is in Durham, is said to be a 
corruption of Priest's Bridge, so named from two 
priests who built it of stone, or from a chapel built 
here by John Baliol, king of Scotland. 


Embraces so many interesting objects, that it is 
difficult to distinguish their value and importance. 
The new pier is a work of astonishing magnitude. 
Its foundation is sixty feet in breadth, and at the 
curvature, where there is the greatest force of the sea, 
it is sixty-three feet. The breadth at the top is forty- 
two feet, and the elevation of the pier forty feet. 
The ponderous rocks used in building this pier were 
taken from a quarry called the White Nab, about two 
miles distant; a great natural curiosity, and worthy of 
observation. The Rev. Mark Foster, in his poem 
entitled Scarborough, has given a fme description of 
the pier : 

— — — " Shooting thro* the deep, 
The mole immense expands its massy arms 
And forms a spacious haven. Loud the winds 
Murmur around, impatient of controni. 
And lash and foam and thunder. Vain their rage, 
Compacted by its hugeness, every stone 
With central firmness rests." 

The view of Scarborough from the sea is thu.^ ex- 
pressed : 

'* The gazing seaman here entranced stands, 
Whilst fair unfolding from her concave slope, 
He Scarborough views. The sandy pediment 
First gently rais'd above the wat'ry plain, 
Embraces wide the waves, the lower domes 
Next lift their heads: then swiftly roof o'er roof, 
With many a weary step the streets arite 
A a 


Testudinous, till half o'ercorae the cliff, 
A swelling fabric, dear to heaven, aspires 
Majestic even in ruin." 

This alludes to St. Mary's church. The town is 
well buijt, and various circumstances concur to render 
it a charming summer retreat. The principal streets 
in the upper town are spacious, and well paved with 
excellent flagged footways on each side, and the 
liouses have in general a handsome appearance. The 
new buildings on the cliff stand almost unrivalled in 
respect to situation, having in front a beautiful terrace, 
elevated near a hundred feet above the level of the sands. 
The celebrated mineral waters here owed their dis- 
covery to the following circumstance: " Mrs. Farrow, 
a sensible and intelligent lady, about the year 1620 
used to walk along the shore, and observing that the 
stones over which the waters passed received a russet 
colour; and having an acid taste and taking a purple 
tincture from galls, thought probably they might have 
a medicinal property. Having therefore made an 
experiment herself, and persuaded others to do the 
same, it was found efficacious in some complaints, 
and became the usual physic of the inhabitants. It 
was afterwards in great reputation with the citizens 
of York, and was so generally recommended, that at 
length several persons came from a great distance to 
drink it, preferring it even to the Italian, French, and 
Geraian spas." Such was the origin of this famous 
fountain of health. 

The spas consist of two wells; the north, or chaly- 
beate well ; the south, or saline well. The south well, 
or purging water, contains of 


Vitriolated magnesia, 128 

Muriated magnesia, 16 

Carbonate of lime, 28 

Carbonate of iron, • 2.6 

Vitriolated lime, • 58.4 

Muriated natron, • 4 



Carbonic acid gas, or fixed air, 98 ounce measures 
per gallon. 

The north well, or chu!}'beate water: 


Vitriolated magnesia, 98 

Muriated magnesia, • • • • 14 

Carbonate of lime, - 61.5 

Carbonate of iron, 3 

Vitriolated iime, • 54.4 

Muriated natron, • 2.1 

Carbonic acid gas, 100 ounce measures per gallon. 
And each water contains a small quantity of phlo- 
gisticated air. 

No place on the British coast affords a situation 
more commodious for bathing than Scarborough. 
The sand is clear, smooth, and level, and the inclina- 
tion of the beach scarcely perceptible. No consider- 
able river dilutes the brine, nor is the beach so ex- 
tensive as to be uncomfortably hot under a summer's 
sun. The sea in the month of August is many degrees 
cooler than at Brighton, and possibly than at Wey- 
mouth, or any place southward of the Thames. 

The parish church of St. Wary was formerly a 
spacious and magnificent pile. The ruins in the 
eastern part of the church-yard, the dismembered 
appearance of the western end, the subterraneous 
arches, and the great quantity of foundation stones 
discovered in the new burial-ground, sufficiently prove 
that the church in its present state is only a small 
part of a vast edifice which may have formed both 
that and the Cistertian Abbey. The present steeple 
at the east end occupies the fonner place ©f the tran- 
sept tower. The Independents, the Baptists, Friends, 
and Roman Catholics, have their respective places 
here for religious exercises. Scarborough had formerly 
three other churches. 

The ancient and stupendous castle here was once 
the glory, and its venerable ruins are yet the orna- 
ment, of Scarborough. These are situated at the 
A a 2 


eastern end of tlie town, on a promontory 300 feet 
high on the southern, and 330 on the northern side, 
above the level of tlie sea, presenting a vast range 
of perpendicular rock completely inaccessible. Its 
western aspect also presents a high, steep, and rocky 
slope, commanding the town and bay. The level 
area at the top of the hill contains upwards of nineteen 
acres of excellent soil, gently sloping near twenty feet. 
Here are two batteries on the southern, and one on 
the northern side of the castle-yard. The approach 
to the castle is by a gateway on the summit of a 
narrow isthmus on the western side, above the town. 
Without the ditch is an out-work, which was the 
ancient Barbican. At a small distance within the 
gate is the drawbridge, and under it a very deep 
fosse, extending along the whole line of the wall. 
Within the drawbridge is an easy ascent to the Keep 
or Dungeon, a very lofty square tower, the walls of 
which are twelve feet thick. The numerous semi- 
circular towers upon the embattled wall on the western 
side, with apertures from whence arrows and other 
missiles were discharged, are falling rapidly into de- 
cay. Upon the whole, this ancient castle, before the 
invention of artillery, was absolutely impregnable. 

The trade of Scarborough, notwithstanding the 
convenience of its port, is on a contracted scale. The 
exports consist chiefly of corn, butter in firkins, hams, 
bacon, and salt fi^h. The imports are coals from 
Newcastle and Sunderland, groceries from London; 
timber, deals, hemp, flax, and ii-on, from the Baltic; 
brandy and geneva from France and Holland. The 
fishery on the Scarborough coas4; has been in a de- 
clining state for some years. Another impediment to 
the commerce of this place has been the want of a 
communication with the interior of the country by 
water. The markets are held twice a week, on 
Thursday and Saturday. The population, by the re- 
turn of 181 1, was 6,573 for Scarborough, and 357 for 
Falsgrave, exclusive of its fluctuating number of sea-? 
liien; supposed about 500. The climate is nnt only 


healthy, but Scarborough is remarkable Tor the 
longevity of several of its inhabitants. The celebrated 
spa here, however, has been one of the chief supports 
of this place, as it undoubtedly possesses benefits 
above the fluctuating revenues of commerce. 

Here it may be proper to remark, that by a singular 
accident which occurred in December 1737, this re- 
markable spa had like to have been lost. It is situated 
about a quarter of a mile from the town, on the sands, 
and fronting the sea to the east, under a high cliff; 
the back of it, west : the top of the cliff being above 
the high water level fifty-four yards. The staith or 
vvharf projecting before the spa-house, was a large 
body of stone-work bound by timbers, and was a fence 
against the sea for the security of the house. It was 
seventy-six feet long and fourteen feet high, and in 
weight, by computation, 2163 tons. The house and 
buildings were upon a level with the staith, at the 
north end of which and near adjoining to it, upon a 
small rise above the level sands, and at the foot of 
the stairs that lead up to the top of the said staith, 
and to the house, v>'ere the spa-wells. On Wednesday, 
December 28, in the morning, a great crack was 
heard from the cellar of the spa- house, and, upon 
search, the cellar was found rent; but, at that time 
no farther notice was taken of it. The night following 
another crack was heard ; and in the morning the in- 
habitants were surprised to see the strange posture it 
stood in, and got several gentlemen to view it, who, 
being of opinion the house could not stand long, ad- 
vised them to get out their goods; but they still con- 
tinued in it. On Thursday following, between two 
and three in the afternoon, another crack was heard, 
and the top of the cliff behind it rent two hundred 
and twenty-four yards in length, and thirty-six in 
breadth, and was all in motion, slowly descending; 
and so continued till dark. The ground thus rent 
contained about an acre of pasture land, and had 
cattle feeding upon it, and was on a level with the 
attain land, but sunk near seventeen yards perpendi- 


cular. The sides of the cliflF nearest the spa stood as 
before, but were rent and broken in many places, and 
forced forward to the sea. The ground, when sunk, 
lay upon a level, and the cattle next morning were 
still feeding on it, the main land being as a wall on 
the west, and some part of the side of the cliff as a 
wall to the east ; but the whole, to view, gave such a 
confused prospect, as could hardly be described. The 
rent of the top of the cliff aforesaid, from the main 
land, was two hundred and twenty-four yards. The 
rent continued from each end down the side of the 
cliff to the sands, was measured on the sands from 
one end to the other, one hundred and sixty-eight 
yards : to wit, sixty-eight south of the staith and spa 
wells, and one hundred to the north of the spa. As 
the ground sunk, the earth or sand, on which the 
people used to walk under the cliff, rose upwards out 
of its natural position, for above one hundred yards 
in length, on each side of the staith, north and south; 
and was in some places six, a»id in others seven, yards 
above its former level. The spa-wells rose with it ; 
but as soon as it began to rise, the water at the spa- 
well ceased running and was gone. The ground thus 
risen was twenty-six yards broad ; the staith, which 
was computed at 2463 tons, rose, entire and whole, 
twelve feet higher than its former position; (but rent 
a little in the front), and was forced forwards towards 
the sea twenty yards. 

The most reasonable account then given for this 
phsenomenon, and the occasion of the destruction of 
the staith and spa-house, and the loss for some time 
of the spa-spring, is as follows: — When this staith, or 
wharf, was lately rebuilt (it being thrown down by 
the violence of the sea), Mr. Vincent, engineer for 
the building of the new pier at Scarborough, was de- 
sired to rebuild this staith, at the spa; and, digging a 
trench to lay the foundation thereof, with great diffi- 
culty cleared it of water; and, when he had done it, 
could at several parts thereof, very easily stick his 
cane or stick up to the handle; from whence it is 


concluded, that all the eartli under tlie staitli was of 
a porous, spongy, swampy nature, and was much the 
same below the foundation of the spa-house, and all 
under the sides of the cliff adjoining, as well north as 
south. Allowing this to be the fact : the solid earth, 
sinking on the top of the clilf as before-mentioned 
(which was of so vast a weight, as by computation to 
amount to 261,360 tons), pressing gradually upon and 
into the swampy boggy earth beneath it, would of 
course, and did, raise the earth and sands, as before 
noticed, and so effect the mischief that has been par- 
ticularized. But, fortunately for the town, after a 
diligent search, and clearing away the ruins, the spa- 
spring was again discovered; and on trial they found 
the water rather improved than impaired by the 
disaster. And it has since been in a more flourishing 
condition than ever. 

The proverb of a Scarborough warning, which de- 
notes a sudden surprize, did not take its rise from 
this event, but from the seizing of its castle by Thomas 
Stafford, with a handful of men, in the reign of Queen 
Mary I. when the town had no notice of his approach, 
and was therefore unprovided for its defence. 

Scarborough, it has been observed, possesses the 
double attraction of sea-bathing and mineral waters; 
and though not so fashionably frequented as some 
others, it contains more votaries of liealth tlian of 
dissipation among its visitors. Scarborough Castle 
had a stately tower, which served as a land-mark to 
mariners ; but as it was much injured in the wars be- 
tween Charles the First and his Parliament, the whole 
now^ presents a bold picturesque mass of ruins. A 
barrack in the centre of the line wall is capable of 
holding 120 men. The air of this spot is remarkably 
pure and piercing ; and it also commands a beautiful 
bird's-eye view of the town, shipping, and the German 
Ocean constantly traversed by innumerable sails. 
The pier is very commodious, and the harbour being 
one of the best in this part of the kingdom, is much 
resorted to in storniy weather, by the vessels navi- 


gating the coast. The flame from the light-house 
adjoining is apparent every night as soon as there are 
twelve feet of water in the harbour. The ships be- 
longing to the place are chiefly employed in the Baltic 
and coal trade. Corn, dried flesh, and other articles, 
are exported coastways. The fisheries for ling, cod, 
haddock, soles, turbot, and herrings, are very con- 
siderable, and employ many hands, and about fifteen 
hundred sea-faring people are employed in the town 
and port. A manufactory of sail-cloth, three rope- 
walks, and several ship-yards, are to be found here; 
and from the latter, vessels of 600 tons have been 

The sudden tides and short breakings of the sea, 
which often come with great impetuosity, render it 
advisable to employ both guides and machines. 
Morning, as at other places, is the usual time for 
bathing and drinking the waters. The shore is a fine 
hard sand, and during low water is much frequented 
by the company, for walking or riding. 

For warm sea-water bathing, a very neat and com- 
modious suite of rooms has been lately established on 
the cliff, by Messrs. Wilson and Traves, surgeons. 
The terms are tliree shillings for the bath, and sixpence 
for the attendant. Dr. Thompson is the resident 
physician. Here is likewise a shower-bath and every 
necessary accommodation. 

The spa is about a quarter of a mile south of the 
town, on the sands, at the foot of a high cliff. This 
spa, consisting of two wells, was discovered about two 
centuries ago, and it has been in high reputation ever 
since. One of the wells is more purgative, and the 
other more chalybeate ; the latter being nearest the 
town, is called the chalybeate spring, and the other 
the purgative. The aperient, is that which is gene- 
rally called the Scarborough water ; at the fountain 
they have both a brisk pungent chalybeate taste, but 
the purgative is also rather bitter; the quantity usually 
drank, is from two to four pints. These waters are 
found effectual in hectic fevers, weaknesses of the 


stomacli and indigestion, in nil relaxations of tiie 
system, nervous, hysteric, and hypochondriacal dis- 
orders; in the green sickness, scurvy, rheumatism, 
and asthma; in gleets, fluor albus, and other preter- 
natural evacuations, and in liabitual costiveness. 

A person under the name of governor resides during 
the season at the spa, and receives a subscription of 
seven shillings and sixpence from each person, one- 
third of which is appropriated to the water-servers, 
the rest to the corporation for the repairs of tlie place. 
From the purgative well, salts are prepared, which 
are much esteemed as a gentle aperient. The heat 
of these springs is between forty-five and forty-six 
degrees, or five less than the mean heat of springs in 

Though lodgings are numerous, they are frequently 
well filled at a customary rate, rising from ten shillings 
and sixpence to fifteen shillings for a room, and half 
that price for servants' apartments; but the proprietors 
will not break their suites of rooms whilst there is any 
prospect of letting them entire. The principal lodging- 
houses are on the cliff, most of which have full sea 
views ; in Harding's-row, Newborough-street, Long- 
room-street, Tanner-street, Albion-place, Queen- 
street, &c. At the numerous boarding-houses ser- 
vants are provided for at half price. Provisions of 
all kinds, especially fish, are cheap at Scarborough. 
The principal inns are the Black Bull -without the 
gates ; the New Inn, the George, Newborough Arms, 
Blacksmith's Arms, and Talbot, Queen-street; and 
the Golden Bull, High-street. AH these are posting- 
houses, though several other persons let horses for 
liire. At the coffee-house the corner of Tanner-street 
the newspapers may be read for a very moderate 
subscription. The assembly-room is annexed to the 
hotel, which is large and commodious. Here is also 
a neat theatre, and the taste for the elegant amuse- 
ments of the stage is said to be very prevalent here. 

There are also three circulating libraries, to which 


the subscription is ver}' moderate; and an industrious 
gardener has laid out his grounds, which are of con- 
siderable extent, in walks, to which any person sub- 
scribing two shillings and sixpence may be admitted 
for the season. Here those who are fond of fruit may 
purchase it fresh on the spot. 

Among the amusements of the visitors here, fishing 
as well as sailing is considered not the least ; ap- 
paratus for sea-fishing may be I'eadily procured, with 
proper attendants. Those who prefer angling, may 
have recourse to the Derwent, about a mile from the 
town, which abounds with trout, pike, &:c. and per- 
mission is seldom refused on application to the pro- 
prietors. The most fashionable promenades are on 
the sands both to the north and south of the town. 
Excursions are also often made to Hackness-hall, the 
seat of the late Sir Richard Bempte Johnson, bart. 
in a retired valley about six miles from Scarbo- 
rough; to Wickham, a spacious house built on the 
site of an old abbey, belonging to Mrs. Langley. 
Brompton is the residence of Sir George Cayley, 
bart.: these and Scampston, the favourite seat of the 
late Sir William St. Quintin, may all be seen in a 
morning's ride. Parties also are frequently made to 
Castle-Howard, the seat of the Earl of Carlisle, 
twenty-six miles distant. Duncomb-park, another 
seat built by Vanburgh, lies thirty miles from Scar- 
borough. The family have embeliished it with the 
finest productions of art. Among other curious ob- 
jects, is the dog of Alcibiades, finely executed in 
marble, originally brought from Rome by the late 
Mr. Jennings. 


Ts a populous borough town, situated on the river 
Derwent, which is navigable to the town, with a 
handsome stone bridge across. The town is about 
half a mile in length, and divided by the river into 
the Old and New Towns, in which are three parislj 


churches. Malton, being a borough by prescription, 
sends two members to parliament, chosen by the 
householders; and its municipal government is vested 
in a bailiff and subordinate olficers. 

The houses at New JMalton are upwards of 600 in 
number, mostly built of stone, and the town contains 
between 3 and 4000 inhabitants. Here are two 
parish churches, St. JNIichael's and St. Leonard's ; the 
spire of the latter being a truncated cone, has a sin- 
gular appearance. The weekly market is on Saturday, 
and a great trade is carried on in corn. At the first 
annual fair on the Saturday before Palm-Sunday, and 
on some days before, there is a very great show of 

At Brougiiion, a mile and a half north-west from 
Malton, was an hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, 
founded by Eustace Fitz-John, who died in the reign 
of Henry 11. 

At KiRKiiAM, about four miles north from Pvlalton, 
are the remains of a priory of Augustine canons, 
founded by Walter D'Espee and Adeline his wife, in 
the year 1121. 

Four miles north from Whitweil is Castle Howard, 
a seat of the Earl of Carlisle, built from a design of Sir 
John Vanburgh, in the same style as Blenheim-House: 
the front of the fomier is longer than this, and its 
exterior is extremely magnificent; the state apart- 
ments are particularly distinguished for grandeur of 
appearance; though the ceilings in general exceed the 
usual proportion in height. The princely collection 
of paintings, statues, busts, &c. with which this 
mansion is enriched, afford a high gratification to the 
admirers of the fine arts ; but a mere enumeration of 
them would exceed the limits assigned to any single 
subject in this work. 

The park has been considerably improved by the 
recent addition of a fine sheet of water. The orna- 
mental buildings are in grand style. At the south 
entrance is an elegant inn ; and in the centre of four 
avenues bordered with lofty trees, and crossed at right 

276 N-unni and east hidings.' 

angles, stands a stately quadrangular obelisk, 100 feef, 
in memory of the valour and success of John Duke of 
Marlborough, erected in 1714. Nearly opposite to 
the great grand entrance in the north front of the 
house, an elegant monument commemorates the 
victories of the immortal Nelson ; and about half a 
mile eastward of the house, is an Ionic temple with 
four porticos, and a beautiful interior with several 
busts in the niches. About a quarter of a mile 
further, and nearly in the same direction, stands the 
• family iMausoleum, a circular building above fifty feet 
in diameter, surrounded with a handsome colonnade 
of Doric pillars. Its height is ninety feet, and that 
of the inside sixty-eight and a half: the floor is in 
different compartments, inlaid with marble. 

Journci/ from York to Hull; through Markct-Wei^/iton 
and Beverley. 

Ar WiLBEUFOSs, about eight miles from York, on 
our road, ther,e was anciently a convent of Benedictine 
nuns, said to have been founded by Alan de Catron, 
before the year 1153. 

At Ellerton, on the river Derwent, five miles 
south from Wilberfoss, the priory of Gilbertine canons 
was founded by William Fitz-Peter, before the year 

At Stanfoud Bridge, two miles north from Wil- 
berfoss, Harold, King of England, attacked Harold 
Haardread, who had just landed at Riccal with his 
men, from 200 ships. The Danes were defeated, and 
their king killed. The battle was fought only about 
ten days before the invasion of Wilham the Conqueror. 
This place was afterwards called Battle-bridge, but 
at present it preserves its ancient name. 


Is a small market-town, situated about a mile east 
from the turnpike road from York to Hull. The 
market day is on Saturday, and thure are four annual 


fairs. There arc no niaiiufactures at this place, nor 
any great trade. 

In the neighbourhood there are many beautiful seats 
of noblemen and gentlemen, anion'^: the regt Kilank 
Percy's Hail, Warter Hall, Heaton, Everingham Hall, 
and Melburn Hall. 

In Everingham church-yard tliere is a very old font, 
ornamented with carving in the Saxon style, which 
formerly stood in the church. 

In a gravel-pit in Barnsley field, near Pockiington, 
were dug up in 1763, four human skeletons ; three 
were without coffins, the fourth was enclosed in a 
coffin with an urn at the head, on the outside of 
which were engraved several ancient characters. 

About two miles east from Pockiington is the vil- 
lage of Millington, where four Roman roads met, 
and where there was a strong camp to defend York 
on this side, consisting of a number of works, carried 
over hills and valleys from sixty to ninety feet per- 
pendicular, with four or six ditches, from ten to twelve 
yards broad, inclosing in all 4185 acres, with tumuli. 
On the south side of the hill, half a mile north-east 
from the village, have been discovered the foundations 
of buildings, Roman pavements, tiles, flues, and coins, 
the site of a circular edifice or temple, 45 feet dia- 
meter within, and the foundations near five feet thick; 
and near it two oblong buildings, whose stones had 
marks of burning and pieces of burnt wood, beast's 
bones, and part of large deer's horns. 

Dr. Burton determines Millington to have been the 
Roman station Delgovicia, and not at Weighton, as 
some antiquaries have imagined. 

Aldby, a neighbouring village, on the south side of 
the Derwent, is supposed to be the remains of an 
ancient Roman city called Derventis, where a com- 
pany was stationed named Derventienses. There are 
the remains of a castle and fortification to be seen at 
this place. 



A small market-town, eighteen miles from York, 
consists principally of one long street. About forty 
years ago the houses were in general low and mean, 
and covered with thatch; but since that period a 
number of elegant buildings have been erected, by 
spirited individuals, on the sites of the old ones, so 
that the town has an air of neatness and convenience 
united. The chief inn (the new King's Arms), built 
by the late Duke of Devonshire, is a spacious, elegant, 
and, it may with justice be added, a magnificent 

Market Weight(m stands on a little river called 
Foulness; and here is a communication between the 
Humber and a place within two miles ofWeighton, 
by means of a canal. Coals -and other articles are 
brought to this place for the supply of the town and 
neighbourhood ; and the keels or barges which bring 
them return laden with grain. 

The situation of this town is uncommonly pleasant 
and healthful, and so level is the country about it, 
that from a hill near the town of very inconsiderable 
elevation, the three minsters of York, Lincoln, and 
Beverley, and about a score of parish churches, may 
on a clear day be distinctly seen. Homan and Bri- 
tish antiquities are frequently discovered in the neigh- 
bourhood of this town. 

The church is an ancient, strong, but heavy struc- 
ture. It formerly had a wooden spire, which has been 
taken down, and a considerable addition made to the 
height of the tower. Of late years the inside of this 
church has been greatly ornamented, and furnished 
with an additional gallery, and a number of commo- 
dious pews. 

The market is held on Wednesdays after it is dark. 
This is a great corn market, where some thousands of 
quarters are weekly disposed of by sample. 

The principal villages and seats of the nobility and 
gentry in the neighbourhood are as follows: Lonesbo- 


rough, tlie seat of the Duke of Devonshire, two miles 
distant. In the parish church at this place are hung 
up some pieces of very ancient armour: such as a hel- 
met, steel coverings for the hands, &c. There are 
also several escutcheons and monuments of very an- 
cient date. Goodmanham, a village of great antiquity, 
one mile distant. — South Dalton, six miles distant, 
and Houghton, only two miles from Weighton. 

Not far from Weighton is Holme monastery, w hich, 
after the Dissolution, became the seat of a branch of 
the Constable family, afterwards of the loyal Sir Mar- 
maduke Langdale, from which he had the title of 
Baron conferred on him during the exile of Charles II. 
being the first English peer created by that prince, 
which title expired with his descendant ^nd the fifth 
lord in 1778, who died without issue male. 

The Roman road from York to Weighton, runs 
across the Derwent, over Kexby Bridge, leaving the 
Benedictine nunnery at Wilberfoss to the left. Thence 
it passes on to Barnby Moor, near an inn. Over the 
moor the Roman road is very visible, and may be 
traced most part of the way on the present road. 
This led over Stanford Bridge to the north-east of 
Barnby Moor and Pocklington, through Millington, 
through Lonesborough Park, Weighton, &;c. to Brough. 


Is a considerable market-town, situated at the foot 
of the Wolds, about a mile from the river of Hull. 
The origin of this place is involved in great obscurity : 
however, it appears certain that St. John of Beverley 
founded in this place a church dedicated to St, John 
the Baptist, which was afterwards converted into a 
monastery previous to the year 721. In 867 this mo- 
nastery being destroyed by the Danes under Inguar 
and Ubba, remained desolate three years. 

After this, little is known of Beverley till it was 
taken under the protection of Athelstan in the tenth 
century. Beverley was favoured by WiUiara the Con- 
B b2 


queror, but in the Civil Wars l)et\veen Cliailes I. and 
the Parliament, it vvas hy turns the prey of each party. 

Beverley formerly contained four churclies, at pre- 
sent there are only two, but the largest and finest pa- 
rochial ones in the kingdom ; viz. the late collegiate 
church of St. John the Evangelist, still called the 
Minster, and St, Mary's. 

John of Beverley, archbishop of York, afterwards 
canonised, is said to have founded, about the year 
700, a society of monks in the choir of the parish 
church in the nare; a college of secular canons and 
clerks, in which he ended his days; and in the cha- 
pel of St. Martin adjoining, a convent of nuns; but 
about a century after, the church and buildings were 
plundered and burned, and the religious dispersed or 
murdered, by the Danes. Not long after, some of 
the seculars vyho had escaped, returned, and began to 
repair the church, which was completed and endowed 
hy king Athelstan, for seven canons, and large privi- 
leges, to tlie honour of St. John of Beverley, under 
the patronage of the Archbishop of York, as above- 
mentioned. This college flourished, and at the Disso- 
lution consisted of a provost, eight prebendaries, a 
chancellor, precentor, seven rectors choral, nine vicars 
choral, with many chantry priests, clerks, choristers, 
&c. I\Iost of the prebendal houses were granted by 
Edward VI. to Michael Stanhope and John Bellasize. 

In the year 1708, the minster being very ruinous, 
Mr. Moyser, member of parliament for Beverley, pro- 
cured a brief for the repair of it; and, by his sole so- 
licitation among his friends and acquaintance, raised 
1500/. to which he and his family contributed very 
largely. This sura, with 800/. the produce of the 
brief, being put into the funds, was considerably 
augmented by the rise of the South-sea stock, in the 
year 1720, which enabled him to complete his pious 
design in a most beautiful manner in his life-time : and 
he had the sole management and direction both of the 
money and of the Application of it, being assisted by 


llie advice of that able architect Nicliolas Hawkes- 
niore, esq. This work \^ as encouraged by his majesty 
Kiiig George I, not only by a liberal donation of 
money, but likewise of stone, from the dissolved mo- 
nastery of St. Mary's in York. Sir Michael Warton 
gave in his lifetime 500/. and by will 4000/. as a per- 
petual fund towards keeping it in repair. 

The choir is paved with marble of four different 
colours, lozenge-wise, appearing cubical to the eye. 
Over the altar is a Lirge and magnificent wooden arch 
curiously engraven, standing upon eight fluted co- 
lumns of the Corintliian order. The east window is 
of painted glass, collected out of the several windows 
about the church; but so artfully joined, that they 
make throughout one regular and entire figure. — The 
screen between the choir and the nave was rebuilt of 
Iloche abbey stone, in the Gothic style, and is de- 
servedly esteemed one of the chief ornaments of the 
church. The body of the church is paved with the 
same stone, intermixed with black marble. The pul- 
pit, reading desk, and cover of the front, are of excel- 
lent workmanship, theg:illeriesare beautifully finished, 
supported by columns of the Doric order. But the 
most curious thing in tliis pile, is the north-end waH 
of the great cross aisle, which hung over four feet, 
and was screwed up to its proper perpendicular by the 
ingenious contrivance of Mr. Thornton of York, 
joiner, made practicable by a gentleman of Beverley, 
and approved by Mr. Hawkesmore. The admirable 
machine for this purpose was engraved by Mr. Four- 
drinier, and printed fur the benefit of his widow in the 
year 1739. 

Upon opening a grave, on the 13lii of Sept. 16G4, 
they met with a vault of square free-stone, fifteen 
feet long, and two feet broad : within which was a 
sheet of lead four feet long, and in that the ashes, 
and six beads (whereof three crumbled to dust with a 
touch; of the three remaining, two were supposed to 
be cornelian), with three great brass pins, and four 
B b 3 


large iron nails. Upon the sheet lay a leaden plate, 
with a Latin inscription in capital letters, thus trans- 
lated : 

"In the year of our Lord's incarnation, 1188, in Sep- 
tember, the night after the festival of St. Matthew 
the Apostle, this church was consumed by fire; 
and in the year 1197, on the 10th of March, search 
was made for the reliques of St. John in this place; 
and these bones were found in the eastern part of 
the sepulchre, and here again deposited; a mixture 
of dust and mortar was also found in the same 
place, and again deposited." 

Over this lay a box of lead, about seven inches 
long, and six broad, and five deep, wherein were 
several pieces of bones mixed with a little dust, and 
yielding a sweet smell : all these things were carefully 
re-interred in the middle aisle of the minster. 

In the minster is an old stone seat, upon which 
was this inscription : 

Haec Sedes Lapidea Freed-Stoole Dicitur. ie. Pacis 
Cathedra; ad Quam reus fugiendo perveniens omni 
raodam habet securitatem. 
That is: — 
This stone seat is called Freed-Stoole, a chair of 
peace; to which if any criminal flee, he shall have 
full protection. 

In this church are several monuments of the Per- 
cies, Earls of Northumberland, who have added a 
little chapel to the choir. On the right side of the 
altar-place stands the freed-stool, mentioned above, 
made of one entire stone, and said to have been re- 
moved from Dunbar in Scotland, with a well of water 
behind it. At the upper end of the body of the church, 
next the choir, hangs an ancient table, with the pic- 
ture of St. John the Evangelist (from whom the church 
is named) and of King Athelstan the founder of it, 
and between them this distich: 
Als free make I thee. 
As heart can wish, or egh can see. 


King Charles I. coining into the church, and read- 
ing these verses, is reported to have added, 

Even so free be. 

In the body of the church of St. John stands an 
ancient monument, which they call the virgins^ tomb ; 
because two virgins, sisters, lay buried there, who 
gave the town a piece of land, into which any free- 
man may put three milch cows from Lady-day to 
Michaelmas. At the lower end of the body of the 
church stands a fine large font of agate-stone. 

Since Camden and Dr. Gibson wrote, this church 
of St. John of Beverley has undergone a thorough re- 
pair, with some alterations, and is now a most superb 
edifice. The west end is adorned with two lofty 
towers or steeples, and the whole building displays a 
magnificence equal to that of some of our cathedrals. 
The church of St. Mary is also a large and handsome 

The market is held on Saturday. The length of 
Beverley is more than a mile. The entrance from 
Driffield is remarkably fine; a handsome street with 
elegant houses terminates at an ancient gateway.. The 
market-place is spacious and beautiful; the streets 
mostly broad, and the houses large and well-built: 
The number of inhabitants are about 7000. Added 
to the several fairs, the canal cut between this town 
and the Humber is very advantageous in a commer- 
cial point of view. 

The principal trade carried on in Beverley, is mak- 
ing malt, oatmeal, and tanned leather. The cloth- 
ing trade was formerly followed in this town ; but even 
in Leland's time was very much decayed. 

There are four common pastures near the town,, 
containing 1000 acres, in which every burgess or free- 
man may keep twelve head of cattle. There is a kind 
of spa in one of them to the east, called Swine-moor, 
said to be serviceabte in sores, ulcers, &c. Several 
springs run through the town. The sessions are al- 
ways held here , and here is not only a jail, but the 


office which has been established for the regi>ter of ail 
deeds, wills, ike. that affect any lands, 6i'C. pursuant 
to an act of parliament in J 780. 

The common gaol about thirty years ago was re-edi- 
fied at a considerable expence, and the windows well 
sashed; there are seven alms-houses in the town, and 
legacies left for two more, besides a work-house. 

lieverley lias an excellent free-school, to the scho- 
lars of which are appropriated two fellowships at St. 
John's College in Cambridge, six scholarships, and 
three exhibitions. 

Beverley is a borough, and sends two members to 
parliament, and the number of voters have exceeded 
1200. Many persons have been induced to purchase 
their freedom on account of the advantages attached 
to the common pasture gronnd belonging to the town. 
The town is governed by a mayor, twelve aldermen, 
and thirteen of the principal burgesses. 

At Leckonfield, about three miles north fiom Be- 
verley, was a celebrated mansion of the ancient Earls 
of Northumberland, which was taken down in the 
reign of James I. 

CoTTiNGHAM, two milcs north-wcst from New- 
lands, and about six miles from Beverley, contains 
many well built houses, in the manner of country 
villas, which are inhabited by opulent merchants of 
Hull, and the whole place with its vicinity, its plea- 
sure grounds, &c. exhibits the appearance of a well- 
cultivated garden. The church is spacious and hand- 
some, with a stately tower or steeple, rising from its 
centre. Here are also many gardeners, who Carry 
their produce to Hull, and contribute greatly to the 
supply of that place. Castle-hill is at the west side of 
the town, at the end of the north gate. Baynard 
castle, which stood here, was burnt down in 1543, 
and never rebuilt. A fine Gothic building, erecteeJ 
by Thomas Thompson, esq. member of parliament, 
an opulent merchant and banker at Hull, bears the 
name of Cottinghara CastJe. 



Also called KiiTgston-upon-Hull, is situated on tlie 
north side of the Humber, at the mouth of the river 

The high street, formerly called Hull-street, is tho 
most ancient part of the town ; it is above a thousand 
yards in length, but narrow and disagreeable. On 
the east of this street, the houses belonging to opulent 
merchants are elegant; and there are some good 
houses on the west side. The Custom-house stands 
nearly in the middle of the High-street. On the east 
side of this street, a number of stairs, or staiths, run to 
the river. Many of the streets that branch off to the 
south and west, are well built, open and airy. Near 
the south end of the market-place, stands a fine 
equestrian statue of William HL erected in 1734. 
The remains of the Monastery of St. x-Vugustine have 
been removed, the shambles better arranged, and the 
market-place rendered more open and airy. Similar 
improvements have been made at the southern ex- 
tremity of the town, on the banks of the Humher. 
A spacious theatre has also lately been erected. The 
ditches, drawbridges, and other formidable military 
works opposed to Charles L are no longer to be seen, 
being all levelled with the gvound. \\hite Friars is very 
broad and airy, but the narrow alleys on the north 
side, are the abodes of vice and misery. Most of the 
best streets are well-paved with flagged footways. 
The suburbs contain many new streets, and the whole 
town has for many years past displayed all that orna- 
ment and improvement which an extended commerce, 
and an influx of wealth never fail to introduce; and 
bricks have been made here, both for home n?e and 

The bridge over tlie river Hull, commonly called 
the North-bridge, has two handsome arches of free 
stone at each emi, Vs'ith a drawbridge in the mid<lle, 
wide enough to admit any vessels used to coitie into 
this port, and decorated with an innv balustrade ou 


each side, with a flagged path for passengers. From 
the bridge a smooth gravel-walk, nearly three quarters 
of a mile in length, extends outward along the east 
bank of the river Hull to the Humber; and at the 
southern extremity of this walk is an entrance to the 
citadel, close by the south block-house, which is 
situated in the west bastion, at the acute angle formed 
by the rivers Hull and Humber. A formidable battery 
faces the Humber, and in time of war all the em- 
brasures on the mounds facing the water, are gene- 
rally well furnished with cannon: here is also a maga- 
zine, rnd the fortress is surrounded by a ditch filled 
from the haven. In peace a few companies of in- 
valids are lodged in barracks. Steam-boats now ply 
between Hull and Selby. The pubHc buildings in 
Hull, excepting the church of the Holy Trinity, do 
not display any great degree of magnificence ; this is 
stately, large, well proportioned, and of exquisite 
workmanship, fonning one complete range of Gothic 
architecture. The church of St. Mary was built in 
the year 1333, about twenty years after the founda- 
tion of that of the Holy Trinity. It was once much 
larger that it is now; it is well lighted, and is divided 
into three aisles by two rows of Gothic columns : the 
church of St. John is new, being opened for service 
in May 1792. It is built of brick, upon arches raised 
seven feet above the surface, and contains a number 
of vaults for interment. All the windows open at the 
top, and two large patent stoves warm it in winter. 
The pews, containing near 1200 places, are all sold, 
or let. The most ancient of the chapels for Protestant 
Dissenters, is that of the Presbyterians in Bowl- 
alley: the Baptists, Methodists, Roman CathoUcs, the 
Quakers, and Jews, have also their places of worship. 
The Grammar School here, founded in the reign of 
Richard ill., has had several celebrated masters. 
Besides this, there are three Free Schools, a Lancas- 
trian School, and several spinning schools for girls. 

Mr. Wallis in Myton-gate, has a valuable museum 
of curiosities, both natural and artificial, particularly 


a dagger brought from India, said once to have be- 
longed to the great Tamerlane ; a sword of Edward 
the Black Prince, with a large black pommel ; another 
of Henry VIII. ; ornamented with gold, with a large 
assortment of ancient spurs, 6cc. 

The charitable institutions at Hull are numerous, 
and under judicious regulations; as the Trinity-house, 
for decayed seamen and their wives, or widows. In 
this two cunous boats are preserved, one of which 
was taken up on the Greenland coast in the year 
1613, with the clothing and accoutrements of the 
man who was found in it, who refusing to eat, died in 
three days. 

The Trinity-house is a corporation of itself, com- 
posed of a society of merchants. It was begun by 
voluntary contribution, for the relief of distressed and 
aged seamen, and their wives and widows; but was 
afterwards improved by the government, and incor- 
porated. They have a government by twelve elder 
brothers, and six assistants. Out of the twelve they 
choose annually two wardens (but the whole eighteen 
vote in electing them), and two stewards. These 
have a power to decide disputes between masters of 
ships and their crews, in matters relating to sea- 
affairs; with this limitation, that their judgment be 
not contrary to the laws of the land ; but such de- 
ference is paid to it, that in trials at law in such 
affairs, they are often called to give their opinions. 

Near the Trinity-house is an ancient hospital called 
God's House, with a chapel near it; both of which 
were pulled down in the wars of 1643, but rebuilt in 

The Charter-house was founded by Michael de la 
Pole, the first Earl of Suffolk ; the present spacious 
brick edifice was built in the year 1T80. Here the 
poor have commodious apartments, ai»d live in a com- 
fortable manner. Greg's Hospital, Watson's, Harri- 
son's, Weaver's, and Ratcliffe's, were all founded by 
persons whose names they bear. Charity-hall, a spa- 
cious and convenient structure, was erected for the 

i^88 Xoniil AND EAST BlDIMGb. 

residence of the parish poor. The shipping belonging 
to the port, are assessed for poor-rates, and the stock 
ill trade of every person in the town ; and liere is a 
General Intirmary for tlie cure of the sick and lame 
poor, where, in cases of sudden accident, no recom- 
mendation is required. Lastly, here is a Society for 
the Suppression of Vice and Immorality. The whale 
fishery constitutes a prominent feature in the trade of 
Hull, which sends more ships to Greenland than any 
other port in England, London excepted. The inland 
trade of Hull has also been reckoned greater than that 
of any other English port. This extensive and multi- 
farious commerce, naturally causes a considerable in- 
flux of people, and according to the returns of 1811, 
the population of Hull, including Drypool, Sutton, 
and Sculcoates, amounted to 38,000, without the 
fluctuating population at sea. The government of 
Hiili is vested in a Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen; 
the former on all public occasions appears in a rich 
scarlet gown, witii a gold chain round his neck, the 
i.word borne before him erect, &c. li\ fact, the cor- 
poration have two swords ; one a present from King 
Hichard H. and the other from King Henry VHI. one 
of which is carried before the mayor on all public 
occasions, and a cap of maintenance, and oar of 
lignum vitee, as ensigns of honour: the last being also 
a badge of his admiralty within the limits of the 

The environs of Hull for several miles round, pre- 
sent one unifonn level, almost entirely destitute of 
wood, except a few trees thinly scattered; though the 
Humber, froiii two to three miles in breadth, with the 
vessels constantly saihng on its bosom, is a grand 
feature. Sculcoates is so nearly joined to Hull, that 
their respective limits cannot be distinguished by 
strangers. This place is of greater antiquity than 
Hull, being mentioned in Doomsday Book as one of 
the lordships of Roger de Mortimer, lis ancient 
church was taken down in 1761, and rebuilt wholly 
of brick. 


Hull sends two members to parliament, and the 
right of election is in the burgesses from birth or ap- 
prenticeship, or from donation for public service. 
The sheriff is the returning officer, and the number of 
electors is computed at about 2000, and that of the 
houses, 4166. 

Journey from Whitby to York; throvgh Pickerings 
Kirkby Moor-side^ and Hehmley Black'noor. 

WiiiTBY, a town of no small commercial import- 
ance, owes its origin to a famous abbey founded here 
in the year 650, by Oswy, King of Northumberland. 
The original Saxon name of Whitby, was Streanshall. 
This place, with its abbey, was so completely destroyed 
by the Danes in 867, that its very name was lost in 
the ruins, and the place remained desolate till nearly 
the time of the Norman Conquest, when a few huts 
being erected, it took the name of Presteby. Its pre- 
sent name some derive from the original white houses, 
v.hich being seen from sea, occasioned its being called 
White Bay, or Whitby. 

Even in 1540, this town did not contain above 200 
inhabitants, and about forty liouses. The degrees by 
which Whitby rose to its high commercial importance, 
would occupy too much space in their detail for this 
work : the building of the piers, however, have been 
highly instrumental in increasing its consequence as a 
sea-port. Batteries being erected on both these 
works, form a couiplete line of defence to the town 
and harVjour during war time, against the privateers 
and ships of war of an enemy. Whitby is extremely 
cold, and the coast often stormy, like Scarborough; 
notwithstanding these temporary inconveniences, the 
climate is uncommonly healthy. This town stamis 
on two opposite declivities on the banks of the river 
Esk, which forms the harbour. From the number of 
docks, the business of ship-building has been xery 
brisk. Whitby is very closely and irregularly built, 
though the houses of the opulent are spacious and 
elegant. Mobt of the streets are narrow, and here 
c c 


are no public buildings worthy of notice. The Town- 
hall, erected by the late Mr. Cholmley, is a heavy pile 
of the Tuscan order; but the Poor-house is on an 
extensive plan, and being judiciously managed, is a 
comfortable asylum for the distressed. The parish 
church, seated near the top of a hill, is approached 
from the bottom of the vale by an ascent of 190 
stone steps. Near the door of the vestry is a superb 
monument erected in 1772, over the grave of General 
Lascelles, who was a native of WhitlDy. A spacious 
chapel of ease has been erected in the lower part of 
the town, for the convenience of the inhabitants ; 
besides which, there are three others in the country 
places belonging to the parish; one of these, at Sleights, 
is remarkably elegant; Dissenters of various deno- 
minations have also their different places of worship. 
Whitby Abbey uas founded by Oswy, about the year 
655. At the Dissolution, the site of the abbey and its 
lands came into the possession of Sir Richard Cholm- 
ley, a descendant from the Cholmondeleys of Cheshire. 
Of Whitby Abbey nothing remains but the ruins of 
the church, which appear upon a commanding situa- 
tion on a high cliff on the east side of the town, which 
it overlooks, with the river Esk, and a beautiful 
country, the elevations of which, crowned with the 
elegant mansions of the opulent, greatly embellish the 
scenery. The eastern half of the town is the longest, 
being three quarters of a mile in length; but its 
breadth is very inconsiderable. Church-street con- 
stitutes the principal part of this half of Whitby, being 
upwards of half a tnile long. In the north part it is 
extremely crowded, as numbers of populous yards 
climb the steep bank behind, on the sides of which 
houses are seen perched on situations almost inac- 
cessible. To these the ascent is by flights of stone 
steps, often very steep, and sometimes running in a 
zig-zag direction. On the opposite side of the street 
the yards have a descent towards the water. One 
remarkable opening unoccupied, forming a sloping 
square, is called Boulby-bank. To the south of these 


is RipleyVbuildings, erected by the late Mr. John 
Ripley. Another opening a little further south, has 
been filled by Mr. Gideon Sinales, with handsomer 
buildings, rising in parallel ranges one above another. 
The new row of houses near the termination of this 
street, is properly named Prospect-row. The other 
streets on this side the Esk occupy but little ground ; 
those that lie between Church-street and the harbour 
are all small and crowded. 

The western division of Whitby is the largest and 
the most elegant. The low part of the town follows 
the course of the river upward till it approaches Bag- 
dale-beck. Flowergate, Skinner-street, and the New- 
buildings, with the quay or front street of the crag, 
are spacious and convenient. Bagdale, in fine, may 
be numbered among the new streets ; the north side 
is wholly new, and the houses, with small neat gardens 
in front, are finished in a style of superior elegance; 
but Skinner-street is the most regular in the town. 

But though building with brick has generally pre- 
vailed for fifty or sixty years past, within a short 
period, stone has again begun to have the preference. 
The most handsome stone house is that of John 
Campion Coates, esq. built after the plan of the 
Mansion-house in London. Field-house, the seat of 
Christopher Richardson, esq. recently rebuilt, is also 
a stately residence with a stone front, finished in the 
best style of architecture. 

Very interesting views of Whitby may be taken 
from the Larpool road: from that point the New- 
buildings are seen to most advantage, while venerable 
structures that crown the eastern clitl' are also in full 
view. The prospect is nearly as complete fiom Airy- 
hill, Meadow-field, and the vicinity; but probably the 
most romantic view of the town, is that from the 
woody banks of the Esk, beyond Boghall, or from 
the middle of the river, in sailing down the Ruswarp. 

The approach by Bagdale, though more confined, 
is also highly interesting: near the Friends' burying- 
ground it is worth the traveller's while to halt and 
c c 2 


enjoy tlie picturesque scenery before him. On the 
left, half concealed by trees, a portion of the New- 
buildings are highly elevated, with sloping gardens 
before them ; whilst those on the opposite side, with 
Bagdale-water in front, exhibit a pleasing contrast. 
Beyond and above all, is the ancient mansion of the 
Cholinleys, the north front of which is about fifty 
yards in extent. Cholmley-hall was erected by Sir 
Hugh Cholmley in the time of Charles 11. 

There is usually more business done in the shops at 
fairs, and on market-days, than in the market, not 
because the country people then supply themselves 
with groceries, draperies, &c. but because Saturday 
is the grand day of purchase for the town itself, as 
the workmen are usually paid on a Friday night. 
Whitby is furnished with no less than 48 inns, coffee- 
houses, and public-houses. The principal inns are 
tlje Angel, the Golden Lion, and the White Horse. 
What is extraordinary in this large town is, that in 
1816 there was only one resident Jew. 

The Post-oflice is in the Old Market-place: the 
post comes in every morning about nine or ten o'clock, 
and goes out every day at one. 

Two different courts belong to the manor of Whitby: 
the Court Leet, and the Court of Pleas, and Court 
Baron. Whitby contains nine places of worship be- 
longing to seven different sects; among these are one 
for the Friends, and one for the Catholics. Whitby 
church is not yet furnished with an organ; but though 
crowded with galleries, is scarcely sufficient to contain 
the congregation. 

The new quay is furnished with commodious stairs 
for going down into the harbour, on both sides of 
which there are openings at various places, termed 
ghauts or gaiitSy perhaps simply a contraction for go 
out. Some of these are wide enough to allow waggons 
to go down to the ships. Whitby-bridge was com- 
pletely rebuilt on stone pillars in 1768, when it as- 
sumed the form it now wears. 

The population of Whitby is stated by the ingenious 


aiid indefatigable Mr. George Young, in liis History 
of Whitby published in 1817, at 10/203, who noticed 
in one family twelve brothers all seamen; a circum- 
stance perhaps without a parallel. Hitherto Whitby 
has been almost without lamps; but the cheapness of 
gas and its superior utihty, it is hoped, will soon 
remedy all the complaints occasioned by darkness. 

Among the benevolent institutions here, is the 
Seamen's Hospital, which affords a comfortable asylum 
to 42 widows, besides children. The Dispensary was 
opened in 1806; the Female Charity in 1808; and 
the Charity for clothing the Aged Female Poor, about 
the end of 1814, not to mention the Clubs or Benefit 
Societies, Sunday Schools, Bible Societies, &c. 

The present theatre in Scate-lane belongs to a 
number of subscribers. Sometimes this house, when 
well filled, will hold about 500 persons. Balls and 
assemblies are not frequent. To a public library and 
the news room, may be added the botanical garden, 
as a source of innocent and rational instruction. But 
the sale of fruit and sweetmeats on a Sunday, is 
brought forward as a deviation from the precepts of 

The river Esk, that traverses nearly the whole 
breadth of the district, in its progress eastward, re- 
ceives a multitude of lesser streams, issuing from a 
like number of dales. In proceeding up the Esk and 
its branches, we meet w^ith several pleasant villages 
and country seats. Ruswarp, above a mile from 
Whitby, is an agreeable spot. Here is a venerable 
hall, once belonging to the Bushel family, but now a 
farm-house. Above Ruswarp is a level tract called 
the Carrs, a name applied to places occasionally 
overflowed by the sea. 

Sleights is a handsome village, four miles from 
Whitby, with a hall belonging to Mrs. Bateman, once 
the seat of the Burdett family. Aislaby, on a com- 
manding height on the north, is the residence of Mark 
Noble and John Benson, esqrs. In the valley below 
c c 3 


is Esk-hall, the seat of J. C. Coates, esq., aiiA Wood- 
lands, tlie pleasant mansion of H. \V. Yeoman, esq. 

Egton, about eis^ht miles from Whitby, is a po- 
pulous village hi a high and bleak situation; but the 
valley about Limber-hill, and Arnclift' wood, is de- 
lightful. In another sweet spot some miles further, 
is Danby Lodge, belonging to Lord Downe. Near 
the head of a dale below Sleights, is Newton-house, 
built by the late Jonas Brown, esq. On an obelisk 
near the house is a Latin inscription, to commemorate 
his industry and perseverance, in converting wild 
moors into pleasure-grounds. 

Besides the manufacture of alum, the tedious pro- 
cess of which is too long for this work, the coal-pits, 
the lime-works, freestone quarries, and the manu- 
factories of Roman cement, Prussian blue, paper, and 
oil, with the tan-yards, can only be enumerated. The 
fisheries on the const are also an important source of 
wealth and sustenance to the inhabitants; and there 
are at present 28 five-men boats employed on this 
coast, and the number of cobles belonging to the 
three great fishing towns on the coast, are 140. 
These are attached to the large boats, and among 
these are some lobster boats, used near the shore for 
catching lobsters : fishing with nets is rarely practised 
on this coast, except in taking herrings and mackarel. 

Besides the new streets which have been added to 
Whitby since 1817, a splendid house has been erected 
by Edward Chapman, esq. in the vacant space in the 
middle of the New-buildings. Three elegant houses 
have been added to Bagdale, by Mr. Michael Teas- 
dale, and a very handsome house, Clairmont-lodge, 
has been built at High Stakesby, by the Rev. J. T. 
Holloway, A. M. who receives a limited number of 
pupils. All these buildings are of stone. 

The guns belonging to the batteries have been dis- 
mounted since the year 1816, and laid up in the store- 

R. Campion, esq. has constructed a large dry-dock 


in tlie Hiip-yard beyond Spital-bridge, in digging of 
which several oak trees were discovered at a great 
depth from the surface ; one of them measured above 
20 feet long, and 2 feet in diameter. A most inte- 
resting crocodile's head, having the two sockets for the 
eyes very distinct, has also been found near Whitby, 
and is now in possession of Thomas liinderwell, esq, 
of Scarborough. 

Whitby is noted for the great quantity of rocks 
close to the town, called the Ammonite, or Snake 
Stones, which are found in the scar or scair, between 
high and low water-mark. 

Tliis scar or rock is formed by a stratum of alu- 
rnine, nearly level with the surface of the ocean. 
Tlifi snakes are of two sorts, round bodied, fluted or 
inflated, or fiat bodied, ridged on the backs, and pit- 
ted on the sides. The former are most numerous and 
beautiful. The spiral convolutions are from one to 
six or seven inches in diameter. The bivalves, tro- 
chisae, and petrified wood, are also found in great 
abundance. The wood before it acquires hardness by 
drying, will burn freely with a bright flame. Dr. 
Woodward dug up a petrified human arm. In the 
year 1743, a complete human skeleton was found; in 
1758, that of a crocodile; in 1762, that of a horn, 
and about the same time a live toad. About the year 
1750, a complete ossification of part of a human ske- 
leton, consisting of three ribs, with the llesh between 
and within them, was taken up by a gentleman bath- 
ing in the sea on the north side of the pier. 

The foot of these clifts or scars is washed by the 
waves at high water, and the sea retires at low water, 
leaving a dry shore of considerable breadth. 

The shore here is a hard, smooth, flat rock, called 
by the inhabitants the scar; and this is, in a manner, 
overspread with loose, ragged stones, scattered about 
in great disorder aiid confusion. 

As fishing was the original employment of the inha- 
bitants of this place, so there is abundance of fish 
caught, and exclusive of what is cured, the pannier? 


men dispose of great quantities of fresh fish through 
all the places round about, to near 100 miles distance. 

The coasting-trade of Whitby, in time of peace, has 
been very large; the exports are butter, fish, hams, 
tallow, alum, &:c. About 6000 barrels of this butter 
come yearly to London, and 500 barrels of fish to 
the same market. On the other hand they import 
1000 ton of lime from Scarborough, and many thou- 
sand chaldron of coals for the use of the alum works, 
&c. besides a multitude of useful commodities from 
thence; sending thither usually between 40 and 50 
vessels a year. 

They have, in common with the rest of the ports 
upon the coasts, a considerable share in the coal 
trade ; and in time of war are generally much engaged 
in letting out their shipping for the transport service. 

What they import chiefly arc rice, salt, iron, tim- 
ber, hemp, pitch, tar, turpentine, and other bulky 
commodities for their ship-building. 

Exclusive of private agreements among merchants, 
and owners of ships, they have three insurance com- 
panies, to indemnify each other from losses, by sea, 
fire, or vrar; which have excellent effects, and keep 
up a spirit of industry and enterprize, by securing in- 
dividuals from the consequence of hazardous specula- 
tions; which is a point of great importance to a place 
like this, and contributes to the raising many compe- 
tent fortunes, instead of a very few large ones. 

The following melancholy event took place in De- 
cember, 1787. The eastern extremity of the town is 
situated on a strata of alum-rock and free-stone, co- 
vered with a loose soil, that hath gradually accumu- 
lated to the depth of fourteen feet, by lapses in wet 
seasons from an high and steep cliff, running parallel 
to, and at a small distance from, the edge of the pre- 
cipice next the sea. This had imperceptibly formed 
an esplanade, 300 yards long, and 80 in breadth; on 
which, in the year 1761, the foundations of a regular 
street were laid. The buildings rapidly increased to 
the auraber of 130, containing above 1000 inhabi- 


tants. On the north-east point of this plain, stood a 
three gun battery, part of which in 1785 sHtling into 
the sea, the cannon were removed; at the same time, 
a narrow deep chasm of considerable length was ob- 
served to run behind the houses, on a line with the 
base of the high clitf. Into this aperture, the rain 
water entering to co-operate with innumerable quick 
springs below, the seeds of destruction, although 
slightly observed, were diffusely sown, and prepared 
those, not so sanguine in their hopes as the poor peo- 
ple interested, to expect stich a terrible catastrophe as 
happened on the 24th of December. 

At midnight, a strong new built quay, supporting 
a pile of buildings, 80 feet above the margin of the 
sea, unable to sustain the pressure of the earth above, 
menaced approaching danger. The people had hardly 
time to escape with their clothes, before it bowed and 
fell with a thundering crash, followed by large masses 
of earth intermixed with stones of three to six tons in 
weight. Five houses more shared the same fate, torn 
from others which were left impending in different in- 
clinations over the tremendous precipice. Next morn- 
ing presented a most affecting scene; buildings part- 
ing from their adjoining ones, forming rents from their 
roofs to the foundations several feet wide; others 
partly gone, leaving their unsupported walls and hang- 
ing rafters to follow; and, to add to this distress, 
weighty portions of earth and stones began to descend 
from the high cliff upon the house situated at its foot. 
It was now dangerous to advance near, the back 
buildings were soon buried, and the fronts impelled 
towards the street, overhanging their bases, and seem- 
ing to threaten the acceleration of those on the oppo- 
site side over the wasting rock. Upon the high cliff 
about thirty yards from its extremity, stands the massy 
old church, founded eleven hundred years since, by 
one of the Northumbrian kings; this venerable pile 
appeared in imminent danger, as the ground wns ob- 
served to sink at ten yards distance from its tower. 
Had this part of the church-yard given way, a body 


of earth, whose surface contained above two acres, 
must inevitably have overwliehned the remaining; build- 
ings in Henrietta-street. But this view, although 
awful, was little, compared with the atfectinc; excla- 
mations of above 200 poor people, who escaped half- 
naked, with a scanty portion of their goods from the 
general wreck. The feeling heart will easily imagine 
how distressing the appearance of numbers of the sick 
and dying must be, carried by their friends, perhaps, 
to expire in the first hospitable place that would afford 
them shelter. One hundred and ninety-six families 
became destitute, in this inclement season, of house, 
fire, or food. The doors of the humane were thrown 
open, and every comfort administered. One person, 
whose rental amounted to one hundred pounds an- 
nually, could not discover the place on which his 
property stood. 

Two miles north-west from Whitby is Mulorave 
Castle, the seat of Lord Mulgrave. Near the castle, 
on a hill, is a heap of stones, called Waddesgrave, 
supposed by the common people to be the grave of a 
giant who built the castle. 

The ancient castle of Mulgrave having been garri- 
soned by the king's troops, during the Civil Wars in 
the reign of Charles the First, was afterwards disman- 
tled. It is seated on an eminence, the steep declivi- 
ties of which are covered with wood, and being 
strongly fortified by nature, according to the feudal 
times, was eligiby situated for a baronial mansion. 
The present seat, which also bears the name of Mul- 
grave Castle, is at a small distance from the ancient 
building. Tho views are romantic, and the ground 
declining to the south-east, opens a fine prospect to 
the sea. Whitby pier, and the ships coming out of 
the harbour, the venerable ruins of the abbey appear- 
ing high above the horizon, and the black promon- 
tory of Saltwick, contrasted with the white foaming 
billows at its foot, compose altogether a scene equally 
picturesque and interesting. To the south-west is a 
charming view for some miles over lawns and woods, 


agreeably intermixed; and imagination can scarcely 
conceive any thing more delightful than tlie different 
vistas and serpentine roads. 

Two miles west from Whitby is Dunesley, from 
which is a Roman road for many miles over the moors 
to York, called Wade's Causeway. 

Five miles west from Whitby is Eskdale Chapel, 
built on the spot where a hermit was murdered. 

Eskdale Chapel stands in a deep dell, about eighty 
yards south of the river Esk. It measures only about 
thirty-five feet in length, and seventeen in breadth ; 
and seems to have been remarkably plain, and had 
only an earthen floor. It is mentioned in the Whitby 
Chronicle as early as the year 1224; but nothing is 
there said of the founder. According to tradition, the 
hermitage falling to decay, this chapel was erected 
by the descendants of some of the parties concerned. 
After the Reformation, it served for a parochial chapel 
to the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages; but 
growing ruinous, a new chapel has been lately built 
at some distance, to which the seats and other furni- 
ture have been removed; and the old building, by di- 
rection of the bishop, as it is said, has been thatched 
and walled up, to prevent its being prophaned by any 
improper uses. 

A priory of monks was founded in the beginning of 
the reign of King John, in Eskdale, cell to the abbey 
of Grandmont in Normandy, by Joanna, wife of Ro- 
bert Turnham : it was afterwards made denizen, and 
. called Grossmont, or Grandmont. It was given at 
the general suppression to Edward Wright. 

Pickering is an ancient market-town belonging to 
the Duchy of Lancaster, situated on the mountainous 
district of Blackmoor. It is said to have been built 
270 years before Christ, by Penducus, a king of the 
Britons, who was buried here. The ruins of the cas- 
tle are still to be seen. Lcland, in his Itinerary, gives 
the following description of this place. 

'* The town of Pykering is large, but not well com- 


piict together. The greatest part of it, with the paroch 
churcli and castle, is on the south-cast part of the 
broke running through the town, and standith on a 
great shity hille. I'lie other part of the town is not so 
bigge as this. In the church I saw 2 or S tombs of 
the Bruses, one with his wife in a chapel on the soutli 
side of the choir, and he liad a garland about his hel- 
met: another in a chapel under an arch on the north 
side of the body of the choir, and there is a chantry 
bearing his name. 'I'he castle standeth on the brow 
of a hill in an end of the town, not far from the parish 

Pickering is now a long straggling place, and con- 
tains only about 2000 inhabitants, but is pleasantly 
situated on an eminence at the bottom of which runs 
a brook called Pickering-beck. The church is an an- 
cient and spacious building, with a lofty spire. Here 
is a weekly market on Mondays. Here was formerly 

KiRKBY Moou-siDE is a small market-town, eight 
miles west of Pickering, containing about 1 100 inha- 
bitants. The market is on Wednesday. At this place 
George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, after liax ing 
by the most extravagant dissipation squandered away 
his immense patrimonial inheritance, died on the 17th 
day of April, 1687, in extreme indigence. The pa- 
rish register is literally as follows: 


1687. April 17th. George Vilaus, Lord Dooke of 

The house in which he died is in the market-place, 
and is now occupied by a respectable family of the 
name of Atkinson. The Duke was about sixty years 
of age when he died, and the room, a common cham- 
ber with a deal floor, is still shewn to the curious. — 
There is no ground for. supposing this house to have 
been an inn, as represented in the following lines by 
Pope, though no person knows even in what part of 


the church-yard this unfortunate nobleman uas bu- 

In the worst inn's worst room, with mat half hung, 
The floor of plaister, and the walls of dung, 
On once a flock bed, but repair'd with straw, 
With tape-tied curtains, never meant to draw, 
The George-and-garter dangling from the bed, 
Where tawdry yellow strove with dirty red, 
Great Villiers lies ! — Alas ! how chang'd from him 
That life of pleasure, and that soul of whimi 
Gallant and gay in Cliefden's proud alcove, 
The bower of wanton Shrewsbury and love; 
Or just as gay, at council, in a ring 
Of mimick'd statesmen, and their merry king. 
No wit to flatter left of all his store, 
No fool to laugh at, which he valued more. 
There victor of his health, of fortune, friends, 
And fame, the lord of useless thousands ends. 

About a mile west of Kirkby Moor-side, so called 
from its vicinity to Black-moor, stands Kirkdale 
church, at the southern extremity of the vale. This 
is a place of some importance on account of its anti- 
quity, and very ancient Saxon inscription. The si- 
tuation of the church is thus described by Mr. Brooke, 
of the Herald's College, F.S.A. in a letter to Mr. 
Gough, read at the Society of Antiquaries, January 
16, 1777 : — " The situation of Kirkdale church (says 
he), is extremely beautiful and romantic, though the 
building itself makes but a mean appearance, having 
little worth observation, except the inscription, either 
externally or within. It is situated in a fruitful vale, 
surrounded with hanging woods, and watered with 
a brook : the w hole secluded from the world, being 
far removed from any inhabitants, and well adapted 
to give us an idea of the wisdom and piety of our 
Saxon ancestors, in chusing for such a purpose a si- 
tuation so well calculated to inspire with devotion." 
The inscription is over the south door, on a stone, 
stveu IJect by two, and is as follows, viz, 


Onn, GaniursSuna, bohte Sanctus Gregorius Minster 
thoune hit xcus al lo brocan Sf to Falun. Chehitle &• 
Man ncican from groundes Christe Sf Sanctis Grego- 
rius in Eadzvard dagum cug in Tosti dagujii Earl. 

i. e. " Orm, Gamul's son, bought St. Gregory's 
church, when it was all ruined and fallen down. Che- 
hitle and others renewed it from the ground to Christ 
and St. Gregory in Edward's days, the king, and Tos- 
ti's days the earl." 

Under the dial is: 

And Hay ward me wroht Brand Pr$ 
This is dages Sa;l meria 
To Sunna tilliim Wenteres. 

I. e. And Ilawarth me made and Brand the priest. 
This is a draft exhibiting the time of day, 
While the sun is passing to and from the 
Winter Solstice. 

According to Mr. Gough, the date of this inscrip- 
tion must be before Tosti Earl of Northumberland, 
and 4tii son of Goodwin Earl of Kent, was slain at 
Stamford bridge, near York, 1066, and between 1056 
and 1065. The architecture of the church is Ante- 
Normanic. Orm had large possessions in Kirkby in 
the North Riding, Rydale wapentake, which entitled 
him to the rank of Thane, and he married Etheldrith, 
one of the five daughters of the Earl of Northumber- 
land. William the Conqueror gave his estates to Hugh 
Fitz-Baldin. They were afterwards possessed by Ro- 
ger de Estoteville and Nigil de Albini, the Lords Wake 
and Latimer. 

About four miles north-east of Kirkby Moor-side, 
nnd at the edge of the moors, is a village called Les- 
TiNGHAM, where was formerly a Benedictine monas- 
tery, founded by Cedde or Chad, bishop of the East 
Saxons or London, about the year 648. The church 
is very ancient and large, considering the obscure 
place in which it stands, and has probably belonged 
to or been part of the monastery. 

Helmsley, called Hclmsly-Blackmoor, about five 


miles south-west froin Kivkby Moor-side, is situated 
in a valley called Rhidaie, on the side of the river 
Hhye; the houses built of stone. A considerable 
trade is carried on by the inhabitants in cottons and 
linens. Here are the remains of a castle which ap- 
pears to have been during the troubles of Charles I. 
in a defensible state: as the Parliamentary Chronicle, 
entitled, " The Burning Bush not consumed," informs 
us, that Helmsley Castle, being besieged by Lord 
Fairfax, a party of the royal horse advanced from 
Skipton and Knaresborough to its relief; but being 
repulsed, November 12, and a quantity of meal, salt, 
and other provisions for the castle, taken about the 
20th November, 1644, it surrendered upon articles, 
with all the ordnance, arms, stores, and ammunition, 
except what the garrison marched out with, according 
to agreement. In it were about 200 men, nine pieces 
of ordnance, 300 musquets and pikes, six barrels of 
powder, with a great deal of money, plate, and other 

Buncombe Park, the beautiful seat of Charles 
Slingsby Duncombe, esq. is situated one mile west 
from the town of Helmsley. 

One mile furtlier west, are the remains of Rieval, or 
RiEVAULX Abbey, founded for Cistertians, by Wal- 
ter Espee, in the year 1131: this noble vestige of an- 
tiquity is situated at the distance of about three miles 
from Duncombe Park. Its situation is thus described, 
and its history related in Burton's Monasticon : 

**In the reign of King Henry the First, flourished 
St. Bernard, Abbot of Clareval; a man full of devo- 
tion, and chief of many monks, some of whom he sent 
into England about A. D. 1128, the twenty-eighth of 
Henry the First, who were honourably received by 
both king and kingdom; and particularly by Sir Wal- 
ter UEspe, who, about A. D. 1131, allotted to some 
of them a solitary place in Blakemore, near Hamelac, 
now Helmsley, surrounded by steep hills, and covered 
with wood and ling, near the angles of three different 
vales, with each a rivulet running throuch them, that 
Dd 2 


passing by where the abbey was built, being called 
Hie, whence this vale took its name; and this reli- 
gious house was thence called the Abbey of Rie-val. 
The descent of this valley reaches chiefly from north 
to south. Here William, the first abbot, one of those 
monks sent by St. Bernard, a man of great virtue and 
excellent memory, began the building of the monas- 
tery, dedicating it to the V'irgin Mary; which the said 
Walter L'Espe amply endowed. 

"Pope Alexander the Third, who reigned from 
A. D. 1159 to 1131, by his bull, dated A.^D. IIGO, 
took this monastery into his immediate protection, 
enjoining that the Cistertian order should there con- 
tinue for ever, confirming to them all their possessions, 
many of which are there specified (being all, I sup- 
pose, which at that time had been given to them) and 
exempted them from paying tythes; forbidding all 
persons to detain any of the brethren of the house; 
charging all bishops not to interdict them, unless for 
some notorious offence; allowing them to perform the 
divine office in private, although the county should 
happen to be under an interdict : declaring any per- 
son excommunicate who should presume to steal any 
thing o.ut of their lands, or take any man thence; and 
confirming all the immunities granted to them by King 
Henry the First and Henry the Second. 

" Pope Alexander the Fourth, who reigned from 
A. D. 1254 to liJGl, confirmed their exemption from 
tythes; explaining, that such exemption extended also 
to the tythes of such newly-cultivated ground (decimas 
de novalibus) as they should occupy, or be at the ex- 
pence of improving. 

" At the Dissolution, here were 110 fodder of lead, 
516 ounces of plate, and five bells. 

" The valuation, in the twenty-sixth of Henry the 
Eighth, A. D. 1534, according to Dugdale, amounted 
to the sum of 278/. 10s. Qd. per annum. According 
to Speed, o51/. 14s. 6d. At the surrender here were 
twenty-three monks and the abbot. 

" The site was granted, in exchange for other Innds, 


in the thirtieth of Henry tlic Eighth, 1538, to Thomas, 
Earl of Rutland, a descendant of Waher L'Espe, the 
founder of the abbey ; and, by Catharine, daughter 
and heir of Roger, Earl of Rutland (by EHzabeth, 
daughter and heir of the famous Sir Philip Sydney) 
married to George Villars, Duke of Buckingham, who, 
in her right, became possessed hereof; and his son, 
the second Duke of Buckingham, sold it to Sir Charles 
Duncombe, knight." Burton adds, that Thomas Dun- 
combe, esq. grand nephew of Sir Charles, and M. P. 
for Morpeth, made " one of the finest terraces in Eng- 
land, just upon the brink of the hill that overlooks 
the ruins of the abbey, and a temple at each end of 
the walk ; from whence, there is a most beautiful view 
of the ruins almost perpendicularly underneath." 

The ruins, yet standing, are noble, (particularly an 
arched gateway of Gothic architecture) and prove the 
abbey to have been of great extent. The situation is 
not to be surpassed in picturesque beauty. At a lit- 
tle distance from the abbey, are the gardener's apart- 
ments, from whence there is a steep and winding path, 
ascending to a charming terrace, which overlooks the 
ruins, and commands the most beautiful and diversi- 
fied prospects. At one end is an elegant paviUon or- 
namented with paintings, at the other, a handsome 
circular temple, whence appears an extensive valley, 
richly adorned with wood and water. The north side 
of the terrace is defended with a thick plantation of 
firs; and the slopes are covered with a variety of trees 
and shrubs. Indeed the scenery is altogether fasci- 

In the pavilion are the following paintings: " Apollo 
riding in the chariot of the Sun, drawn by tour horses ; 
he is attended by the Muses, and preceded by the 
goddess Aurora. Hero, a beautiful woman of Sestos, 
priestess of Venus. Andromeda chained to a rock, 
and exposed naked to be devoured by a sea monster. 
Ariadne, daughter of Minos, king of Crete. Hercules 
and Dejanira. Ju})iter, in the form of a white bull, 
swimming over the sea with Europa on his back. 
D d 3 


Venus and V^ulcan; on one side are three Nereides, 
on the other Triton blowing a trumpet made of a sea- 
sheli ; a Cupid is pointing a dart at Vulcan's breast, 
another has a quiver of arrows, and a third carries a 
flaming torch. Pan fighting with Cupid; his pipe, of 
unequal reeds, is suspended on one tree, and Cupid's 
bow and quiver on the other. Endymion visited by 
Diana in a cave; Endymion's dog lies under his knee ; 
and the goddess's hounds are standing by; in the 
back ground are two Cupids with doves, one of which 
is escaped. The whole painted by Burnici, who came 
from Italy for that purpose." Hindervvell's Hist. Scar- 
borough, p. 344. 

At Gilling, about five miles from Helmsley, there is 
an ancient castle, the seat of the family of Fairfax, 
Three miles east from Gilling is Hovingham, anciently 
the seat of the great Roger de Mowbray. It has since 
belonged to the VVorsley family. In the gardens of 
Thomas Worsley, esq. in 1745, was discovered a Ro- 
man hypocaust, and in another place, a small tesse- 
lated pavement. There were also found, in making 
the gardens, considerable remains of buildings, evi- 
dently proving the spot to have been the site of a 
Roman villa. 

Mr. Cough thinks it probable that a vicinal way 
went from Maltoa (the Camalodunium of Ptolemy), 
through this village, near Earsley-moor, through 
Easingvvold, Alne, and over the river Ure, at Ald- 
wark Ferry, to Aldborough. There are also two vil- 
lages, called Burton-on-the-Street and Jppleton-on- 
the-Streetf on the line of this road. Hovingham, 
though flat in its ow n situation, has a delightful hilly 
country round it, and a rill of excellent water runs 
through the village, and gardens, above-mentioned. 
The bath was twelve feet by eleven, lined with a 
plaister composed of various hard ingredients. At 
one corner a leaden pipe carried off the water into a 
drain. The hypocaust, adjacent to the -west side of 
it, whose pillars, one of which was 21 feet high, of 
bricks nine inches square, the rest, of smaller dimen- 


sions, supported a tesselated floor, while hollow bricks, 
placed round tlie outside pillars, conveyed the hot air 
into the sweating-rooms and circular V^aporarium. 
About 250 feet west from the bath was another tes- 
selated pavement, six feet by eight ; and near the 
bath were found coins of various Roman emperors, 
from Antoninus Pius to Constantine. 

The residue of the country from hence to York, 
Hatfield Hall excepted, we have already described 
in a former journey. This is at present the seat of Sir 
John Kaye, and is situated about five miles from 
Wakefield, and ten from Leeds. Its exterior resem- 
bles the modern Gothic. 

Journey from Bozces to Boroughbridge ; through 

Bowes is situated on the edge of Stanemore, near 
the north point of the county, in that part of it called 
Richmondshire, on the banks of the river Greta, and 
consists principally of one street, nearly three quarters 
of a mile long from east to west. 

Bowes, though now a very inconsiderable place, 
was once a Roman station, and in a late enclosure of 
the common lands of the parish, an ancient aqueduct 
was discovered, which had conveyed water from a 
place called Levar or Levy-Pool, near two miles 
distant from the castle, which was sufficient at once 
to supply the garrison with fresh water, and also the 

A stone, with an inscription on it dedicatory to the 
Emperor ^^drian, long served as a communion-table 
in the parish church. 

At the time of the Conquest there were the remains 
of a town here, that had been destroyed by fire. It 
then belonged to the Earls of Bretagne and Richmond. 

The castle, the walls of which still remain, was 
erected by Alan, first Earl of Richmond, in the time 
of William the Conqueror, upon the site of the Roman 
fortification, near the old High-street, which led from 
the Cataractonicumj another Roman station. This 


castle is 53 feet high, built of hewn stone of excellent 
workmanship, forming a square of equal sides, 81 feet 
each. The windows are irregular, and the walls, 
which are cemented with lime, mixed with small 
flints, are near five feet in thickness ; it is now much 
defaced, the outward casing being stripped off in 
many places. It is situated on the brow of a hill, 
precipitously declining to the southward, at the foot 
of which runs the river Greta; it is surrounded by a 
deep ditch, beyond which, on the southern side, is an 
open area, a platform extending from the castle moat 
ninety paces, and from east to west 100 paces. On 
examination this is indisputably proved to be the 
remains of the Roman station,' the vallum having 
formed a strong outwork to the ca&tle, of great height 
towards the south. 

About two miles from Bowes is a singular curiosity, 
called God's-bridge, being a natural bridge of lime- 
stone rock, where, through a rude arch, sixteen feet 
in the span, the river Greta precipitates its waters; 
the way formed on the crown of this rock is about 
twenty feet wide, and is the common carriage-road 
over the river. 

About five miles from Bowes is Rokeby Hall, a 
beautiful modern building, in the Italian style, of 
veined freestone, erected by Sir Thomas Robinson. 
This place is extremely beautiful, and well desernng 
the particular notice of the traveller of taste. 

Greta Bridge, is a small village, taking its name 
from a bridge of one arch over the river Greta, which 
soon after runs into the Tees. 

About a mile and a half north from Rokeby-Hall, 
are the venerable remains of Athelstan Abbey, si- 
tuated on an eminence near the river Tees. The 
walls are much disunited, and just serve to distinguish 
that their original form was a cross. The east window 
remains perfect. 

Catterick is a place of great antiquity, and either 
the site or very nearly so ot a Roman station. Mr. 
Gough says the Roman town was in the fields of 


Thornborough House, about half a mile from Cat- 
terick-bridge, and on the south side of i\ie river. A 
great many coins and other Roman remains have been 
discovered here. 

About three miles from Catterick, is Horxby 
Castle, a seat of the Duke of Leeds. Four miles 
from hence is Bedale, a small market-town, situate 
on a rivulet that runs into the river Swale, near 
Galenby. This place is famous for the breed of 
horses. The market is on Tuesday. 

About six miles west from Bedale is Middllham, 
a small town, formerly supported by its market, but 
this has very much declined of late. An open square, 
forming a large market-place, is the principal part uf 
the town. It is situated on the side of a hill, above 
which appears its most striking feature, the remains 
of its once-magnificent castle. 

Near Coverbridge is Coveriiam or Corham, where 
there was formerly an abbey of Premonstratetian ca- 
nons, founded by Radulph, son of the Earl of Rich- 
mond, about the middle of the thirteenth century. The 
ruins of the abbey are scattered about in Coverdale, 
so called from the river, in a spot dreary and uncom- 
fortable: a house has been built of the materials, and 
most of the neighbouring cottages appear decorated 
with spoils from this or some other religious house. 

The remains of Jervaulx, or Jervoix Abbey, are 
situated upon the southern side of the river Yore. 

Masham, about seven miles south-east from Mid- 
dleham, has a handsome church, and a fine spire. It 
is a small manufacturing town. 

At Tanfield, two miles sonth from Masham, near 
the church, is an ancient castle, which in early times 
belonged to the family of Fitzhugh. In the eighth of 
King Edward II. John, Lord Marmion, had licence 
from the king to make a castle of his house, called 
the Hermitage, situated in Tanfield Wood, which 
castle seems to be a distinct building from that near 
the church. Respecting the building or demolition 
of the castle, little or nothing can be collected, either 


trom historical records or tradition. The latter indeed 
says, that when Fairfield Castle was destroyed, the 
materials were purchased by several of the surround- 
ing gentry, and the Earl of Exeter's house at Shape, 
and the seat of the Wandisfords, at Kirklington, were 
built with them. The part now standing appears to 
have been a gate-house. 

Hackfall is about three miles from Masham. 

About four miles south from Masham is West 
Tanfield, of which Leland gives the following de- 
scription in his Itinerary : " Great Tanfeld^ where is 
a castle on a banke longith to Lord Parrs, and stond- 
ith on Ure. Tanfelde Castel longid to the Lord 
Marmion, and so came to the Fitzhughs. 

" The tounlet of West Tanfeld, standith on a 
diving ground hard by Ure, a river of colowr for the 
next part of Soden water, by reason of the colowr 
and the morish nature of the soile of Weneedale, 
from whens it cometh. In the church of West Tan- 
feld be divers tombes in a chappelle on the north side 
of the church, of the Marraions, whereof one is in an 
arch of the wauUe, and that seemeth most auntient. 
Then lyith ther alane a ladye with the apparel of a 
vowes, and anothe layde with a crownet on her hedde. 
Then is ther an high tomb of alabaster in the 
middle of the chapel, wher, as I hard say, lyith one 
Lorde John Marmion. And in the south side of the 
chapel is another tombeofthe Marmions buried alone. 
Ther is a master and two cantuaria priests at West 
Tanfelde of the foundation of one of the Marmions, 
and there is another centaurie besides these. The 
castelle of Tanfelde, or rather, as it is now a mean 
manor place, standith hard on the ripe of Ure, wher 
I saw no notable building, but a faire tourid gate- 
house, and a hall of squared stone." 

This gate still remains at the west end of the 
church-yard. But Leland says, *' or ever he cam to 
West Tanfelde he passed by fery for lak of bridge." 
There is now a stone bridge over the river just at the 
entrance into the town. 


From hence to Boroughbridge nothing particular 
occurs which we have not alread)' noticed in a former 

Journey from Howden to Market AVeighton. 

How DEN is a large market-town, situated on the 
north side of the Ouse, and is famous for its horse- 
fairs in July and October. 

Here was formerly a collegiate church, of five pre- 
bendaries. The church is an ancient building, sup- 
posed to have been erected about the year 1100. 
Mr. Pennant says, " Howden, a small town, is dis- 
tinguished by the ruin of its fine church, in form of a 
cross, length 251 feet, transept 100 feet, east part 
quite a ruin ; its windows quite superb and elegant, 
arches pointed, columns adorned with fluting between. 
Tracery of side windows various. The entrance to 
the east part of the centre three doors well orna- 
mented, two niches each side the chief. A great 
altar-tomb against a pillar, with several arms, bene- 
factors, &c. A pain-stone, Hie jacet Gwillelmus 
Maddi. A coffin lid, a cross on it, sides inscribed — 
Hie requiescunt visecra Walteri Skirlaw, &c. He is 
said to have built the steeple, at least the upper part of 
it, 1390. The Chapter-house is a beautiful octagon, 
the tracery of the windows light and fine ; the inside 
has 30 stalls, each under a Gothic arch ; both those 
and the back of the stalls enriched with beautiful 
sculpture; over the door two rows of six niches each. 
The roof fell in, through neglect, twenty years ago. Be- 
tween the windows, on the outside, are several shields 
of arms. In the side chapel, called Metham's Altar, 
is a tomb beneath an enriched Gothic arch. On the 
cross is a coal of arms; on the floor is a fine tomb of 
a knight cross-legged, a shield, a mantle, his neck 
and head bare, short hair; mourners and religious in 
niches round the tomb, and one person with a falcon. 
A lady in a loose gown, cross-legged ; another cross- 
legged knight, his head, cheeks, and neck, guarded 
with chain armour sticking quite close, a fillet 


round his head, his breast set with roses. The 
mansion-house ot" the Bishops of Durham, who are 
lords of the manor, is near the east-end of the church, 
once a large pile, some part demolished ; several arms 
here. A great vault, perhaps a cloister, is still stand- 
ing ; beliind the house is a large square piece of land, 
moated round ; in it is a canal and several trees, pos- 
sibly once the garden and orchard." 

Roger of Hovedon, or Hovvden, the historian, was 
a native of this town. 

Four miles north-west from Howden is Hemings- 
BOROUGH, once a market-town. The church is one of 
the handsomest in the county, and was made colle- 
giate by the prior and monks of Durham in the year 
14'26, for a provost, three prebendaries, &c. 

Four miles north-west from Howden is Wkessle 
Castle, anciently belonging to the Earls of Nor- 
thumberland. This relic of feudal grandeur is situated 
about four miles north-west from Howden, on a gently 
rising ground, witliin two hundred yards of the east 
bank of the Derwent, and elevated above that river 
just as much as is sufficient to be secure from the 
inundations, which frequently cover the adjoining 
marshes to a very considerable extent. The prospects 
wliich the towers of this once magnificent castle could 
command are wholly unpicturesque, as the surround- 
ing country, though mostly fertile, presents not the 
least variety of surface. 

It appears from the Doomsday-book that Gilbert 
Tyson had part of the manor of VVressle; but from 
the time of that survey we find no mention of this 
place till the year 1315, the ninth of Edward II. when 
it is marked in the record called "Nomina Villarum" 
as one of the lordships of William de Percy. The 
time when the castle was built is not precisely ascer- 
tained ; butLeland ascribes its foundation to Thomas 
Percy Earl of Worcester, in the time of Richard II., 
and Mr. Savage thinks that the aera may be fixed to 
some part of the period between the years 1380 and 
1390, when that nobleman; having grown into favour 


With tlje king, and obtained a considerable share in 
the direction of pubUc affairs, might probably erect 
this monument of his greatness. This earJ, with his 
nephew, Henry Hotspur, son of Henry Percy Earl of 
Northumberland, rebelling against King Henry IV, 
was taken prisoner at the battle of Shrewsbury, 
A.D. 1403, and was beheaded the next day; and in 
consequence of that event his estates became forfeited 
to the crown. The king, after retaining Wressle some 
time in his own hands, gave it to his son John Duke 
of Bedford, who died possessed of it in the year 1434, 
the twelfth of Henry VI. and left it to that king, 
his nephew and heir. The inhabitants of Wressle 
have a current tradition, that all the men capable of 
bearing arms in that parish were with the Earl of 
Northumberland at the battle of Chevy Chace, where 
most of them were slain. Dr. Percy says that the 
first Earl of Northumberland fought the battle of 
Chevy Chace; but the well-known song of that name 
has been embellished with several circumstances re- 
lating to the battle of Otterburn. 

Thomas Percy, knight, son of Henry Percy second 
Earl of Northumberland, was created baron Egremont, 
on 20lh Nov. 1449; and in the year 1457 he obtained 
a grant of the castle and lordship of Wressle to hold 
during his life. It is probable that the next possessor 
was ISi evil Lord Montague, brother of the famous Earl 
of Warwick, who being created Earl of Northumber- 
land, by king Edward IV. in the year 1463, had all the 
estates of the Percys granted to him. But in 1469 
Edward revoked that grant, and restored Henry Percy, 
the fourth Earl of Northumberland, to the honours and 
estates of his ancestors. This castle and manor conti- 
nued in the Percy family till the death of Josceline, the 
eleventh Earl of Northumberland, who dying May 21, 
1670, without issue male, the title of Earl of Northum- 
berland became extinct ; but the barony of Percy de- 
scended to his daughter tlie lady flli/abeth Percy, who 
in 1682 married Charles Seymour Duke of Somerset, 
i: e 


and transmitted to that family a very rich inheritance, 
in which was included the lordship of Wressle. The 
Seymours continued lords of this place till the year 
1750, when the Duke of Somerset dying, his estates 
were separated j those which came by the lady Percy 
being divided between Sir Hugh Smithson, baronet, 
who married the duke's daughter, and succeeded to 
the title of Northumberland, and Sir Charles Wind- 
ham, baronet, his grace's nephew, who succeeded to 
the title of Earl of Egremont. To this nobleman fell 
the Yorkshire estates of the Percys, among which 
were the lordship and castle of Wressle ; and his son, 
the present Earl of Egremont, is now the proprietoi-. 
Leland describes Wressle castle as built of very 
large squared stones, a great part of which was sup- 
posed to have been brought out of France. The 
whole building was a quadrangle with five towers, one 
at each corner, and the fifth over the gateway. He 
says that it was moated round on three sides, but 
without any ditch on the fourth, by which was the 
entrance; and he considers it as one of the most su- 
perb houses to the north of the Trent. It also ap- 
pears that its noble possessors paid some attention to 
letters. For Leland in his description says, "One 
thing I likid exceedingly ; yn one of the Toures ther 
was a study called Paradise, wher was a closet in the 
middle of eight squares latisid aboute, and at the top 
of every square was a desk ledgid to set bookes on 
books on cofers within them ; and this semid as joined 
hard to the toppe of the closette, and yet by pulling 
one or al wolde cum down briste highte in rabbettes 
and serve for desks to lay bookes on. The garde robe 
yn the castelle was exceedingly fair. And so wer the 
gardens within the mote and the orchardes withowt. 
And in the orchardes were mountes " Opere topiario" 
writhen about with degrees like turninges of cockle 
shells to cum to the top withowt payn. The river of 
Darwent rennith almost harde by the castelle, and 
aboute a mile lower uoith into the Owse. This ryver 


at greate raynes ragltb, and overfloweth mucli of the 
ground thereaboutes being loue medowes. There is 
a park harde by the castelle." 

In this castle the Earls of Northumberland displayed 
a magnificence resembling, and scarcely inferior to 
that of the royal court. Their household was esta- 
blished on the same plan : their officers bore the same 
titles, and their warrants ran in the same style. AW 
the chief officers of the Earl of Northumberland's 
household, such as the comptrollers, clerks of the 
kitchen, chamberlain, treasurer, &c. were gentlemen 
both by birth and office; and the table at which they 
dined was called the knight's board. 'I'he number of 
priests who were kept in this household were not 
fewer than eleven, at the head of whom was a doctor 
or bachelor of divinity ; and there was also a com- 
plete establishment of singers, choristers, &:c. for the 
service of the chapel. The household book of the 
Percys exhibits a curious display of the magnificence 
of our ancient nobility; and as the number of the 
Earl of Northumberland's servants, who were in ordi- 
nary waiting at his lordship's castles of Wressle and 
Leckonfield, shew the grandeur of the feudal times, 
we shall give the following list from Mr. Savage's ex- 

"Gentlemen who wait before noon, six; yeomen 
and grooms of the chamber who wait before noon, 
ten; yeomen officers, four; groom off.cers, four; ser- 
vants to wait in the great chamber in the morning 
from six till ten o'clock, twenty; gentlemen to wait 
in the afternoon, seven; yeomen of the chamber, yeo- 
men waiters, and grooms of the chamber to wait in 
tlie afternoon, seven ; yeomen officers of the house- 
hold to wait in the afternoon, four; gentlemen to 
wait after supper, thirteen ; yeomen of the chamber, 
yeomen waiters and groom officers and grooms of the 
chamber to wait after supper, seventeen; yeomen of 
the household and groom officers of the household, 
which shall not attend after supper, eight ; chaplains 
and priests, eleven; gentlemen and children of the 
E e 2 


chapel attending daily at matins, lady mass, high mass, 
and evening song, seventeen ; yeomen officers, groom 
officers, and grooms in household, not appointed to 
attend because of their otiier business which they at- 
tend daily in their offices in the house, twenty-seven; 
an armourer ; a groom of the chamber to the lord Percy 
to wait hourly in his cliamber; a second groom for 
brushing and dressing his clothes; a groom of the 
chamber to his lordship's two youngest sons; a groom 
of the stirrup ; a groom sumpter man, to dress the 
sumpter horses and my lady's palfreys ; a groom to 
dress the hobbys and nags; a groom to keep the 
hounds ; a groom miliar for grinding corn for baking 
and brewing; a groom porter for keeping the gates; 
agroom for driving his lordship's chariot; a keeper of 
the chariot horses; clerks of the household not ap- 
pointed daily to attend because of making their books, 
■which they are charged with to write upon hourly, seven ; 
servant belonging to gentlemen in his lordship's house, 
ten; servants and gentlemen's servants not appointed 
to wait because of their other business, which they 
attend on daily for his lordship, forty-four; in all two 
hundred and twenty-nine." 

The household book of the Percys is extremely 
scarce ; but the whole economy of their numerous 
family, the prices of the different articles of house- 
keeping, and a variety of other curious particulars 
illustrative of their mode of living, may be seen in 
Savage's History of Wressle Castle. 

The Civil War in the reign of Charles I. proved 
fatal to this magnificent castle. During that unfor- 
tunate contest it was garrisoned by the Parliamenta- 
rians; and though the Earl of Northumberland had 
espoused their cause with considerable activity, yet 
the losses which he sustained from his own party, were 
almost incredible. By an account taken at Michael- 
mas 1646, it appeared that the damages done by the 
garrison to his lordship's buildings, woods, enclosures, 
&.C. with the losses arising from the non-payment of 
his rents, in consequence of the contributions levied 


on his tenants, amounted to 42,55iL a sum more than 
equivalent to 500,000/. in the present century. And 
after all the zeal which the Earl of Northumberland 
had shewn for their cause, an order was issued in 
1650 for dismantling Wressle Castle, and rendering it 
untenable, by demolishing three sides of the quadrangle 
and throwing down all the battlements. It was also 
required that windows of eight feet in breadth and 
height, and only eight feet asunder, should be broken 
out all round the remaining side, and that the de- 
molition should take place before the 17th day of 
May. ]n consequence of these orders, three sides of 
the square which composed this castle were demolish- 
ed: the south side alone, which contained some of the 
principal state rooms, was left standing, to serve as a 
manor-house ; but even this part was, by throwing 
down the battlements, deprived of its former majestic 
appearance : however, the whole south-front was the 
most considerable, and contained some of the principal 
state-rooms. It was flanked by two large square towers, 
and these again were mounted by circular turrets of a 
smaller size: upon the top of one of the turrets was 
preserved the iron pan of the beacon anciently used 
to alarm the country. 

The chapel is now used Instead of the parish church, 
which was situated about a bow-shot from the castle. 
Of this one ruined end wall only remains, in which at 
present hang two bells. The pulpit now stands on a 
pedestal upon the great stone altar of the chapel, and 
the communion is administered on a table in the 
middle of the room. Wressle Castle is at present the 
property of the Earl of Egremont. 

It appears that after this demolition, Wressle Castle 
was not long used as the mansion ol its lords. It was 
occupied as a farm-house till the year 1790, when an 
accidental fire, which broke out on the 19th of Fe- 
bruary, completed its destruction; and the naked 
walls are now the only remains of this once noble 

E e 3 


** Yet though deserted and in ruin grey, 
The suns of morn upon thy relics stream, 
And evening yields thy wall her blushing ray, 
And Cynthia visits with her silver beam." 

Peter Pindar. 

About three miles to the north of Wressle is Bub- 
with, in Doomsday-book called Bubvid, and remark- 
able only for being the birth-place of Nicholas de 
Bubnith, Bishop of Bath and Wells; who was one of 
the English prelates that attended the Council of 
Constance, where John Huss and Jerome of Prague 
were condemned to the flames. This village is seated 
almost close to the east bank of the Derwent, which 
frequently overflows the marshes on the opposite side 
to a great extent. These inundations fertilize the 
rich meadows, but render the air somewhat humid. 
In this parish the ratio of mortality appears to be 
about one in forty-three, which marks a degree of 
salubrity, inferior to that which is found in country 
villages in several other situations. A bridge has 
been lately built at this place over the Derwent, and 
a direct turnpike road made from Selby to Market- 
Weighton, which affords a great convenience to this 
part of the country. 

Hr.MiNGBRouGH, before noticed, is a village in the 
wapentake of Ouse and Derwent, situated about four 
miles nearly west from Wressle, and about six miles and 
a half north-west from Howden ; is remarkable for its 
church, which has a beautiful spire rising forty-two yards 
above the battlements, and forming a very conspicuous 
object in this low and level country. This church is 
well built, having three aisles and a transept; and the 
stone is all of one kind, except in part of the north 
side, and west end, which are of a different sort of 
grit from the rest, and are supposed to be the remains 
of a Roman fort. Dr. Stukeley expressly says that 
the Romans had a fort in this place; and this appears 
more probable from its situation, being within little 
more than 100 yards of the whole course of the Ouse, 


which made here a remarkably zi^-zag and circuitous 
winding, but now runs almost half a mile to the west 
of the village. At Babthorpe in this parish the an- 
cient family of the Bapthorpes flourished during the 
space of many centuries. 

Journey from Bridlington to Hull; through Great 
Driffield and Beverley. 

Bridlington, which is about a mile from the sea, 
consists chiefly of one long street, extending along the 
southern declivity of a small elevation. Towards the 
north the country rises for more than a mile by a 
gentle ascent. At the west end of the town are fertile 
meadows and pasture grounds, and on the east is a 
small plain^ extending to the sea. 

At the east end of the town stood the priory, 
founded by Walter de Gaunt, in the early part of 
Henry I. The church of this priory, which remains, 
appears to have been a noble structure. It had two 
towers at the west end, and as the east end and the 
transepts are also destroyed, the remaining part, 
though considerable, is only a fragment of the ancient 
building. Of the w-alls and buttresses nothing re- 
mains except an arched gateway about 120 yards 
from the body of the building to the west. A large 
room above this has served as a town-hall, and the 
lower part as a prison. 

Bridlington has a weekly market held on Saturday, 
and was formerly a considerable mart for corn. The 
number of houses are 849, and the inhabitants 3741. 
Bridlington Quay, to which genteel company resort 
for bathing, constitutes of itself a small town, and has 
a brisk and handsome appearance. The houses are 
in general well built, and the principal street that 
opens directly on the harbour, is remarkably broad. 
The northernmost pier having an agreeable platform, 
commanding a delightful view of Flamborough Head 
and the bay, is of course much frequented ; and when 
the wind is unfavourable for doubling Flamborough 
Head, the former is often crowded with coasting vessels. 


The Quay is undouLtedl}' an aizreeable healthy 
place, where the resort in summer for sea-bathing is 
very considerable. The mineral springs here are 
reckoned efficacious for several diseases; and there 
are many attractions here tor persons who have a 
taste for the peaceful and sequestered scenes of life, 
in preference to the gay and captivating charms of 
the more fashionable watering-places. 

Flamborough is a very ancient town, and was 
formerly of some note ; at present it is only a large 
fishing village. It stands in a hollow nearly in the 
centre of the promontory, five miles from Bridlington, 
and nearly at the same distance from the Quay. The 
population, about seven or eight hundred, is about 
lialf made up of fishermen and their families; the 
other inhabitants consist of fanners' labourers, and 
the necessary mechanics that are met with in all 
country villages. In 1794 twenty of the fishermen 
perished in a storm at sea, and there was scarcely a 
family in Flamborough that had not to lament the 
loss of a relative. The Flamborough fishermen chiefly 
confine themselves to their own coast, and seldom 
send more than four boats to the herring fishery at 
Yarmouth. The new light-house is erected at the 
distance of nearly a mile and a half to the eastward 
of the town. The light is a revolving light, with three 
faces of seven reflectors each. 

Flamborough Head is certainly a magnificent ob- 
ject, and one of the greatest curiosities the kingdom 
can boast. The promontory on which it stands forms 
a range of six miles, and is in some places nearly .'iOO 
feet high. At the bottom of these limestone rocks 
are a number of caverns, as the Dove-Cote, so called 
from being the usual breeding place of rock pigeons ; 
the Kirk-Hole, of considerable extent, and Robin 
Lyth's Hole. The latter has two openings, one com- 
municating with the land, the other with the sea. 
The former is low and narrow ; but the darkness at 
the entrance gradually disperses, and exhibits the 
floor like a solid rock formed into broad steps of an 


eas}' descent; and the stones at the sides are curiously 
variegated. The roof is finely arched, and nearly fifty 
feet high at the centre. The many projecting ledges 
and fragments of suspended rocks, give it a grand and 
rather an awful appearance. On approaching the 
eastern extremity a noble vista is formed by its open- 
ing to the sea. 

In summer time these rocks are tiie rendezvous of 
myriads of aquatic fowls, and they breed in these in- 
accessible retreats, generally speaking, free from dan- 
ger : but at the report of a gun these feathered inha- 
bitants are instantly in motion ; and the eye is almost 
dazzled with the waving of innumerable wings bright- 
ened by the rays of the sun, whilst the ear is stunned 
with the clamour of a thousand discordant notes. 

At Ebberston, about half a mile to the north of the 
York road, there is an elegant little stone mansion, 
the property of Sir Charles Hotham, bart. taken from 
the plan of a Roman villa. 

About seven miles north-west from Bridlington is 
HuNMANBY, two miles from Filey Bay: it stands on 
a rising ground, and is sheltered by a fine wood on 
the north-west. The town is built in the form of a 
cross, and contains many neat houses. The market 
is disused. 

Humphrey Osbaldeston, esq. by building new farm- 
houses, and nuiking numerous plantations, and by 
embellishing the grounds contiguous to his residence, 
greatly contributed to the improvement and ornament 
of the estate of which he is the sole proprietor. A 
sumptuous monument in the parish church, com- 
memorates those of the Osbaldeston family who died 
within the last century, from Willuim Osbaldeston, 
esq. in 1707, down to Fountayne Osbaldeston, esq. 
M. P. for Scarborough, who died June 10, 1770. 
Over the central arches of the church are emblazoned 
the armorial bearings, with the names of most of the 
ancient lords of the place. The vicarage-house, 
which stands near this editlre, has been greatly im- 
proved and embellished both by buildings and planta- 


tions, under the present incumbent, the Rev. Francis 
Wrangham, M. A. F.R.S. The population of Hun- 
manby has been augmented by the unusual proportion 
of a fifth part, from no other assignable causes than 
its enclosure, and the improvements before noticed. 

Flixton is about three miles north-west of Hun- 
manby. Flixton Wolds have long been famous for 
the annual coursing matches held upon them. 

Filey, three miles nortli-east of Hunmanby, is a 
small fishing town situated upon the shore of a spa- 
cious bay, in a circular form, and upwards of four 
miles in length. The sands are firm and extensive, 
and the beach convenient for sea-bathing. A mile to 
the north of the church is a spring of mineral water, 
which contains a small portion of Epsom salt, a little 
iron, and some calcareous earth. A ridge, or natural 
mole of rocks, is called Tiley-hridge^ which projecting 
nearly half a mile into the sea, is a great protection to 
the bay in tempestuous weather. At high water these 
rocks are overflowed, but when low, there is a passage 
along them to the other extremity, and a fine view 
hence of Flamborough Head and Scarborough Castle. 
In stormy weather the sea breaks here with such 
violence, that the foaming waves are frequently seen 
from Scarborough. The cobles at Filey are often 
successful in bringing home soles, turbot, and other 
fish of superior quality. A number of five-men boats 
belong to this town, and are constantly employed on 
their own coast, or at Yarmouth in the herring season. 

KiLHAM, eight miles from Bridlington, is an ancient 
market-town, situated in a pleasant and fertile valley, 
at the south-east declivity of the Wolds, and very 
near the flat country called Holderness. The grounds 
in the parish (except an extensive portion called Swa- 
thorpe, belonging to Sir Charles Hotham, bart. of 
South Dalton), containing about 7000 acres, were 
enclosed in the year 1772, and are chiefly appropriated 
to tillage and sheep-walks. Grain and wool are the 
principal commodities of the parish ; the former, 
amounting to a large quantity annually, is sold to 


coin-factors, and by thetn sent to London, or the 
West Riding of Yorkshire. The latter is chiefly sold 
to the woollen manufacturers of Leeds and Wakefield. 
The town is nearly a mile and a quarter long, running 
from east to west; not in one continued street, but 
where the first street ends another commences a little 
farther south, and runs to the western extremity. 
One branch of the river Hull rises here, the water of 
which is remarkably transparent and wholesome. 

The church dedicated to All Saints is a very long, 
strong, stone structure; has one aisle, a large chancel, 
and a lofty tower ; and upon the whole, seems to 
have been designed for containing a more numerous 
congregation than the present population of the parish 
can supply. The inhabitants retain a traditional 
notion, that it has (perhaps some hundred years ago), 
been far more populous and extensive than it is at 
present; whicli notion seems to be favoured by the 
many vestiges of buildings and sites of houses, within 
various parts of the old enclosures, from one end of 
the place to the other. 

The Free Grammar Scliool in this town was 
founded by John Lord D'Arcy, of Aston, in this 
county, in the ninth year of the reign of Charles I. 
with appointments for a master and usher. 

During the usurpation of Cromwell, banns of mar- 
riage for this and the neighbouring parishes were 
published in the market-place, three several market 
days, according to act of parliament, and the marriages 
were solemnized before the neighbouring justices of 
the peace. 

In this parish there is a mineral spring, near the 
road leading to Rudston, said to be efficacious in 
curing certain disorders; and the vipsey or gipsey, 
that after a wet autumn breaks put at a place called 
Ilenpit Hole, near the road to Langtoft. The vio- 
lence of this spring or spout, when it first issues out 
of the ground, is said to be so great, that a man on 
horseback may ride under its arched stream. 

There is a place called Dane's Grave, a piece of 


ground at the north-west extremity of the lordship, 
marked with a great number of hillocks close to one 
another, traditionally said to be the burying-place of 
the Danes, when invading this country. 

Three miles east from Kilham, is Burton Agnes, 
the seat of the late Sir Grilhth Boynton. Burton 
Agnes belonged to the Somervilles, and by an heiress 
of that family descended to the Grithths; and Sir 
Henry Griffiths, at the latter end of the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, began a stalely brick house, which 
was finished by his widow. Here is a remarkably 
neat church, which was repaired in 1727, by Sir 
Griffith Boynton, the third baronet of his family. It 
contains several ancient mouments of his ancestors 
the Somervilles and Griffiths, and a very elegant one 
by Cheere, in memory of Sir Griffith, the father of 
the late Sir Griffith Boynton, who died 18th October, 
1761. This lordship has a common of some thousand 
acres of land, extending to the lordship of Barnston, 
where stood formerly another good seat of the Boyn- 
tons, to whom it came by marriage, in the time of 
Richard III. The name of the Boyntons is local from 
Boynton, (anciently Bovington), a small village of the 
Wolds, five miles from Kilham, of which Bartholomew 
de Boynton was seized in 1060. 

In the church-yard of Rudstcn before-mentioned, 
north-east of Kilham, there is a very tall obelisk of 
the same stone, shape, and size as those at Borough- 
bridge, though it is at least forty miles distant from 
any quarry whatever. 


rive miles from Kilham, is situated on a free sport- 
ing country, well watered by several trout streams. 
The woollen manufactory has been lately introduced 
into the parish, and there are some extensive bleach- 
ing grounds. The market is on Thursday. 

In 1784, the Society of Antiquarians, having had 
undoubted information that the remains of Kins Al- 


fred the Great, who died in the year QOl, were depo- 
sited ill the parish church of L.ttle Driffield, about 
four ifiiles west from hence, deputed two of that 
learned body (accompanied by some other gentle- 
men), to take up and examine the same : accordingly, 
on Tuesday the 20th of September, 1784, the above 
gentlemen, with proper assistants, entered the church 
for that purpose, to be directed to the identical spot, 
by a secret iiistory. After digi^ing; some time they 
found a stone coffin, and, on opening the same, dis- 
covered the entire skeleton of that great and pious 
prince, together with most part of his steel armour, 
the remainder of which had probably been corroded 
by rust and length of time. After satisfying their 
curiosity, the cotfin was closed, as well as the grave, 
that every thing might remain in the same state as 
when found. In the history above alluded to, it 
appears, that King Alfred, being wounded in the 
battle of Stanford Briggs, returned to Dritiield, where 
lie languished of his wounds twenty days, and then 
expired, and was interred in the parish church thereof. 
During his sickness he chartered four fairs, which are 
now annually held. 

On the south side of the chancel these lines are 
written : 

VVithin this Chancel 

Lies interred the Body of 

Alfred, King of Northumberland, 

who departed this life 

Jan. 19, A. D. 705, 

In the 20th year of his reign. 

Statutum est omnibus semel mori. 
It is appointed for all once to die. 

At Seamer was anciently a castle belonging to the 
Percies ; and at Acton, two miles north-west, are the 
ruins of another. 

As we have already described Beverley, and the 
•jountry from thence, we shall here conclude this 


Journejjfrum Hull to Palrington ; through Hedon, 
or Headon. 

At Sutton, two miles" west from Bilton, was a 
Jiousc of Wliite P'riars in the reign of Edward I. 

Three miles north-east from Bilton, at Burton Con- 
'otable, is the seat of the ancient family of Constable, 
lords Dunbar, rebuilt in the reign of Henry VIII. 

Heden or HEADO^", is situated on a river or creek, 
about half a mile from the Humber. 

" ricdden hath been a fair haven town : it standeth 
a mile and more within the creke, that cometh out of 
Humbre into it. These crekes parting about the said 
town, did insulate, and shippis layabout the town, 
but now men come to it by three bridges, wher it is 
evident to se that some places wher the shippis lay 
be overgrown with flagges and reades, and the haven 
is very sorely decayid. Ther were thre paroche 
chirches in the time of mind, but now ther is but one 
of St. Augustine; but that is very faire. And not far 
from this tlimch garth appere tokens of a pile or 
castel, that was sumtyme ther for tiie defence of the 
town. The town hath yet grete privileges; with a 
mair and bailies, but wher it had in Edward Illd's 
days many good ships, and rich merchants, now there 
but a few botes, and no merchants of any estimation. 
Swarving and choaking of the haven, and fires defacing 
much of the town, hath been the decay of it. Sum 
say that the staple of wool of the north parts was once 
here. Truth is, that when Hull began to flourish, 
Hedden decayed. The Earl of Albermarle and Hol- 
derness was lord of Hedden: and had a great manor- 
place at Newton, a mile nearer the Humber." 

There is a painting of a king and a bishop in the 
church, and the same at Beverley. 

At Newton, early in the reign of King John, was 
an hospital for lepers, founded by Alan the son of 
Osborn; which was granted to Robert Constable. 
Great part of the town was burned in 1656, but the 
houses have been since rebuilt, and the town im- 


proved : to clear the haven a canal, or new cut, has 
been made, but not sufficient to restore it to its former 
utility. It has a market on Saturday. 

Patrington, the ancient Praetoriuni, situated on a 
river which runs into the Hutnber, is a corporation 
town. The church is a sea-mark : the harbour is 
said to have been formerly good, but now only small 
vessels load and unload about a mile below the town. 
The market is on Saturday. 

Two miles east from Patrington, at Newton, or 
Out-Newton, was an hospital founded by William 
le Gros, Earl of Albermarle : granted to John Stan- 

Three miles south-east from Patrington, at Burstal-= 
garth, was a cell of Benedictine monks, subordinate 
to the Abbey of St. Martin, at Aumale, in 1115. It 
%vas sold in the reign of Richard II. as an alien priory 
to the Abbey of Kirkstall. 

Opposite the mouth of the river which runs from 
Patrington, in the river Humber, is Sunk Island, 
formed from a sand-bank; given by Charles II. to 
Colonel Anthony Gilby, deputy-governor of Hull^ 
about nine miles in circumference : there are about 
two thousand acres, enclosed with high banks, 
which produce grain, besides about six or seven hun- 
dred not enclosed. On the island are three or four 
houses and a chapel. 

About seven miles from Patrington is the Spurn- 
Head, or long promontory running out into the sea, 
and making the north point of the Humber. It is 
supposed to be the Oceleum of Ptolemy, derived from, 
the British word, Ychell, which signifies a high place. 
An uncommonly large and regular tooth of some 
species of bulky animal, yet unknown, was found 
in June, 1805, upon the sea-shore at Spurn Point. 
The bottom part of it was quite flat and even, with 
alternate full and hollow black stripes across: it 
weighed twenty-five ounces ; it measured twelve 
inches and a half round; and four inches long, not- 
withstanding part of ihe grains or lan^s of which had 
r f '2 


been ' inconsiderately broken off by tbe person who 
discovered it. The upper was of various colours, 
and it was somewhat in form like a small box-iron. 

Journey from Hull to Hornsea. 

Two miles from Hull, at Swine or Swiniif.y, 
there was formerly a convent of Cistertian nuns, 
founded by Robert de \''erlix, in the reign of King 
Stephen; at the Dissolution the site was granted to 
Sir John Constable. 

Some years ago, in a garden at this place, a 
few ancient silver and copper coins were found, 
turned up by the gardener with his spade; one of 
wliich is precisely of the same kind as the one 
figured in the cuts of Roman coins, in Camden's 
Britannia, p. 95, No. xviii., and to which he alludes 
in his notes upon them, page 104, in the follow- 
ing words; "xviii Flavius Constantinus Maximus 
AvGUSTVP, tlie great ornament in Britain, stamped 
this coin in Constantinople, as we are taught by these 
characters underneath. Cons with this Gloria Ex- 
ERCiTus; that is, the Glory of the Army^^ It should 
be observed, that the figures representing the head of 
Flavius on one side, and two men in armour, with 
bows and spears in their hands, standing on each side 
two banners on the other side, are remarkably legible, 
considering the very great antiquity of the coin, which 
is upwards of 1350 years old. 

The village of Bransburton, on the left of our 
road, about four miles west from Hornsea, was left 
by Lady Dacre to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of 
the City of London, in trust for Emanuel Hospital in 
York-Street, Westminster, founded for old maids and 
batchelors in 1601. 

Hornsea, a small market-town, in the wapentake of 
Holderness, is within half a mile of the coast, being 
about fifteen miles southward from Bridlington, and 
sixteen miles nearly N. E. from Hull. The church at 
this place was noted for its lofiy spire, or broach, which 
was a well known sea-maik», till about the beginning 


of the labt century, wiien it was blown down by a 

The town is situated in a valley, having rising 
grouiids on the north and the south, a large piece of 
water called the Mere, on the west, and the sea at a 
short distance to the east. It consists of four strag- 
gling streets, and a market-place of considerable breadth. 
The market, however, which is on Monday, has long 
been on the decline, and is now almost discontinued. 
The populatioi\ does not not exceed seven or eight 
hundred, and agriculture is the chief occupation of 
the inhabitants. 

Hornsea Mere, which begins within about a hun- 
dred yards of the west end of the town, is remarkable 
for being the only lake in Yorkshire, except Malham 
Water, in Craven, fts dimensions, according to a 
survey taken about the year 1700, are as follows: 

Length from east to west, one mile and seven eighths. 
Breadth in the widest part, three quarters of a mile. 
Circuit, five miles and five-eighths. 
Area, four hundred and sixty-seven acres. 

But as some parts near the edge?, which were gene- 
rally dry nine months in the year, have since the time 
of this survey, been thrown up into banks, and planted 
with alders, &c. ; the length of the water is now 
supposed to be about one mile and three quarters, 
and the area about 436 acres. At the distance 
of about a quarter of a mile from the south-west 
corner is Wassand, the seat of Marmaduke Constable, 
esq., who being sole proprietor of the northern 
banks of the Mere, and also of that part of the land on 
the southern side, which lies towards the western ex- 
tremity, has embellished the contiguous scenery with 
thriving plantations. Wassand is a pleasant rural re- 
treat, and the vicinity of the Mere, or lake, renders it 
more agreeable. 

About five miles to the south-west of Hornsea, is 
RiSF, which anciently belonged to the noble family of 
Fauconberg, but is now the seat of Mrs. Bethel. This 
r fS 


house, and the pleasure grounds, were greatly improved 
by the late William Bethel, esq. who cut down a con- 
siderable part of* the extensive wood, on the northern 
edge of which the mansion was situated, and totally 
changed the surrounding scenery, so as to give the 
place an entirely new aspect. 

Two miles more to the south-west, is the village of 
Skirlaugh, or Skirlaw, which is in the parish of Swine, 
but has a chapel constructed in a highly ornamented 
style of Gothic architecture, and said to have been 
built by Walter Skirlaw, Bishop of Durham, about 
the end of the fourteenth, or the beginning of the 
fifteenth century. At Swine, about three miles and a 
half to the south of this village, and six miles from Hull, 
there was once a religious house, which, at the time 
of theDissolution, contained a prioress, and fourteen or 
fifteen nuns of the Cistertian order. It was founded 
by Robert de Verli, in the reign of king Stephen, and 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The site is tiius de- 
scribed by Burton : " As Holderness in general is 
very flat, this priory was built upon the highest part 
of the land, given for that purpose, and was properly 
placed to prevent too many people going to disturb 
them ; for the land is so flat, and the roads so deep, 
that in winter, it is scarcely possible to get to it. 
At present there are no remains of the building to be 
traced, there being only a farm house." The annual 
revenue of this house was, according to Dugdale, 
82/. 3.S-. 9d.', but 134/. 6s. 9d. according to Speed. It 
was surrendered by Dorothy Knight, the last prioress, 
who received a pension of 13/. ds. 8f?. per annum : 
each of the nuns had pensions of from 3/. 65. i\d. to 
2l. per annum. The site, &c. was sold by Henry 
VIII. in the year 1540, to Sir Robert Gresham, knt. 
and soon afterwards, that prince sold to the same 
person, the rectory of Swine, with all its appurte- 
nances in Swine, Conistyn, and Gaustead, and the 
tythes in the other parts of the parish, to be held " de 
rege in capite per servic. railit." The Swine estate, 
now belongs to Sir Francis Wood, bart. 


At NuNKEELiNG, about three miles nortli-west 
from Hornsea, a priory of Benedictine nuns was 
founded by Agnes de Arches, in the reign of King 

At Skitsey, near the sea, six miles north from 
Hornsea, there was formerly a castle, built by Drugo, 
iirst lord of Holderness. 

Aldburgh, noticed in p. 264, was the capital of 
the Brigantes, and must have been the chief city of 
the island. Here reigned, in the early part of the first 
century, Venutius, and his Queen Cartismandua, who, 
confederating with her paramour Volucatus, deposed 
the unfortunate prince. Venutius, however, by the 
help of his allies, reduced the usurpers to great ex- 
tremities. Cartismandua solicited aid from the 
Romans, and that people, ever ready to derive advan- 
tage from the dissensions of otlier nations, furnished 
Iter with succours. While such was the state of 
affairs, Caractacus, King of the Silures, celebrated in 
history for his warlike exploits, having defended his 
country for the space of nine vears against the Roman 
force, was at length defeated, and sought protection 
among the Brigantes, where he fell into the hands of 
Cartismandua, and was by her order delivered up to 
his enemies. Venutius being still at the head of the 
greatest part of his Brigantian force, and in alliance 
with the Silures, took the chief command of the con- 
federates, and made a noble stand against the invaders 
till he was defeated by Petilius Cerealis, who brought 
a great part of the country under tlie Roman domi- 
nion. About the year 79, Julius Agrlcola completed 
the reduction of the Brigantes, and remained some 
time in these parts, where he erected fortresses for 
the security of his conquests, endeavouring, at the 
same time, to conciliate the airection of the Britons 
by his humanity and politeness, while he rivetted their 
chains by incitements to luxury, and dissipation, and 
dazzled their eyes by a display of the Roman grandeur, 
in erecting superb temples, sumptuous baths, places 
for public assemblies, and other magnificent structures. 


At this time tlie Roman city of Isurium must have 
been built; and Drake supposes, with great proba- 
bility, that Agricola also laid the foundation of Ebo- 
racum, which soon after became the capital of the 
whole country. 

The city of Isurium, according to the statement 
given by Mr. Morris, in a letter to the Right Rev. 
Dr. Gibson, Bishop of London, comprised within the 
Roman wall sixty acres by admeasurement, lying 
almost in a direct square upon the slope of a hill de- 
clining towards the river Ure on the north. But 
there seems to be some mistake, or miscalculation, in 
that gentleman's account ; for Mr. Hargrove says, 
that the walls which may yet be traced, were found 
to measure 2500 yards in circuit. If the city was 
nearly square, and from tlie plan which Drake has 
given, it seems to have been a parallelogram approxi- 
mating to that form, it must have contained an area 
of considerably more than sixty acres. " The walls 
were about four yards thick, founded on large pebbles 
laid on a bed of blue clay, now wholly covered with 
earth, but laid open by such as want stones for build- 
ing, where they have some large coarse stones of red 
sandy grit taken from a rock of the same in the town. 
To the clay, viz. the foundation, in several places, is 
four or five yards deep. The soil is all of a black 
earth, from t% hence the tradition that they have may 
be allowed, that it was burned by the Danes when 
York was destroyed by them ; and this also appears 
frequently, upon opening the ground bones are found 
half burned, with other black ashes." In the year 
1794, the foundation of the city wjill was opened on 
the west side towards Boroughbridgc, for the purpose 
of procuring stone. Its thickness was here found to 
be full five yards, and the depth about the same 
number of yards below the surface. At first there 
appeared layers of red grit stone in irregular pieces, 
mixed with lime and coarse sand, which continued to 
the depth of about seven feet, and afterwards layers 
of pebbles bedded iii blue clay to the depth of eight 


feet, resting on ;i bed of sand. There were also found 
pieces of urns, several querns, or mill-stones, horns of 
deer sawn off apparently with a very fine saw ; also 
a small head of a coa- in brass, supposed to be a 
symbolical representation of the female deity Isis. 
In the year 1808, some workmen di(^ging on the south 
side of Aldburgh, in order to widen the road leading 
to York, discovei'ed a numberof urns containing ashes 
and burnt bones, w ith a lachryuKitory, a fibula vestaria, 
and eighteen human skeletons, one of which had a 
piece of money in its teeth, and another a riVig on its 
finger, all in wonderful preservation, considering that 
they must have lain there more than 1400 years. It 
was evident that the bodies of those w hose ashes were 
contained in the urns, had been burned on the place, 
as there .was a thin stratum of black earth and ashes 
that covered the whole surface of the ground where 
they were deposited. A variety of Roman coins were 
also found at the same time. On Borough-hill, which 
formerly stood near the centre of the ancient Isurium, 
but was removed in the year 1783, were several 
curious specimens of tessellated pavements, and from 
the bases of pillars, sacrificing vessels, bones, and 
liorns of beasts, especially stags, which have been 
found in this place, it seems to have been the site of 
a Roman temple. This hill was about four yards in 
height, and 100 yards in circuit, and vvas used in later 
times by the burgesses of Aldburgh, as a place of as- 
sembly for the purpose of electing their representatives 
in parliament. 

Within the precincts of the ancient city, and in 
many places in the environs, great numbers of Roman 
coins have been found. Some few of these are of gold 
and silver, but most of them of brass, and chiefly of 
the following emperors: Augustus Caesar, Claudius, 
Vespasian, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, Pertinax, Se- 
verus, Maximin, Valerian, Aurelian, Carausius, Alec- 
tus,.Dioclesian, Constantius, and Gonstantine: those 
of Constantino have been found in the greatest abun- 
dance. There have also been found several fra<j:ment£ 


of eartlien vessels wrought with knots, fiowers, and 
heads of birds and beasts, and one with the head 
cjf Jupiter Ammon, besides chains of gold, polished 
signets, urns, lamps of various figures, fragments 
of aqueducts covered with Roman tile sixteen inches 
long, twelve inches broad, and two inches thick, and 
several pieces of Roman glass. But the chief Roman 
curiosities that are now to be seen, are the tessel- 
lated pavements, the largest and most entire of which 
was found in digging the ground-work of a cottage, in 
which it is carefully preserved for public inspection. 
In the year 1770, were discovered by digging within 
the town, the foundations of a range of buildings 216 
feet in length, and twenty-four feet in breadth; the 
two outsides were exactly parallel to each other, run- 
ning from east to west, and between them were seve- 
ral partitions. These foundation walls were of stone 
strongly cemented, three feet in thickness, and five 
feet below the surface. 

The British name of this city, Iseur, appears evi- 
dently derived from Isis and Ure ; but it is difficult to 
conceive how the Britons could have obtained any 
knowledge of a goddess, whom the Greeks and the 
Romans themselves had borrowed from Egypt; and it 
would be useless to attempt to investigate the various 
conjectures of antiquaries, on a subject in which it is 
impossible to hope for any certainty of conclusion. 
The Romans, by gi\'ing it a termination congenial to 
their language, altered it to Isurium, and it was to- 
tally changed by the Saxons, who called it Burgh, 
perhaps from the name of some town in their own 
country, and afterwards Aldbergh, or the old town, 
from its antiquity. 

Although Isurium affords convincing proofs of its 
ancient grandeur, its history is extremely obscure. It 
appears to have flourished during the whole period of 
the Roman domination in Britain^ and to have con- 
stituted one of the principal outposts to their capital, 
Eboracum, or York, which was the seat of their go- 
vernment, and the focus of their military force. It 


seems also to have been a place of considerable note 
in the time of the Saxons; and its destruction, as al- 
ready observed, is ascribed to the Danes. But from 
the evident marks of fire discovered on opening tlie 
ground, as also from the tessellated pavements, and 
other Roman antiquities, generally found at about the 
same depth of two feet below the surface, it appears 
that the ancient Isurium did not perish by a gradual 
decay, but by some sudden and unexpected calamity. 
The most probable conjecture therefore is, that the 
Roman city was destroyed by the Saxons in some part 
of that bloody and turbulent period which preceded 
their establishment in this country, and of the trans- 
actions of which history has preserved nothing but a 
confused memorial. The conquerors, who generally 
built their towns on the sites of Roman cities, rebuilt 
Isurium, and gave it the name of Aldburgh, or the 
Old Town. And it therefore appears that it was the 
Saxon citv, not the Roman Isurium, which was de- 
stroyed by ihe Danes. The area of the ancient city 
is fur the most part laid out in fields, and from the si- 
tuation of the tessellated pavements, it is evident that 
the ruins have raised the ground about two feet above 
tlie Roman level. 

The family of Aldburgli, which formerly flourished 
here, resided in a spacious mansion, now called Ald- 
burgh-hall. Some of this family were knights; but 
the male issue failing about the commencement of 
the last century, the estate was divided among three 
co-heiresses, and by their marriage transferred to dif- 
ferent families. In the church one single memorial of 
this family remains. This is a flat stone inlaid with 
brass, on which is the figure of a knight in armour, 
bearing on his shield the arms of Aldburgh, with this 
inscription, " Will, de Aldburgh," on a scroll under 
his feet. 

The church, which is a vicarage, in the patronage 
of the Dean and Chapter of York, is an ancient struc- 
ture, and supposed by Drake to be built out of the 
ruins of Isurium, On the outside of the wall of 


the vestry, is a ti<;ure ot about two teet and a half in 
Jength, which seeiDS to be that of Mercury, as part of 
the caduceup, and the alee are yet perceptible. In 
the church-yard is a ^rave stone, in which is cut in 
rehevo the lialf length figure of a woman in a Saxon 
habit, and in the attitude of prayer. 

The Roman road from Pretorium or Patrington to 
Gabranticorum Sinus, now Burlington Bay, runs 
through Aldburgh, whose name proves its high an- 

No county in England abounds with so much ro- 
mantic scenery as Yorkshire, and in this perhaps the 
V'^ale of Swaledale is most remarkable. It evidently 
takes its name from the river Swale, and extends about 
sixteen miles in lengtl), in a direction from west to 
east, the two extreme boundaries being IIoHow-Mill- 
Cross, and Low Stollerston Stde. HoUow-Mill-Cross, 
its western limit, is also one of the b mndaries be- 
tween Yorkshire and Westmoreland. In entering the 
dale from this quarter, the view which presents itself 
to the traveller is far from being calculated to impress 
him with a favourable idea of the country; on the left 
stands the boundary, which is a rude pile of stones, 
overgrown witl) moss, and on the right a small rivulet 
winds its devious path. In vain the eye wanders over 
an extensive tract of country in search of some pleas- 
ing object: sterility every where reigns; and nothing 
is seen but the dark brown heath. The rugged and 
uneven path which the traveller has to pursue is the 
only indication to induce him to suppose that any liu- 
man foot had trod this desolate region, whilst the dark 
and gloomy mists which generally cover the summits 
of the surrounding mountains add to the dreariness of 
the scene. This part of Swaledale is called Birkdale, 
and gives name to the rivulet, or beck, passing through 
it. A little further to the south a few small enclo- 
sures, and the fir^t cottage in Swaledale, appear in 
view. Nearly opposite to this place. Little Steddal 
beck falls into Birkdale, and about a mile and a half 
below is joined by greal Steddal beck, when the united 


Streams take the name of Swale. The nver then 
runs due cabt; and a few cottages with a sHght bridge 
of one arch, to which the inhabitants give the name 
of Bowbridge, make Swaiedale begin to appear hke a 
portion of the inhabited world. Crossing this bridge, 
the tourist proceeds along the south bank of the 
Swale, which runs here in a bed of solid rock, and in 
its course forms several water-falls. 

A little below this bridge is Whitsondale, and the 
rivulet which runs through it here falls into the Swale. 
In Whitsondale, which stretches about six miles to 
the north-west, there are, it is said, some very exten- 
sive caverns, and particularly one called Brian's Cave. 
The next object that strikes the eye is a range of 
rocks called Coutherby Scar, extending about half a 
mile on the north side of the Swale, and about twenty- 
three yards in height. At the distance of about a mile 
is a small water-fall, called Hogiiart Leap, viith a 
bridge leading to Weststonedale. Below tlie bridge 
there are two other water-falls of much greater beauty, 
one of which is formed by the Swale, the other by 
Stonesdale beck: the latter is extremely curious, hav- 
ing worn the rock in such a manner as to give it the 
appearance of three distinct columns 

In proceeding down the dale, the next hamlet is Keld. 
This place, when viewed from the riprth-east, has a 
very picturesque appearance, which is much heightened 
by a water-fall close by, called Keld Force. To the 
south-east of Keld is Kisdon, a mountain nut ditYering 
in heighth from those around, but which being de- 
tached from the rest, seems placed in the middle of 
the ^ale. On the west side of this insulated hill are 
two small hamlets, named Angram and Thorns. And 
on the north side is a beautiful water-fall, formed by 
the Swale, and known by the name of Kisdon Force. 
Properly speaking, it consists of two falls, the lower 
of which is the most worthy of notice : it is not of 
great height; but the rocks on each s.ide, especially 
those to the north, give a boldness to the scene, 
that renders it an\azingly line. 


Nature has here been more lavish of her charms 
than we generally find her ia this rugged district, 
having covered the lower part of the hills with wood, 
which in the summer season appears to great advan- 
tage amidst these scenes of sterility. The Force has 
also its beauties in winter: in severe frosts the large 
quantities of ice which on every side hang pendent 
from the rocks, and in some places cover them, give 
It a novel and striking appearance ; whilst the water, 
surmounting the obstructions of the ice, seems to rush 
down with redoubled violence. To those whom cu- 
riosity may lead to visit Kisdon Force, it will not be 
an unnecessary hint to observe, that it ought to be 
approached on the south side. It is there seen to 
much greater advantage than on the north, where it 
can only be looked down upon from a frightful and 
dangerous precipice. 

rhe hills near this place rising with an abrupt and 
unusually steep ascent, render the scene extremely 
romantic. It is worthy the attention of the painter; 
and Mr. Cuitto of Richmond, has done it ample 

To the north of Kisdon Force is Beldy Hill, and 
near it a farm-house, called Crackpot Hall, in a situa- 
tion which, though it must be regarded as sublime, 
few would envy ; for the steepness of the ascent seems 
to forbid any approach to the premises. On the spot 
where it stands was formerly the residence of the 
deer-keeper to the Duke of Wharton, Swaledale beii:g 
then little more than an extensive park. 

To the south of Kisdon are a few cottages, kno\yn 
by the name of Thwaite ; and a little to the eastward 
is Muker, an irregularly built and disagreeable town, 
with a population of upwards of a thousand persons. 
Here is a small market on Wednesday; and the Lord 
of the Manor holds his courts at this place for the 
upper parts of Swaledale. At Muker there is a 
chapel of ease, which was consecrated on the 3d day 
of August, 1580, by William Chadderton, Bishop of 
Chester; but the inhabitants pay all ecclesiastical 


dues to the vicar of the parochial church of Grinton. 
They also bear the whole charge of maintaining the 
minister, who official es at their own chapel. Muker 
is about eight or nine miles nearly west from Rceth, 
about nineteen in the same direction from Richmond, 
and about seven from A.skrigg. The intervening 
country between IMuker and Askrin^ is a part of 
those tracts called the Forests of Swaledale and Wens- 

The lordship or manor of Muker in Swaledale for- 
merly belonged to the Abbey of Rievaulx, near Dun- 
combe-park, and consisted of Gavelkind tenures held 
of the abbot by certain rents, fines, suit, and service 
at the Lord's Court. After the monastery was sup- 
pressed, and its possessions came to the crown, the 
tenements in this manor were held immediately of 
the king. On the 2d day of December, 1544, 
Henry VIII. by letters patent gianted, under a certain 
yearly rent, his right in the manor of Muker, with 
other lands in Yorkshire, to Philip Lord Wharton, 
and Sir Thomas Wharton, knt. The manor was then 
occupied by fifty-three tenants, and held by them 
under the above-mentioned conditions. 

On the 12th of November, 1618, Philip Lord 
Wharton, and Sir Thomas Wharton, knight, for " the 
consideration of the sum of 1654/. 13.s. 4rf. granted 
and executed a deed, wherein they ratified, confirmed, 
established, and assured to the tenants, their estates 
which they and their predecessors from time imme- 
morial had held, used, and enjoyed without violence, 
disturbance, or interruption, of the said Lord Wharton, 
Sir Thomas WMiarton, or any former lord or lords." 

Shunner Fell. — About four miles to the west of 
Muker is a hill called Shunner Fell, which is one of 
the highest of those bordering Swaledale ; and the 
view from its summit will be allowed, by every ad- 
mirer of the grand scenes of Nature, to be an ample 
compensation for the trouble of ascending to so lofty 
a region. To the west the eye, after wandering over 
that tract of ground called Swaledale Forest, bin 
G SI 2 


where scarcely the vestige of a tree is now to be seen 
lias an extensive view over Westmoreland ; and the 
prospect is finely bounded by the lofty mountains of 
Cumberland, auion<;st which Cross Fell and Skiddaw 
are easily distinguished. 

Towards the south the prospect is more confined ; 
but the various forms of the mountains on the borders 
of Ltfincashire, by which it is obstructed, amply supply 
the defect, in exhibiting a diversity highly picturesque 
and pleasing. For though the view on every side is 
mostly composed of mountains, yet those to the south 
are seen to the greatest advantage, rising in a manner 
extremely bold and majestic. Some of the mountains 
near Dent also add to the beauty of the southern 

Tn the eastern view the romantic valley of Swaledale 
appears to great advantage. The eye, after ranging 
over th^ hills which rise on each side of the dale, 
overlooks a great part of Yorkshire, with the southern 
part of the county of Durham. It is even said, that 
in very serene weather the German Ocean may be 
distinguished opposite to the mouth of the Tees. 

To the north are seen Stainmore's wintry wastes, 
with the county of Durham stretching far to the right. 
Still further to the north, the view is extended to the 
Avilds of Northumberland, the mountains of which are 
lost in the distance. 

In proceeding eastward from Muker along the south 
side of the dale, we pass a small rivulet called Spout- 
gill-beck, so named from a lead-mine, which was for- 
merly so rich as to clear above 30,000/. in one year. 
We then cross the Swale at Ivelet-bridge, leaving on 
the right a small place called Satron, which, from its 
situation at the northern foot of a hill of the same 
name, is for some months in the year wholly secluded 
from the cheering influence of the sun. To the north 
of the bridge is the hamlet of Ivelet, where there is a 
beautiful water-fall. About a mile below Ivelet are 
Gunnerside and Lodge Green, two places which, 
being separated only by,a small brook, generally go 


under llie name of Gunnerside. To the north of 
Gunnerside isLownithwaite, a lead-mine belonging to 
the Earl of PomfreU 

Feetiiam, like most of the hamlets in Swaledale, 
consists of a few cottages irregularly scattered on the 
side of a hill. To the north of this place is the old 
Gang, where are some of the principal lead mines 
belonging to the Earl of Pomfret. 

About two miles to the east of Feethara is Hea- 
laugh, which, although nothing superior to the ham- 
lets already described, was formerly the manor town, 
and still possesses the name. To the west of it, in a 
field called Hallgarth, are the vestiges of a house, 
which tradition says belonged to John of Gaunt, 
Duke of Lancaster, who was Lord of the IVIanor. 
Opposite to Ilealaugh are the luarks of an entrench- 
ment called Maiden's Castle, which is about a hun- 
dred yards square. Along the east end of the hill 
the vestiges of another entrenchment are visible. It 
seems to have extended a mile and a half on the edge 
of a low precipice. In those parts where the preci- 
pice seems to have been the most steep, it is discon- 
tinued; but where the access is easier, it is triple. 
On the south side of the hill its course is intercepted 
by a narrow brook, after which it may be perceived 
to have been carried forward to some distance up the 
opposite hill. A mile or two to the west of this en- 
trenclmient, a Roman road crossed the dale, leading 
from Askrigg tu Barnard Castle, in the county of Dur- 
ham. There is also an entrenchment which runs in a 
direct Hue through the dale, and passes through Fre- 
rnington. But no records make any mention of the 
time when these entrenchments were thrown up, or 
of the particular purpose for which they were in- 
tended. Some pieces of armour have been found in 
Fremington Edge, which, from their shape, are sup- 
posed to be of Roman origin. 

Reeth, situated about a mile and a half below 
Ilealaugh, and nearly half a mile above the conflux 
of the rivers Arkle and Swale, upon an eminence in- 

G 23 


dining to the south, has of late years become one of 
the best towns in this district. It is ten miles nearly 
west from Richmond, and about the same distance 
north-east from Askrigg, and north«vvest from Ley- 
burn. Here is a small market on Friday, held bv a 
charter granted to Philip Lord Wharton,' in the sixth 
year of the reign of William III. and Mary. The 
town of Reeth is very irregular, but its form ap- 
proaches the nearest to a square, having a row of de- 
cent houses on the western side. The greatest part is 
paved, and in general clean. A chapel for the Dis- 
senters was erected here by subscription, in the year 
1783, and another for the Methodists, by the same 
means in 1796. A free school was also erected in 
1778, the endowment of which was left by Mr. Raw, 
a Quaker, with the proviso that the school should be 
built in sight of Marrick Abbey, and that part of the 
Swale where he used to bathe. The population of 
Reeth amounts only to six or seven hundred, and the 
town has scarcely any trade except the manufacture 
of yarn stockings, which are bought up mostly for ex- 
portation by the hosiers in the neighbourhood. 

The prospects from Reeth and its environs are, in 
the summer season, very fine, though not extensive. 
The wood which is seen on the lower parts of the hills 
near the bottom of the vale, forms a beautiful contrast 
with Fremington Edge, a mountain bounding the view 
to the north; and barren in the extreme, as the great- 
est part of it presents only a mass of naked rocks, 
here and there thinly covered with turf, witii a slight 
intermixture of fern, that frequent companion of ste- 
rility. Harkcr, another mountain less barren than 
Fremington Edge, bounds the prospect towards the 

In the bottom of the vale the river is seen to great 
advantage, meandering among the pastures. On the 
right the steeple (if Grinton behind a clump of trees, 
the bridge and the humble cottages, of which the 
village is chiefly composed, form an assemblage of 
pleasing objects. Beyond these are Cozden Hall, and 


Marrick Abbey, whilst the Scar at Ellerton, which 
terminates tlie view to tlie east, rising above the wood, 
gives to the scenery a finish beautifully picturesque. 

Swale Hall. — On the south side of the Swale, 
nearly opposite to Reeth, stands Swale Hall, once the 
seat of Sir Solomon Swale, bart. It does not, how- 
ever, appear to have ever deserved the name of a 
mansion. This family was of great antiquity in these 
parts : the first that we find mentioned is Alured de 
Swale, nephew and chief chamberlain to Walter de 
Gaunt, Earl and Lord of the Seigniory ofSwaledale, 
who in the latter end of the reign of William Rufus, 
or the beginning of that of Henry I. granted in fee to 
his said nephew Alured, liis manor of West Grinton, 
part of his said lordship. And the family are supposed 
to have taken their name from this manor, lying oil 
the banks of the Swale. Sir Solomon Swale was 
created a baronet in 1660. The male branch of the 
family became extinct in the last century; and about 
the year 1790, Swale Hall was sold to a Mr. Hut- 

A little below Reeth is a neat bridge of three arches, 
over the river Arkle ; beyond which, at the distance 
of about a mile and a half from Reeth, is Fremington, 
where is an elegant mansion belonging to Peter Denys, 
esq. To the right, and about the same distance from 
Reeth, is Grinion, a small dirty village, at the west 
end of which stands the parish church. The living is 
in the gift of the Lord Chancellor. In the east win- 
dow are the arms of the family of Swale. On the 
north side of the altar is an escutcheon to the memory 
of a lady of the Darcy family. 

The last object worth notice in this district is 
Cozden Hall, a small, but neat mansion, of modern 
construction. It is within two miles of Reeth, and 
at a short distance from Low Stollerston Stile, which 
is considered as the eastern boundary ofSwaledale. 

With the exception of a few particular places, 
Swaledale is almost totally destitute of wood. This 
circumstance, which renders its general appearance less 


picturesque than it would otherwise be, seems to be 
partly owint? to the right which the Lord of the Manor 
possesses of cutting down as much wood as he pleases 
for the use of the smelting-mills. 

In the bottom of the Vale the land is fertile; but 
the sides of the mountains are gradually marked by 
the decrease of vegetation; and the tops c'' several of 
them seem to be condemned to perpetual sterility. 
Considerable improvements have been made in the 
agriculture of the lower or eastern part of the Dale ; 
but in the upper or western part the coldness and hu- 
midity of the climate deter the inhabitants from at- 
tempting the cultivation of grain, and induce them to 
apply almost solely to grazing. In its general aspect 
Swaledale is, in picturesque beauty, inferior to both 
Wharfdalc and Wcnsleydale, or even to some parts 
of Airdale; but it is equal to any of these in the grand 
features of Nature: its prevailing character is dreary 

The Lead-mines in Swaledale, and the other dales 
communicating with it, must be considered as an im- 
portant feature in a description of this district. 

The Earl of Pomfret is the principal proprietor of 
the vSwaledale mines, which are at present leased to 
W. Chaytor, esq. of Spennythorne, near Middleham, 
Thomas Hopper, esq. of Newcastle, and Messrs. 
George and Thomas Alderson, lead-merchants, Lon- 
don. The annual produce is estimated at 3000 tons. 

riurst mines, the property of William Poulett, esq., 
are leased to Mr. Stapleton, of Richmond ; annual 
produce estimated at about 400 tons. 

Whitsondale mines, held under the Crown, by Mr. 
Knighton and Mr. Morley, produce annually about 400 

The Arkengarth-dale mines, which lie to the nortli 
of Swaledale, are particularly deserving of attention, 
from the \ery liberal and spirited manner in which 
these concerns have been earned on, under the judi- 
cious and scientific management of Frederic Hall, esq. 
one of the principal proprietors. The aids of mecha- 


nism and chennsti)- have been called in, and the prin- 
ciples and narrow prejudices which tornierlv prevailed 
are wholly exploded. An ample product bids fair 
towardti a remuneration for the sums which have been 
expended. They are carried on by a firm bearing 
the name of the Arkengarth-dale and Darvvent Mining 
Company, under the direction and superintendence of 
Mr. Hall. The annual produce is about 2000 tons. 
There are some other small concerns, the product of 
vhich may fee estimated at about 100 tons. 

In the agt^regate, these mines are supposed to em- 
ploy about 2000 persons. 

Clints, the seat of Thomas Errington, esq., about 
five miles west from Richmond, is one of the finest 
rural retreats in this part of the country. It is beau- 
tifully situated on the north side of a deep valley, 
which is watered by a small rivulet. The mansion is a 
modernized structure, and being of a yellowish colour, 
forms a softening contrast with the grey clitFs rising 
behind it, and beyond which is a plantation of dark 
pines, and a long range of rocks stretching towards 
the north-west. The views from the house display all 
the romantic beauty that richly wooded valleys, rocks, 
and water, generally form. On the south side of the 
valley in which Clmts is situated, is Marske Hall, 
the seat of the Hutton family. 

The improvements which have taken place in this 
neighbourhood are well worthy the notice of the scien- 
tific agriculturist. And very extensive plantations 
have of late yeais been made, which have a promising 
appearance. Measures are also taking to bring into 
cultivation a large extent of newly enclosed common 
of a very unpromising aspect. 

In closing a description of these romantic districts, 
it will not be amiss to observe, that the moors, or 
mountains, adjacent to Wensleydale, Swaledale, &c. 
are famous for the diversion of shooting moor-game, 
or grouse, and greatly frequented in the summer by 
sportsmen, who resort to these wilds for that purpose. 
This amusement, which is little known in the more 


soiuheni parts of the kingdom, is a healthy, but verv 
laborious, exercise. As the scene of action chiefly 
lies on wild heaths, it is not unusual for parties to 
erect a tent, in order to secure themselves against bad 
weather; or for the convenience of taking refreshment. 
The season for this diversion begins about five or six 
weeks sooner than that of partridge-shooting. The 
grouse somewhat resembles the partridge in shape, 
but exceeds it considerably in size : its plumage is ex- 
tremely beautiful, being of a fine glossy variegated 
brownj displaying a diversity of tints impossible to 
describe: its eyes are encircled by a very bright 
scarlet-coloured membrane, and its legs are feathered 
down to the feet. Its food consists chiefly of bilber- 
ries, with the tops and flowers of the ling, or heath. 
Its flesh is considered as having a finer flavour than 
that of any other British bird. 

One of the most extraordinary phenomena of nature, 
ever observed in this, or in any other part of the 
world, occurred in the vicinity ot Wold Newton, on 
the 13th of December, 1795, about three o'clock in 
the afternoon ; when a stone, of the weight of fifty- 
six pounds, fell from some superior region. The 
place where it fell is about one third of a mile nearly 
west from Wold Cottage, the seat of Edward Topham, 
esq. who, in order to commemorate the event, has 
erected an obelisk, with this inscription: 

" Here 

On this spot, Dec. 13th, 1795, 

Fell from the atmosphere 

An extraordinary stone. 

In breadth twenty-eight inches. 

In length thirtv-six inches, 


\Vhose weight was fifty-six pounds. 

This column. 

In memory of it. 

Was erected by 

Edward Topham, 



The following account was coinmunicated by Majoi 
Topham himself, and is publislfed in a work, on Bri- 
tish mineralogy, by Mr. Sovverby, in whose musemn 
the stone is now deposited. 

"The stone in question fell within two fields of my 
house. The weather was misty, and at times inclin- 
ing to rain; and though there was some thunder and 
lightning at a chstance, it was not till the falling of the 
stone that the explosion took place, which alarmed 
the surrounding country, and which created so dis- 
tinctly the sensation that something very singular had 

" When the stone fell, a shepherd of mine, who was 
returning from his sheep, was about 150 yards from 
the spot; and John Shipley, one of ray farming men, 
was so near the spot where it fell, that he was struck 
very forcibly by some of the mud and earth raised by 
the stone dashing into the earth, which it penetrated 
to the depth of twelve inches and s:even afterwards 
into the chalk rock; making in all, a depth of nine- 
teen inches from the surface. 

" When the stone was passing through the air, 
which it did in a north-west direction from the sea- 
coast, numbers of persons distinguished a body pass- 
ing through the clouds, though not able to ascertain 
what it was; and two sons of the clergyman of Wold 
Newton, (a village near me) saw it pass so distinctly 
by them, that they ran up immediately to my house 
to know if any thing extraordinary had happened. 

" In the different villages over which the stone took 
its direction, various were the people who heard the 
noise of something passing through the air, accurately 
and distinctly, though they could not imagine what 
was the cause of it; and, in many of the provincial 
newspapers, these accounts were published, at the 
time, from different persons. 

"In fact, no circumstance of the kind had ever 
more concurrent testimonies; and the appearance of 
the stone itself, while it resembles in composition 
those which arc suppojsed to have fallen in various 


Other parts of the world, has no counterpart or resem- 
blance in the natural stones of the country. 

" The stone, in its fall, excavated a place of the 
depth before mentioned ; and of soniething more than 
a yard in diameter. It had fixed itself so strongly in 
the chalk rock, that it required labour to dig it out. 

" On being brought home, it was weighed, and the 
weight at that time was fifty-six pounds, which has 
been diminished in a small degree at present, by 
different pieces being taken from it, as presents to 
different literati of the country. Mr. King, the anti- 
quary, in his account of " Sky-fallen stones," has pub- 
lished an account of this, with many curious and 
learned remarks, on those which liave fallen at dif- 
ferent periods. 

" All these three witnesses, who saw it fall, agree 
perfectly in their account of the manner of its fall, 
and that they saw a dark body passing through the 
air, and ultimately strike the ground; and though, 
from their situation and characters in life, they could 
have no possible object in detailing a false account of 
this transaction, I felt so desirous of giving this matter 
every degree of authenticity, that, as a magistrate, I 
took their account upon oath, immediately on my re- 
turn into the country. I saw no reason to doubt any 
of their evidence, after the most minute investigation 
of it." 

The notion of stones falling from above, has pre- 
vailed in various countries, and in almost every period 
of society; but, as it appeared impossible to account 
by natural causes for this phenomenon, philosophers 
in general rejected the fact, or affirmed, at least, that 
if stones did actually fall, they had first been ejected 
from the earth by some volcanic eruption. The an- 
cient accounts of natural phenomena, indeed, were 
generally supported by suspicious evidence, or dis- 
guised by fiction ; and the first narrative of this kind, 
that has been presented to the world under circum- 
blances of credible accuracy, is that of the celebrated 
Gassendi, wh(» was himself tiie eye witness of what 


he relates. On the 27th Nov. 1027, the sky being 
clear, he saw a burning stone fall on i\loiuU Vaisir, 
between the towns of Guillaunies and Perne, in Pro- 
vence. Its fall was accompanied hy a noise like the 
discharge of artillery, and its weight was found to be 
fifty-nine pounds. Having only tliis one solitary in- 
stance to examine, he concluded that the stone came 
from some neighbouring mountain, which liad been in 
a transient state of volcanic eruption. But successive 
instances of this kind, being witnessed during the last 
two centuries, the attention of philosophers was, at 
length, seriously directed to this curious subject. 
y\ccurate accounts of the fall of stones were collected 
from different quarters. The stones themselves were 
carefully examined, and chemically analyzed. And 
the result of various experiments, made by IVI. de La 
Lande, IV] . Lavoisier, ISL Vauquelin, Count de Bour- 
non, and (<ur ingenious countryman, Mr. Howard, 
proves to a demonstration, that the stones w hich have 
fallen at different times on the earth in France, Italy, 
England, and the East Indie>, are precisely of the 
same nature, consisting of the same simple substances, 
nearly in the same proportions, and combined in the 
same manner, so as to form heterogeneous aggregates, 
of which the general resemblance to each other is 
complete. And it is not less worthy of obsenation, 
that no other bodies composed of the same ingredients 
have yet been discovered on our globe. 

But the origin of these stones which fall from the 
atmosphere, is the question that puzzles philosophical 
sagacity and research. To those who would ascribe 
them to the action of volcanoes, it may be answered 
that no volcano is known in India, in Bohemia, in 
France, or in Britain : or if it be supposed that these 
bodies are projected by iEtna, Ilecla, &c. to so vast 
distances, this is evidently explaining what is myste- 
rious, by assuming what seems impossible. As the 
Yorkshire stone fell within seven miles of the sea 
coast, and js said to iiave come with an oblique de- 
scent from that quarter, it has been ^urmiLcd bvbonie, 
H h 


that it miwht have been projected by the sudden 
eruption of a sub-marine volcano, and that the vol- 
catio itself" iniii^ht have been instantaneously extin- 
guished by the iuiTnense mass of waters rushing into 
the crater. This conjecture, however, cannot apply 
to stones of a similar nature which have fallen at a 
vast distance from the sea. Another hypothesis, 
which supposes that the constituent parts of the stones 
exist in the atmosphere, and are united by the i;;nition 
of a meteor, or by the electric fluid, is still more 
vague and improbable, than that of a volcanic origin. 
It is possible that iron, silica, kc. may be compounds 
of oxygen, hydrogen, &c. but we have no grounds to 
believe that to be the case ; and the hypothesis nmst 
be extremely hazardous that rests on mere possi- 


IK M'MjlIan, I'l inter, 
Bow^Btieet, Covent-Gardcnl 



Abberford - 205 

Accident, a remarkable 269 
Ackworth School 208 

Addle Church 189 

Ainstv of York - 246 
Aire-head, 108 — Aire, 

or Air, the - 63 

Aldburgh 264 331, 336 

Family of 335 

Aldby - - 277 

Aldfield, village of 168 

Alfred the Great, re- 
mains of - 325 
AUanpot - 100 
Allerton Mauleverer 204 
Almoudsbury - 135 
Altar-piece, curious 188 
Animal, species of a 

bulky - 327 

Antiquities - 277 

Arkle river - 343 

Askern, or Askron 21 1 

Askrigg - 256 

Athelstan Abbey 308 

palace of King 205 

Aysgarth, water-falls at 

256, 257 
Bainbridge - 258 

Banking-houses, list of 

Barden Tower - 122 
Barnsley Canal - 64 
Barnsley - 135, 136 

Bawtry - 212 

Beacon, remains of an 

ancient - 99 

Becks, small navigable 
streams so called 75 


Bedale - 309 

Beldy-hill - 338 

Belvidere, or Bellevue 211 
Berwick in Elmet 205 

Beverley, 279— John of, 
280— Minster, 281 — 
Freed Stoole at, 282 
principal trade of 283 
Bigland, advice of Mr., 
to those who visit In- 
gleborough - 102 

Bilton and Coghill Halls 170 
Bilton-park, springs at 179 
Bingley - - 124 

Birkdale - 336 

Blackside Cove - 101 
Bolton Castle 258, 259 

Hall 142, 260 

Priory, remains 

of 119,120 
beauties of 120 

Boots and gloves of 

Henry VI. - 142 

Boroughbridge 203, 31 1 

burnt by 

the Scots - 203 

Boundaries between 
Yorkshire and West- 
moreland - 337 
Bowbridge - 337 
Bowes, 307 — Castle 307 
Bradford, 189 — staple 

trade of - 189 

Bramham-moor 148 

Bransburton - 328 

Bridges in the North 

Riding - 77 

Bridlington - 319, 320 



Brotherton - 205 

Broughton • 275 

Bub with - 318 

Burstalgarth - 327 

Burton Agnes - 324 

Constable 326 

Byfield Abbey - 247 
Caer-house, a decoy un- 
der water - 212 
Calcaria, or Calcacester 149 
Calder, the - 63 

navigationof the 126 

Cambodonum 132, 133 

Camp, ruins of an an- 
cient - 174 

Canal, the Leeds and 
Liverpool - 118 

Canals in the West Rid- 
ing 6'1 — in the North 
Rtding, 75, 77— in the 
East Riding - - 87 

Cappagh, antique corn- 
mill and mill-stones at 258 

Carriages in the West 
Riding, 70 — in the 
North Riding, 80— 
in the East Riding 93 

Castle, remains of an an- 
cient - - 147 

Castleberg, a conical 
rock - - IC6 

Castleford - - 206 

Castle Haugh - 144 

Hills, the - 252 

Howard - 275 

Park - - ib. 

Steeds - - 264 

Catterick - - 308 

Cattle in the West Rid- 
ing, 68— in the North 
Riding, 81 — in the 
East Riding - 92 

Caverns, extensive - 337 


Cawood - - 218 

Civil and ecclesiastical 
divisions of the county, 
57— of the West Rid- 
ing, 72 — of the North 
ing, 85— of the East 
Riding - - 94 

Clapham - - 104 

Climate and Soil of the 
West Riding, 61— of 
the North Riding, 74 
—of the East Riding 86 
Clints - - 345 

Coatham , prospect from 


, sea parties to 255 

Cockridge, - - 188 
Conisborough, 210 — a 

feast at - - 211 

Coniston Cold - 110 

Cozden-haU - 342, 343 
Cottages of the West 
West Riding, 66~the 
North Riding, 78 — 
the East Riding - 90 
Cottingham - 284 

Castle 284 

Coverham, or Corham 309 
CoutherbyScar,a range 

of rock's - - 337 

Crackpot-hall, sublime 

situation of - 338 

Craven, district of - 110 
Cuitto, Mr., of Rich- 
mond - - 338 
Curiosities, natural 104 
Curiosity, a singular 308 
Cusworth-hall - 211 
Danby-lodge - 294 
Darton - - 135 
Dearne and Dove Canal 65 
Derwent, the - 76, 87 
Devil's arrows, the 204 



Distances from town to 
town in the West 
Riding, 5 — in the 
North and East Rid- 
ings - - "7 
Doncaster, 208 —fine en- 
trance to, 209 — prin- 
cipal buildings, ib* — 
church, theatre,il). — 
race-ground, 210 — 
markets, ib. — seats 
near - - 210 
Don, or Dune, the - 63 
Driffield, Great - 324 

Little - 325 

Dropping or petrifying 
well at Knaresbo- 
rough - 172, J 73 
Drunken Barnaby 105 
Duncombe-park 303 
Dunesley • - 299 
Ealand chapel - 132 
Easingwold - 248 
EastRiding, general de- 
scription of - 86 
phical description of 248 
Ebberston - - 321 
Eggleston-hall - 261 
Egton - - 294 
Ellerton - - 276 
Ellshaw, or Ailccy-hill, 
a remarkable tumu- 
lus - - 163 
Embsay, 118 — Priory 

of - - 121, 122 

Encampment, an ellip- 
tical - - 110 
Enclosures in the West 
Riding, 67— in the 
North Riding, 79 — 
in the East Riding 89 
Eskdale chapel - 299 


Eugene Aram - 174 

Event, a melancholy 

296, 297 

Everingham, Saxon font 
at _ - - 277 

Fairs in the West Rid- 
ing, 9— in the North 
and East Ridings 13 

Farm-houses i n the West 
Riding, 66 — in the 
North Riding, 77 — 
in the East Riding 90 

Farms, rent and size of 67 

Feetham - - 341 

Fences in the North 
Riding, 79 — in the 

East Riding 




Forest of Galtres 

Forest of Knaresbo- 

Forests of Swale and 
Wenslcy-dale 339, 340 

Fors Abbey^ ruins of 258 

Fountain's Abbey 

164, 165, 


Freed-Stooie, the 


Fremington Edge - 

Fulneck, 190— Moravi- 
ans at - - 

Galtres, Forest of 




Giggleswick, 1 05 ~ En- 
virons of 

H h 3 









Gilling, ancient tastle at 306 
Ginglepot - - 97 
Gisburn, 143— Park 144 
Gledstone-house, a mag- 
nificent structure 145 
Godsbridge - 308 

Gordale - - 109 

Greet stone, what so 

called - - 99 

Greg-roof - - 96 

Greta-bridge - 308 

Greysbrooke, village of 140 
Grinton - 342, 343 

Grouse, description of 346 
Grouse shooting - 346 
Guisborough 253, 254 

Gunner side - 340 

Hackfall - - 310 

Halifax, 125— market, 
ib. — church, 126— 
trade, 127, 128— gib- 
bet-lawof 129,130 

HalpitandHuntpit holes 104 
Hardrow force - 256 

Harewood, 146— house 147 
Harker - - 342 

Harrowgate, 1 76 — cha- 
lybeate spa at, ib. — 
Tewit and sulphur 
wells, ib. — virtues of 
the waters at, 177 — 
theatre at — analysis 
of the waters, 178 — 
rise of, ib. — walks 
and rides - - 179 
Hatfield, 214— chace 215 
Hatfield-hall - 307 

Haworth - - 213 

Headon - - 326 

Heath, village of 196 

Helagh - - 149 

Hellifield mansion 1 10 

Helmsley Blackmoor 302 


Hemingsborough 312, 318 
Hermitage, an ancient 1 49 
High Hill, Roman en- 
campment at 107 
History, ancient, of the 

county - 57, 60 

Hoggart Leap - - 337 
Holme Monastery 279 

Horn of Ulphus - - 235 
Hornby Castle - - 309 
Hornsea, 328 — Mere 329 
Horses - - - - 83 
Hovingham - - - 306 
House of John a Gaunt 341 
Howden - - - - 311 
Huddersfieldjl 33 — canal 
at, 65, 133— church, 
133— large hall, 134 
— cloth -market, ex- 
tensive, 134 — a thriv- 
ing town, 192 — steam- 
boats - 192 
Hull, 285 — Custom- 
house, ib. — bridge, ib. 
— citadel and battery, 
286 — steam-boats, ib. 
— church,ib. — chapel, 
ib. — charitable insti- 
tutions,287 — Trinity- 
house, ib. — commerce 
and population, 288 — 
government, ib. — en- 
virons - 288 
Hunmanby - - - 321 
Hurders, the - - 1C3 
Hurtlepot . . 97 
Implements used in the 
West Riding - - 70 

used in the 

North Riding - 79 

used in the 

East Riding - - 92 
Ingleborough, ascent to 102 



Ingleborough, necessity 
of a guide to strangers 
ascending, 102 — Dr. 
Gale's supposition con- 
cerning the Beacon 
on, 103 — curiosities in 
the neighbourhood of, 
104 — elevation of, 
and other celebrated 
mountains in its neigh- 
bourhood - - - 104 
Ingleton - - - - 95 
Inscription upon the 
obelisk at Wold New- 
ton - - - - 346 
Ilkley, a bathing- place 145 
Johnson's Jacket-hole 101 
Isarium Brigantum - 204 
Isurium, city of 332, 333 

British name of 334 

Itinerary of the West 
Riding - - - 17 

of the North 

and East Ridings - 42 
Jenkins, Henry - - 259 
Jervoix Abbey - - 309 
Keighley - - - - 123 
Kildwick - - - - 123 
Kilham - - - 322 
King, Mr., the anti- 
quary on sky-fallen 
stones - - - - 348 
Kingsdale, Valley of 96 
Kirkby Moor-side - 300 
Kirkdale-church, 301 
— ancient inscription 
at - - - - 302 
Kirkham - - - 275 
Kirkleatham - - - 255 
Kirk-sink - - - 111 
KirkstallAbbey 186,187,1 88 
Kisdon-force - - 338 


Knaresborough, 170 — 
church, ib. — castle, 
171 , 172 — dropping- 
well at, 173— forest 
of,176— St.Robert's- 
chapel - - - - 173 
Knottingley - - - 203 
Lead-mines - 264, 344 
Leases and tenures in 
the West Riding, 67 
— in the North Rid- 
ing, 78 — ui the East 
Riding - . - 91 
Leckonfield - - - 284 
Learned men and lite- 
rature . . - 56 
Leeds and Liverpool 

Canal - - - 64 
Leeds, 179 — fine streets 
in, 180— Moot-hall, 
ib. — market - place, 
ib. — improvements, 
churches, meeting- 
houses, 162 -^ infir- 
mary and almshouses, 
182 — water- works, 
ib. — theatre, 184 — 
cloth-halls, 184, 185, 
186 — shambles, ib. 
— population, ib. — 
new prison and va- 
grant-office, 186 — 
new buildings at, ib. 
— steam- works - 186 
Lestinghara - - - 302 
Local produce of the 

West Riding - - 70 
Long Preston - - 109 
Malham Cove - - 107 

Tarn - - 108 

Malham-water - - 108 
Market-Weighton - 278 



Marrick Abbey - 343 

Marske-hall - - - 345 
Marsham - - - 309 
Mercury, a figure of 

264, 335 
of its falling, 348— 
falling of a, first ob- 
served by Gassendi 349 
Meteoric - stones not 
composed of the 
same ingredients as 
those in our globe, 
350 — various conjec- 
tures on their origin 350 
Middleham - - - 309 
Midsummer Eve, sin- 
gular custom on - 163 
Millgill Force - - 256 
Mijlingtou - - - 277 
Mill-stones, ancient 258 
Minerals in the West 
Riding, 71 — in the 
North Riding, 84 — 
in the East Riding 93 
Mulgrave Castle - 298 
Muker - - 338, 339 
Newby Hall - - 168 
New Malton - - 274 
Nevi'spapers in the 

county - - 57 

Newton House - - 294 
Nidd, the - - 63 

North Allerton - 250 

North Riding, general 
description of - 74 

■ topogra- . 

pliical description of 248 
Northumberland, Earls 

of, their splendour 
o 315,316 

Northumbrian Kings, 
villa of the - - 205 


Nunkeeling - - 330 
Oar of lignum vitae - 288 
Olicana - - 145 

Origin of the guillotine 

at Halifax - - 129 
Otley - - - 145 
Ouse, the - 62, 75 

source of the - 204 

Paley, Sub-dean, in- 
scription to - - 105 
Parlington - - 205 
Patrington - - 327 
Pennygant, 103 — mea- 
surement of - - 104 
Pickering - - 299 

Percies, burial-place of 

the - - - 142 
Pierce Bridge - - 265 
Pocklington - - 276 
Plumpton - - 175 

Pontefract, 206 — castle, 
207 — environs of, 208 
monument near - ib. 
Population of the county 57 

of the West 

Riding - - 66 

of the East 

Riding - - 87 

■ ancient - 254 

Produce, local - - 70 
Quarter sessions - 55 
Quarries of marble and 

slate - - 96, 99 

Queen Cartismandua 331 
Raven Ree - - 96 
Ravensworth - - 264 
Redcar and Coatham 254 
Reeth - - 341, 342 
Rent and size of farms 
in the West Riding, 
67 — in theNorthRid- 





Ribstone-hall - - 175 
Richmond, 261--Castle 262 
Ripley - - lG9j 175 
Ripon, 151 — public 
buildings at, 152 — 
manufactures, ib. — 
government of, 153 
— destroyed by the 
Scots, 154 — ancient 
church of, }55, 160 
— the present minster 
at, 156 — library, 158 
— monuments, 159 — 
hospitals at, IGl -^ 
canal at, ib. — court- 
house and prison, 162 
— ancient custom at, 
163 — tumulus re- 
markable - - 163 
Rise, the seat of Mrs. 

Bethel - - 329 

Rivaulx Abbey 303, 304 
Rivers in the West Rid- 
ing, 62— in the North 
Riding, 75 — in the 
East Riding - - 87 
Roads of the West Rid- 
ing, €2— of the North 
Riding, 77 — of the 
East Riding - - 89 
Robert de Bruss - 255 
Roche-abbey stone - 214 
Rock-house, the, at 

Knaresborough - 174 
Rockingham, monu- 
ment to CharIes,Mar- 
quis of - - - 137 

■ character 

of, by Edmund Burke 138 
Rokeby-hall - - 808 
Roman antiquities and 

coins - - 333, 340 
Roman coins found at 
Craven-bank 106,124,132 


Roman Denarii » 124 

encampments 107 

roads - 277, 279 

■ pavements and 
temple - - - 279 
villa - - 111 

Romill^, fate of young 122 
Rotherham - HO, 141 
Rotheram, Independent 

Academy at - - 141 
Rudston - 323, 324 

Sallay or Sawley - - 142 
Saint Robert's Chapel 173 

- Cave- 174 


Sandbeck Park - 
Sandal Castle 

Church - 

Scarborough, 265 — new- 
pier at, ib. — mineral 
waters, 266 — wells, ib. 
— church, 267 — cas- 
tle, 2G8— trade of, ib. 
— accident, singular, 
at, 269 — proverb of a 
Scarborough warning, 
271 — sea-bathing at, 
ib. — pier comojodi- 
ous, ib.— spa, 272, 273 
— purgative well, ib. 
— lodgings and libra- 
ries, 273— fishing &fa- 
shionable promenades, 
near * - - 274 
Scene, beautiful - - 257 
Scenery, romantic - 336 
Scrooby - - - - 212 
Sculcoates - - - 288 
Seals, sagacity of - - 255 
Seaton inn, - - ib. 

Selby - - - - 216 
Selby church - - - 218 

Settle 107 

Sheep inthe West Rid- 
ing C9 




Sheep in the North Rid- 

Sheffield,! 96— corpora- 
tion, 197 — churches, 
1 98 — meeting houses, 
199 — charity schools, 
ib. — free grammar 
school, 200 — a staple 
for iron manufac- 
tures, 200,201— cut- 
lery, 202 — spade hus- 
bandry near, intro- 
duced - - - 
Shirburne . - - 
Shunner Fell - - - 
Situation, boundaries, 
and extent of the 
county - - - - 57 

of tlie West Riding 63 

Name and ancient history 57 
Situation, boundaries, 
and extent of the 
North Riding - 

of the East Riding 

Skelldale - - - 
Skelton Castle - - 
Skipton, 112 — castle at, 
114— school, 117— 
vale of - 
Skipsey - - - - 
Skirlaw - - - - 
Sleights, seats at - 








Snaith 216 

Snake stones - - - 295 

SpofFord - - • - 175 

Spoutgill Beck - - 340 

Spring, a mineral - 323 

Spurn Head, the - 327 
Sowerby, Mr,, on 

British mineralogy 374 
Stainforth and Headley 

Canal - - - 65 

Stainmore - - 340 

Stanford Bridge - - 276 


Steam-engines - - 190 
SteddalBeck - - 336 
Stockesley - - 252 

Stone, fall of a burning 349 
Strid, the tremendous 

121, 122 
Studley Royal - - - 164 
St.Wilfrid, Feast of - 163 
Sunk Island - - - 327 
Swaledale,Valeof 261,336 
Swale Hall - - - 343 
Swale river, 260 ; held 

sacred by the Saxons 261 
Swinkey - - - - 328 
Tadcaster - - 149 

Tanfield, 309 —Castle 310 

West - - 310 

Tankerley-hall - 136 

Temple Newsome - 190 
Tenures - - 78, 91 
Thirsk - - 249 

Thorne - - 215 

Thornton Force - 95 
Thornton-on-the-street 250 
Thornton Scar, a tremen- 
dous cliff - - 95 
Thorp Arch, mineral 

spring at - - 148 
Thwaite - - 338 
Tuckhill - - - 213 
Tillotson, Dr. John - 132 
Tithes in the North Rid- 
ing - - - 79 

East Riding 91 

Titles conferred by the 

county - -55 

Topham, Major - 347 
Tower, St. Wilfrid's 156 
Towns in the West Rid- 
ing ... 3 

North and 

East Ridings - 4 

Towton, 149 — battle of 

150, 151 



Turner, Sir Charles, seat 
of, 255 — Turner's hos- 
pital - - - ib. 
Vagrant office, benefits 

of a, at Leeds - 186 
Vale of Skipton - 118 
ViJiiers Duke of Buck- 
ingham, death of - 3()0 
Urbes Calurium - - 253 
Ure, the - - - 75 
Waddesgrave - - 29S 
Wakefielid, 191-church 
at, ib — Grammar 
School at, 193— cha- 
ritable donations, 1 94 
— House of Correc- 
tion, ib. — ancient 
bridge at, 194, 195 
— Now Court-house 
and Inn - - 196 

Was$and,a pleasant ru- 
ral spot - - 399 
Wastes - 68 y 70, 93 


ing - 68, 70 
— — — in the East Rid- 
ing - 93 
Weathercote Cave 97, 98 
Weights and Measures 

in the North Riding 84 
Weights and Measures 

in the East Riding 94 
Well, an ebbing and 

flowing - - 104 
Wensley-dale 260, 345 

Wentworth Castle 136 

Wentworth House, the 
seat of Earl Fitzwil- 
liam - 137, 139 

West Britton - 135 

West Marton Hail 144 

West Riding, general 
description of 61 


West Riding, topogra- 
phical description of 95 
Wetherby - 204 

Wharfe, the - 53 

scenery on the 

121, 122, 147 
' ■ cascade formed 

by the - 204 
Wharnside, 103 — pros- 
pects from - 103 
Whitby 289 — public 
buildings, 290 — re- 
mains of the Abbey 
at, lb.— streets and 
lanes improved, 291, 
294— interesting view 
of, 292 — shops and 
markets, ib. — inns at, 
ib.— courts and places 
of worship, ib. — New 
Quay, ib. — popula- 
tion, 293— benevo- 
lent institutions, ib. 
— theatre and bota- 
nical garden, ib. — 
rocks near, 295 — 
coasting trade, 296 
— melancholy acci- 
dent at -. — 296 
Whitfields Force - 256 
Whitkirk Church, mo- 
numents in - - 190 
Whitsondale - 337 
Wilberfoss - > 276 
Wilfrid St., the Feast of 163 
Winterwell Hall - 118 
Wold Newton, 345 — 
extraordinary phe- 
nomena of nature 
at - . , 346 
Wood Hall - - 191 
Worsborough = .136 
Wreasle Caatle 312, 314 



Varum, or Yarm • 252 
Yordas Cave - 96 

York, 219 — principal 
gateSyib. — districts or 
wards of, 220 — im- 
provements, ib. — cas- 
tle and county hall, ib. 
— Clifford's Tower at, 
221— Cathedral, ib.— 
interior of, 222 — 
tombs, ancient, 224 — 
service, 22.5 — pave- 
ment of the Cathe- 
dral at,^ 22G, 227— 
chapels in the Cathe- 
dral, 228 — dimensions 
of the, ib. — parish 
churches, 229— Ab- 
bey of St. Mary, ib. — 


Chapter -house, 230, 
—231 — Library, 233 
Vestry - room, 234 — 
Treasury, ib. — Arch- 
bishop's Palace, 237 — 
Mansion-house, 238 
— County Hall, ib. — 
CityGaol, 239 —Thea- 
tre, 240 — Assembly- 
rooms, ib. — County 
Hospital, 241 — Luna- 
tic Asylum, ib. — cha- 
ritable institutions and 
hospitals, 243 — places 
of worship, 244 — race- 
ground, 245 — manu- 
factories and markets, 
246 — municipal go- 
vernment of - 247 



York, view of, from theOuse-bririge, to face page 219 

Harevvood House 147 

Bvland Abbev 247 

Tanfield, West 310 

Droppiiii: Well at Knaresborou<j;h 172 

R.ichnion'd Castle - 263 

Ripon Minster 1<^5 

Ilatfield-hall 307 

Map (){ the West Riding CI 

Map of the North Riding 74 

3Iap of the East Riding • • • ■ • 86 

This book is DUE on the last 
date stamped below 

JXAY 2 3 1953 


'1S!| 111 llli II'' IP' 'ill r!0 
3 1158 00567 6043 

/; ■ \